Sunday, March 8, 2020

TheList 5232


The List 5232 TGB


To All,

I hope that you all have a great weekend.

Regards,

Skip


This day in Naval History

March 6

§ 1822—The schooner Enterprise captures four pirate ships in the Gulf of Mexico. During her time in the Gulf, Enterprise takes 13 vessels while suppressing pirates, smugglers, and slaves.

§ 1943—Task Force 68, commanded by Rear Adm. Aaron S. Merrill, bombards Vila and Munda, Solomons and sinks Japanese destroyers Minegumo and Murasame in the Kula Gulf. For his leadership, Adm. Merrill earned both the Legion of Merit and the Navy Cross.

§ 1944—USS Nautilus (SS 168) attacks a Japanese convoy approximately 240 miles north-north west of Saipan and sinks transport (ex-hospital ship) America Maru.

§ 1960—USS Kearsarge (CVS 33) rescues four Russian soldiers from their landing craft 1,000 miles from Midway Island, which had been drifting several weeks after their engine failed off Kamchatka Peninsula.

§ 1991—President George H. W. Bush addresses a joint session of Congress and states, "I can report to the nation: Aggression is defeated. The war is over."

§ 2010—USS Dewey (DDG 105) is commissioned at Seal Beach, CA. The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer is named after former Adm. of the Navy George Dewey, hero of the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War of 1899.



March 7

§ 1778—Continental frigate Randolph explodes while attacking HMS Yarmouth off the coast of Barbados, killing all but four of her 305 crew.

§ 1942—USS Grenadier (SS 210) torpedoes Japanese Asahisan Maru south of Shioya Saki, causing damage to the transport ship.

§ 1956—The fleet assignment of the all-weather fighter, F3H-2N Demon, begins with the delivery of six to VF-14 at Naval Air Station Cecil Field, FL.

§ 1958—USS Grayback (SSG 574) is commissioned. She is the first submarine built from the keel up with guided missile capability to fire the Regulus II missile.

§ 1994—The Navy issues the first orders for women to be assigned aboard a combatant ship, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69).



March 8

1822—Crew from the schooner Enterprise capture and burn seven small pirate vessels off Cape Antonio, Cuba.

1862—The ironclad CSS Virginia destroys the wooden ships USS Cumberland and USS Congress in Hampton Roads, VA.

1943—PBY-5 Catalinas from VP-53 sink German submarine U 156 east-northeast of Trinidad.

1945—Phyllis Daley becomes the first African-American ensign in the Navy Nurse Corps and serves at the Naval Dispensary at Boston, MA.

1945—Navy patrol bombers hit a Japanese convoy, sinking cargo vessel No. 21 Yusen Maru in Formosa Strait.

1950—Operation Portrex begins. The two-week-long exercise is the first use of airborne troops in support of an amphibious landing and takes place on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico.

1961—USS Patrick Henry (SSBN 599) returns from patrol to become the first ballistic missile submarine to use Holy Loch, Scotland, as a refit and upkeep anchorage.



Thanks to CHINFO

Executive Summary:

• Breaking Defense reported on Navy Secretary Thomas Modly's Future Carrier 2030 Task Force, a comprehensive study into the future of the carrier fleet which the Navy intends to announce next week.

• Testifying before the Senate Armed Services Committee on Thursday, Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Mike Gilday voiced support for basing two additional destroyers in Rota, Spain.

• Navy Times covered commencement of ICEX 2020.

• Multiple outlets report that Russia and Turkey have reached an agreement to halt fighting in the Syrian region of Idlib.







On this day in World history

March 6



1521

Ferdinand Magellan discovers Guam.


1820

The Missouri Compromise is enacted by Congress and signed by President James Monroe, providing for the admission of Missouri into the Union as a slave state, but prohibits slavery in the rest of the northern Louisiana Purchase territory.


1836

After fighting for 13 days, the Alamo falls.


1853

Giuseppe Verdi's opera La Traviata premieres in Venice.


1857

The Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision holds that blacks cannot be citizens.


1860

While campaigning for the presidency, Abraham Lincoln makes a speech defending the right to strike.


1862

The USS Monitor left New York with a crew of 63, seven officers and 56 seamen.


1884

Over 100 suffragists, led by Susan B. Anthony, present President Chester A. Arthur with a demand that he voice support for female suffrage.


1888

Louisa May Alcott dies just hours after the burial of her father.


1899

Aspirin is patented following Felix Hoffman's discoveries about the properties of acetylsalicylic acid.


1901

A would-be assassin tries to kill Wilhelm II of Germany in Bremen.


1914

German Prince Wilhelm de Wied is crowned as King of Albania.


1916

The Allies recapture Fort Douaumont in France during the Battle of Verdun.


1928

A Communist attack on Beijing results in 3,000 dead and 50,000 fleeing to Swatow.


1939

In Spain, Jose Miaja takes over Madrid government after a military coup and vows to seek "peace with honor."


1943

British RAF fliers bomb Essen and the Krupp arms works in the Ruhr, Germany.


1945

Cologne, Germany, falls to General Courtney Hodges' First Army.


1947

Winston Churchill opposes the withdrawal of troops from India.


1948

During talks in Berlin, the Western powers agree to internationalize the Ruhr region.


1953

Upon Josef Stalin's death, Georgi Malenkov is named Soviet premier.


1960

The Swiss grant women the right to vote in municipal elections.


1965

The United States announces that it will send 3,500 troops to Vietnam.


1967

President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his plan to establish a draft lottery.


1973

President Richard Nixon imposes price controls on oil and gas.


1975

Iran and Iraq announce that they have settled the border dispute.


1980

Islamic militants in Tehran say that they will turn over the American hostages to the Revolutionary Council.


1981

President Reagan announces plans to cut 37,000 federal jobs.


1987

The British ferry Herald of Free Enterprise capsizes in the Channel off the coast of Belgium. At least 26 are dead.




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See the attachment

It was almost like a bad joke that no matter what we did they always were ready of us and knew we were coming. All we could do was shake our heads and wonder how they did it or what did we do wrong to give it away

Skip

They Knew When and Where We Were Coming

thanks to THE Bear -

Dutch...

Evidence of the North Vietnamese defenses having prior knowledge of our Rolling Thunder strike operations pops up throughout the archives at Texas Tech. The attached is a case in point. Believe it or not.

Put me down as a full-fledged believer that our State Department put "minimizing North Vietnamese civilian casualties" above consideration for the safety and lives of American air crews delivering bombs on military targets in North Vietnam. Dean Rusk's priorities and actions added imprudent risk to our strike operations. North Vietnamese lives were spared and American aviators and their families paid the price...

Bear🇺🇸⚓️🐻
http://www.rollingthunderremembered.com/



Begin forwarded message:

https://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/reports/images.php?img=/images/212/2123402002.pdf



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Thanks to Barrett

This is the first Vietnamese account I know of that alludes to prior knowledge of US air ops. A retired USAF BGEN whose name I forget had mentioned it in his memoir but it was an "as I remember" allusion w/out specifics. I spent hours searching documentaries with McNamara and Rusk comments but never turned up anything substantive.

Of course, it's not the sorta thing that anybody would write down...

(Note the "A-3J" reference which undoubtedly means the original designation for the RA-5. I find a Viggie from Heavy Thirteen and crew off The Hawk lost at the Van Dien SAM storage site that day.)

As ever

Barrett



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Finally some sanity. You can't find hand sanitizer, napkins, toilet paper and paper towels in stores. Everybody has to take a breath and slow down

YES! Stop all the hype – stop scaring folks – too many snowflakes as it is - wash your hands, sneeze into your elbow and stop letting the media be the boogie man

Dutch



Dr. Drew Pinsky's message to media: Stop fanning the flames of panic on coronavirus

By Julia Musto | Fox News

Dr. Drew Pinsky: Mainstream media fanning the flames of coronavirus panic

Drew Pinsky told 'Fox & Friends' the panic about coronavirus is far worse than the actual virus and the media is to blame.

The media is fanning the flames of panic surrounding the coronavirus outbreak, Dr. Drew Pinsky said Friday.

In an interview on "Fox & Friends" with hosts Jedediah Bila, Pete Hegseth and Steve Doocy, Pinksy said that the panic surrounding the deadly virus is "far worse than the virus."

"Let the professionals whose job it is to contain pandemic do their job," he exclaimed. "They're doing an amazing job. Worldwide, the efforts and [effectiveness] of the organizations like the [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention} CDC and the World Health Organization [WHO] has been remarkable, and yet the media continue to take every effort to fan the flames of panic.

"Look, the WHO has said there's about a three percent fatality rate on this virus and every time they say that they always qualify it and say we expect it to drop a lot once we understand the full extent of the virus. ... It's among us. This is a flu season, everybody, There are 18,000 deaths from the flu," he continued.

"Why aren't we worried about that?" he asked. "Why isn't the message: get your flu shot? You're much more likely to die of the flu than the coronavirus."

Pinsky told the "Friends" hosts he believes the media has gone to "great lengths" to keep fear alive in the hearts of their viewers.

"A local news agency in Los Angeles had...footage of a paramedic being dispatched to a cruise ship repeatedly all evening...and at the end, they go, 'Oh, by the way, there was a fight on a cruise ship. Somebody got injured,'" he recalled.



"And, you then, again, you saw the CDC press conference a couple of days ago where reporters were like, 'What are poor people supposed to do [with] the price of Purell?'" Pinsky added. "And, somebody stands up and goes, 'Wash your hands. It's far better.'

"So, wash your hands, disinfect everything, use your Clorox wipes, get your flu shot. Do all the things you're supposed to do in flu season," he advised.

On Friday, President Trump signed an $8.3 billion coronavirus spending bill to help combat the spread of the disease. To date, there have been at least 97,993 confirmed cases worldwide with over 3,300 deaths. The United States lays claim to 232 cases of the virus and 11 deaths have been recorded thus far.



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Thanks to DR

Subject: Thomas Sowell



Thomas Sowell is an American economist and social theorist currently a senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution. He has been one of modern day`s big advocates against the social welfare state or its expansion thereof . He has spoken and written extensively on the unfounded presence of the welfare state, that keeps on expanding. I share some of his quotes that do sum up the illogical nature of the welfare state:

The assumption that spending more of taxpayer's money will make things better has survived all kinds of evidence that it has made things worse.

I have never understood why it is "greed" to want to keep the money you have earned but not greed to want to take somebody else's money.

The first lesson of economics is scarcity: There is never enough of anything to satisfy all those who want it. The first lesson of politics is to disregard the first lesson of economics.

It is amazing that people who think we cannot afford to pay for doctors, hospitals, and medication somehow think that we can afford to pay for doctors, hospitals, medication and a government bureaucracy to administer it.

Despite a voluminous and often fervent literature on "income distribution," the cold fact is that most income is not distributed: It is earned.

The fact that the market is not doing what we wish it would do is no reason to automatically assume that the government would do better.

Since this is an era when many people are concerned about 'fairness' and 'social justice,' what is your 'fair share' of what someone else has worked for?

If you have been voting for politicians who promise to give you goodies at someone else's expense, then you have no right to complain when they take your money and give it to someone else, including themselves.

The welfare state is the oldest con game in the world. First you take people's money away quietly and then you give some of it back to them flamboyantly.



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Some News from around the world from Military Periscope for 6 March.

USA—Iron Dome Incompatible With Army Networks, Says Army Futures Command Breaking Defense | 03/06/2020 The head of the U.S. Army Futures Command says that the Israeli Iron Dome missile defense system cannot use the service's new network to communicate with existing radars, launchers and command posts, reports Breaking Defense. Congress ordered the Army to purchase two Iron Dome batteries last year after the service's Indirect Fire Protection Capability (IFPC) program ran into trouble. Gen. John Murray, the Army Futures Command chief, told the website on Thursday that the system was not compatible with the Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS). Testing revealed interoperability, cybersecurity and other challenges, leaving the Army with two batteries that cannot be integrated with the IBCS, Murray said. In addition, Army officials said on Wednesday that they were still trying to obtain data from Iron Dome manufacturer Rafael on the system's ability to intercept cruise missiles. The company said that the Iron Dome can intercept cruise missiles and has demonstrated some capability in that area, but the Army needs a system that can deal with the full spectrum of cruise missile threats, Army Secretary Ryan McCarthy told reporters. In the meantime, the Iron Dome will be able to participate in a shoot-off in fiscal 2021 for the chance to win a role in the Army's revamped IFPC program, officials said.



USA—SpaceLogistics Selected For DARPA Satellite Servicing Project Northrop Grumman | 03/06/2020 The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has chosen Northrop Grumman subsidiary SpaceLogistics as its commercial partner for a program to service satellites in orbit, reports Northrop Grumman. Under the agency's Robotic Servicing of Geosynchronous Satellites (RSGS) program, SpaceLogistics will provide its Mission Robotic Vehicle bus for the mission, which will be integrated with payload developed by U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. The payload consists of two dexterous robotic manipulator arms, tools and sensors, Northrop Grumman said on March 4. The bus is based on Northrop Grumman's mission extension vehicle, which recently conducted the first successful docking between two satellites in geostationary orbit as part of a mission to extend the life of a communications satellite. The RSGS program is focused on developing technologies for the servicing of satellites in orbit. Program objectives include in-orbit repair, augmentation, assembly, detailed inspection and relocation of client satellites.



USA—Hypersonic Interceptor Must Be Compatible With Navy VLS, MDA Says Aviation Week And Space Technology | 03/06/2020 The U.S. Missile Defense Agency says that a new hypersonic interceptor under development must be able to be fired from the Navy's Mk 41 vertical launch system, reports Aviation Week & Space Technology. On Wednesday, Vice. Adm. Jon Hill, the MDA director, revealed the requirement for the Regional Glide Phase Weapon System (RGPWS), which is intended to intercept hostile hypersonic glide weapons in the gliding phase of flight, when they are most vulnerable. Compatibility with the Mk 41 will ensure the RGPWS can be rapidly fielded throughout the fleet, Hill said. The Mk 41 is the standard vertical launch system on Navy warships. Air- and ground-launched variants of the RPGWS are also planned. A key capability still in development is a sensor system that can detect the launch of a hypersonic glide vehicle from deep in enemy territory and then cue land- and sea-based sensors for tracking. Plans call for the new interceptors to be fielded in the mid- to late 2020s.



Greece—Police Clash With Migrants On Border With Turkey Agence France-Presse | 03/06/2020 Violence has been reported between Greek police and migrants along the border with Turkey, reports Agence France-Presse. On Friday, police fired tear gas into crowds trying to cross the border at Kastanies, reported Reuters. Some migrants responded by hurling stones at officers. Calm was restored but Greek officials accused Turkey of instigating violence, firing tear gas and smoke bombs across the border and providing migrants with cutters to help them get through border fences. Turkey has accused Greece of using live ammunition to deter migrants, which Ankara says killed at least four people. On Thursday, Turkey deployed 1,000 special police along the border to prevent migrants from returning to its territory, said Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu. Turkey has said it will no longer stop migrants from entering the European Union, citing violations of a 2016 refugee agreement, reported Turkey's Anadolu Agency.



Slovakia—Army Orders Spike Anti-Tank Missiles For Infantry Rafael Advanced Defense Systems | 03/06/2020 The Slovak Ministry of Defense has signed a contract with EuroSpike, a joint venture of Rafael of Israel and Diehl Defense and Rheinmetall Electronics of Germany, for anti-tank missiles, reports Rafael. The deal, the value of which was not disclosed, covers Spike LR2 missiles and dismounted integrated launch control units (ICLUs), the Israeli firm said on March 5. Bratislava has previously tested the Spike missile from the Turra remote-control weapon station. Slovakia is the sixth country and the third NATO member to purchase the fifth-generation Spike LR2, noted Rafael. Poland—Army Seeks To Boost Anti-Tank Defenses With Javelin Missiles U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency | 03/06/2020 The U.S. State Dept. has approved a potential Foreign Military Sale of anti-tank missiles to Poland, reports the U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency. The proposed US$100 million deal covers up to 180 Javelin missiles and 79 Javelin command launch units, the agency said on Wednesday. The possible sale also includes missile simulation rounds, basic skill trainers, battery coolant units, tool kits and maintenance parts. The U.S. Congress has been notified of the potential sale and has 30 days to review it.



Ukraine—Soldier Killed In Shelling By Russian-Backed Forces In Donbas Unian News Agency | 03/06/2020 The Ukrainian army says that one soldier was killed and five injured in artillery firing by Russian-backed forces in the eastern Donbas region, reports the Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (UNIAN). On March 3, the Russian-backed separatists launched attacks with 82-mm mortars, grenade launchers, heavy machine guns and automatic rifles, the army said. Ukrainian positions near the villages of Shyrokyne, Lebedynske, Zaitseve and Luhanske were attacked. Fifteen Ukrainian troops have been killed in attacks by Russian-backed forces since the beginning of the year, noted Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.



Russia—Putin, Erdogan Agree To Cease-Fire In Idlib Wall Street Journal | 03/06/2020 Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Russian President Vladimir Putin have agreed to a cease-fire in Syria's northwestern Idlib province during talks in Moscow, reports the Wall Street Journal. A cease-fire entered into effect on Friday morning, just after midnight, hours after the leaders met in Moscow. The truce creates a demilitarized corridor 4-miles (6-km) north and south of the M4 highway connecting Aleppo and Latakia, which would be patrolled by Russian and Turkish forces, reported BBC News. Joint patrols are scheduled to begin on March 15 along the M4 highway between Trumba and Ain al-Havr, reported the Daily Sabah (Istanbul). Observers said that Russian and regime jets halted airstrikes on Turkish and rebel positions in the province, reported the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (U.K.). Shortly before the agreement entered into effect, Turkey launched retaliatory attacks that neutralized 21 Syrian troops, reported Turkey's Anadolu Agency. The agreement is intended to end a string of successive regime advances in and around Idlib that slowly eroded rebel control of the province, where Turkish troops and rebels are often collocated. The accord leaves Turkey in control of a much smaller area than before, analysts told the Financial Times (U.K.). Turkey had intervened directly and threatened to push Syrian troops back to borders agreed to by Putin and Erdogan in September 2018. The announcement of the deal did not mention several strategic goals that both sides have sought to achieve, including control of the M5 highway connecting Aleppo to Damascus and how long the zone would be. At least 55 Turkish troops have been killed in the fighting.



North Korea—U.S. Ready To Resume Talks With Pyongyang, Officials Says Yonhap | 03/06/2020 U.S. State Dept. officials say Washington is ready to resume denuclearization talks with North Korea, reports the Yonhap news agency (Seoul). At a press briefing marking the 50th anniversary of the Non-Proliferation Treaty on Thursday, Christopher Ford, assistant secretary of state for international security and nonproliferation, said that his department remains ready for "working-level discussions" with the North. Ford also reiterated the U.S. commitments made during the June 2018 Singapore summit, in which North Korea agreed to "work toward" the complete denuclearization of the Korean peninsula in exchange for security guarantees. A subsequent meeting in February 2019 failed to produce an agreement. Discussions have stalled due to differences on the scope of North Korea's denuclearization and U.S. concessions.



Philippines—Military Investigating Reports Of Thousands Of Chinese Troops CNN Philippines | 03/06/2020 The Philippine military says it is investigating reports that up to 3,000 Chinese soldiers are in the country, reports CNN Philippines. On Wednesday, Sen. Panfilo Lacson, head of the Senate committee on national defense and security, said that between 2,000 and 3,000 members of the People's Liberation Army were in the Philippines for an "immersion mission," reported the Philippine Daily Inquirer. The senator cited a "reliable source" for the information. Gen. Felimon Santos Jr., the head of the Philippine military, said on Thursday that the armed forces were investigating the claim. The Philippine constitution requires a Senate-ratified treaty in order for foreign troops to be in the country. Meanwhile, the senate is investigating allegations of a rising number of Chinese nationals bringing money into the Philippines through offshore gambling operations, reported the Philippine Star.



Burma—4 Injured In Helicopter Crash In Shan State Irrawaddy | 03/06/2020 Minor injuries have been reported after Burmese military helicopter went down shortly after taking off from a village in the northern Shan state, reports the Irrawaddy (Burma). The helicopter reached an altitude of about 100 feet (30 m) when its rotors stopped, a military spokesman said. The pilot successfully landed the aircraft without it tipping over, he said, as reported by the Myanmar Times. A part of the tail rotor was damaged in the incident. The helicopter was one of four carrying journalists, diplomats and officials to a press conference in the village of Kaungkha, where Burmese authorities had seized a large cache of drugs and drug-making equipment earlier in the week. The helicopter was carrying foreign attaches from multiple countries including the U.S., a western diplomat told Reuters. Three crewmembers and a Thai military attache sustained minor wounds in the crash landing.



Afghanistan—27 Die In Attack On Memorial For Hazara Politician TOLONews | 03/06/2020 At least 27 people have been killed in an attack on a memorial for an Afghan political leader, reports the Tolo News (Afghanistan). On Friday, gunmen opened fire on a ceremony marking the anniversary of the death of Abdul Ali Mazari. The attackers hid in a nearby building that was under construction. Gunshots continued for at least 30 minutes, reported the Washington Post. Another 29 people were wounded in the attack, said a spokesman for the Afghan Ministry of Interior Affairs. A number of top politicians attended the event, including Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah, all of whom escaped unharmed. There were no immediate claims of responsibility. The Taliban denied involvement. Abdul Ali Mazari was the leader of the Hezb-e Wahdat party during the war against Soviet forces and an ethnic Hazara, a predominately Shi'ite minority. He was killed in 1995 after being captured by the Taliban. ISIS claimed responsibility for an attack on the memorial last year that killed 11, noted the Defense Post.



Israel—IDF Cancels Exercises Over Coronavirus Concerns Times of Israel | 03/06/2020 The Israel Defense Force has canceled all international exercises and international travel by soldiers in an effort to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), reports the Times of Israel. The restrictions were scheduled to enter effect on Friday and would apply to both professional and conscript personnel, officials said. Among the training affected is the biennial Juniper Cobra joint air defense exercise with the U.S., which was canceled on Wednesday night. The exercise was reportedly called off after the Israeli Health Ministry added Germany to its list of countries from which visitors to Israel would need to enter quarantine for 14 days, reported the Jerusalem Post. A large contingent of American troops based in Germany was slated to travel to Israel for the training. Israel previously cancelled a joint exercise with U.S. paratroopers based in Italy. One member of the Israeli military has been diagnosed with the disease, and several hundred have been quarantined after traveling to areas with large outbreaks or contact with individuals known to have been infected.



Tunisia—Suicide Bombers Attack Police Outside U.S. Embassy Al Jazeera | 03/06/2020 Twin suicide bombers have set off their explosives outside the U.S. Embassy in Tunis, reports Al Jazeera (Qatar). On Friday, militants on motorbikes detonated explosives near the diplomatic mission in the northern Tunis suburb of Berges du Lac. The militants approached a police patrol as if seeking information and set off their device, said local media cited by France 24. At least one police officer died of his injuries and five people were injured, reported Reuters. Both attackers died in the blast. The embassy issued a statement urging people to stay away from the building. The were no immediate claims of responsibility.



Cameroon—16 Killed In Latest Clashes Between Army, Anglophone Separatists Voice Of America News | 03/06/2020 At least 16 people have been killed in the latest fighting between English-speaking separatists and the Cameroonian army, reports the Voice of America News. Fighting broke out on March 1 following the release of a video said to have been filmed by separatists in the village of Babanki showing the mutilated body of a government soldier. The soldier had been dispatched to the village to protect civilians, said army officials. In response, the military attacked the village, killing 10 rebels, including their commander, and seizing weapons and two vehicles, the officials said. One hostage was also reportedly rescued. Local media reported that six civilians were killed in the clashes and six houses were burned down. A rebel leader claimed that the video was created by the government to discredit the separatists. He also said that the military killed several civilians in recent attacks.



Zambia—President Blames Church Leaders For Mob Violence Reuters | 03/06/2020 Zambian President Edgar Lungu has implicated church leaders in ongoing violence that has killed dozens, reports Reuters. On Friday, Lungu told Parliament that religious authorities had urged reprisal violence against suspected perpetrators of recent poison gas attacks. Since December, more than 500 attacks using chemical gases have been reported, resulting in around 1,700 victims, reported Bloomberg News. The attacks were initially limited to the country's copper belt region but have since spread to the capital, Lusaka. Mob violence against suspected perpetrators has killed more than 50 people. Lungu said he was considering establishing a commission to investigate the chemical attacks and mob killings.



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