Friday, August 9, 2019

TheList 5066



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The List 5066 TGB


To All,

Some bits of history and some tidbits.

Regards,

Skip

Today in Naval History

August 7

1782 The Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart, is established by Gen. George Washington.

1899 Five officers and 121 enlisted Marines commanded by Maj. Allen C. Kelton, USMC, land at Agana, Guam, from USS Yosemite, as a garrison for the naval station which is later established.

1918 Naval Weapons Station Yorktown is established as the Naval Mine Depot when President Woodrow Wilson signs proclamation.

1972 Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Elmo Zumwalt Jr. issues Z-Gram 116, which enables Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women in the US Navy.

1942 During the Guadalcanal Campaign, the armada led by Rear Adm. Richmond K. Turner lands Marines on Guadalcanal and seizes a nearly-complete airfield at Guadalcanal's Lunga Point in the first U.S. land offensive of World War II. To the north, Tulagi Island, and a few miles to the east, Tanambogo and Gavutu Islands, Marines also land and fight bitter battles, concluding a few days after. Nonetheless, the campaigns final outcome is in doubt for nearly four months and is not certain until the Japanese evacuate their surviving troops at Guadalcanal on Feb. 8, 1943.

1943 TBF and F4F (VC 1) from USS Card (CVE 11) sink the German submarine (U 117) west of the Azores.

1990 Operation Desert Shield is ordered by President George H.W. Bush. Desert Shield is the largest overseas deployment since Vietnam, to protect Saudi Arabia after Iraqi's invasion of Kuwait.



Thanks to CHINFO

Executive Summary:

• Today's national headlines include debate on gun control legislation and the President visiting El Paso where one of the shootings took place.

• The U.S. Navy flew a small group of Philippine generals, officials and journalists to the USS Ronald Reagan as the carrier sailed through the South China Sea en route to Manilla.

• The Associated Press reports that Defense Secretary Mark Esper intends to prevent any unilateral invasion of Syria by Turkey.

• Military.com provides details on NTSB's investigation into the 2017 collision between the USS John S. McCain and a civilian tanker.





Today in History August 7



1782

General George Washington authorizes the award of the Purple Heart for soldiers wounded in combat.


1864

Union troops capture part of Confederate General Jubal Early's army at Moorefield, West Virginia.


1888

Theophilus Van Kannel of Philadelphia receives a patent for the revolving door.


1906

In North Carolina, a mob defies a court order and lynches three African Americans which becomes known as "The Lyerly Murders."


1916

Persia forms an alliance with Britain and Russia.


1922

The Irish Republican Army cuts the cable link between the United States and Europe at Waterville landing station.


1934

In Washington, the U.S. Court of Appeals rules that the government can neither confiscate nor ban James Joyce's novel Ulysses.


1936

The United States declares non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War.


1942

The U.S. 1st Marine Division under General A. A. Vandegrift lands on the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon islands. This is the first American amphibious landing of the war.


1944

German forces launch a major counter attack against U.S. forces near Mortain, France.


1964

Congress overwhelmingly passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, allowing the president to use unlimited military force to prevent attacks on U.S. forces.


1966

The United States loses seven planes over North Vietnam, the most in the war up to this point.


1971

Apollo 15 returns to Earth. The mission to the moon had marked the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle.


1973

A U.S. plane accidentally bombs a Cambodian village, killing 400 civilians.


1976

The US Viking 2 spacecraft goes into orbit around Mars.


1981

The Washington (D.C.) Star ceases publication after 128 years.


1984

Japan defeats the United States to win the Olympic Gold in baseball.


1987

Presidents of five Central American nations sign a peace accord in Guatemala.


1990

Operation Desert Shield begins as US troops deploy to Saudi Arabia to discourage Iraq's Saddam Hussein from invading that country as he had Kuwait.


2007

Barry Bonds of the San Francisco Giants breaks Hank Aaron's record with his 756th home run. Bonds' accomplishments were clouded by allegations of illegal steroid use and lying to a grand jury.




Today is National Purple Heart day!


Purple Heart Ceremony at Mount Vernon



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORdBG2QNFbg



Did you know George Washington created the first United States military award, originally known as the military badge of merit, now known as the Purple Heart? We meet with Col. Gordon Sumner to learn more about the legacy of the Purple Heart award, and about the ceremony held at Mount Vernon on Purple Heart day every year.




History: Today is August 7th, on this date back in 1782 George Washington creates the Purple Heart





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Alvin York's Action to a Pillar of Purple Fire by W. Thomas Smith Jr.

08/10/2010



This Week in American Military History:



Aug. 8, 1918: Cpl. (future Sgt.) Alvin York captures "the whole damned German Army" – actually 132 German soldiers – in an action for which he will receive the Medal of Honor.



Aug. 9, 1945: The second – and thus far, last – atomic bomb used in war is dropped over the Japanese city of Nagasaki.

The bomb, code-named Fat Man, detonates approximately 1,840 feet above Nagasaki between the city's two Mitsubishi plants.

New York Times science writer William L. Laurence, an observer flying on the mission, will write:

"A tremendous blast wave struck our ship and made it tremble from nose to tail. This was followed by four more blasts in rapid succession, each resounding like the boom of cannon fire hitting our plane from all directions.

"Observers in the tail of our ship saw a giant ball of fire rise as though from the bowels of the earth, belching forth enormous white smoke rings.

Next they saw a giant pillar of purple fire, 10,000 feet high, shooting skyward with enormous speed."



Aug. 12, 1898: Hostilities are suspended between the United States and Spain with the signing of an armistice all but ending the war (which will formally end within the year).

Spain basically caves, relinquishing "all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba." Puerto Rico and other Spanish-held islands in the West Indies are ceded to the U.S.

Manila will fall to American forces the next day.



Aug. 14, 1942: U.S. Army Air Forces 2nd Lt. Elza E. Shahan, flying a P-38 Lightning, scores the first American aerial victory in the European theater of operations when he finishes off a previously damaged German Focke-Wulf FW 200 Condor near Iceland.



(The 21st-century F-35 Lightning II joint strike fighter is the namesake of the famous World War II-era P-38.)



Aug. 14, 1945: Nearly 47 years to the day after Spain hoists the white flag to American forces, Japan surrenders unconditionally to the same.

World War II is over.

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Thanks to Ed a great bit of History

FW: Re-start: 1942- The Year of the Aircraft Carrier; Part 12 (in 4 parts) - Guadalcanal, From the Start, A New and Different Context (4)
RS Note: With the close of Chapter 2 of the Testimony of Pilot series, I am now picking up on the 1942- The Year of the Aircraft Carrier series starting with the story of the initial attack on Guadalcanal 7-8 August, 1942.

Given the long break, here is the link to Part #9 the Guadalcanal Introduction: http://rememberedsky.com/?p=2201. Part 13 will address the 24 Aug, 1942 Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the third of the four carrier vs carrier battles of 1942.



I have been a student of Midway since I was a kid and was fortunate to work for two men who were in Bombing 6 and were in the main attack on the Japanese carriers. My knowledge of the other aspects of the Pacific War was considerably less. Doing this series has been extremely educational and in particular I never realized how much I didn't know about Guadalcanal. The significant point is how intertwined and interdependent the land-sea-air pieces were. Reading a multitude of books, one can get the impression from the author's approach that their focus piece was indeed the most significant aspect of the campaign. While the books are quite informative and well written, these "judgements" I have concluded are a major misinterpretation of the reality of that very complex and messy six months.

The evidence clearly indicates how new this thing at Guadalcanal was and how un-knowledgeable and therefore unprepared leadership at senior levels was in starting this first go to the offensive - and I mean that right up through admirals King and Nimitz. They truly had a tiger by the tail, one that when solved provided the basis for a victory at sea for a 1944-45 Pacific Navy almost unrecognizable from the courageous beginnings in Operation Watchtower.



And I think a very telling point: The Japanese never saw the defeat at Midway as some tide turning point as we in the U.S. did/still do. Indeed, they essentially blew it off and began planning to move on. While many may disagree with me here, the very narrow victory at Guadalcanal was the true battle that changed War in the Pacific.





1942- The Year of the Aircraft Carrier; Part 12 (in 4 parts) – Guadalcanal, From the Start, A New and Different Context;

(http://rememberedsky.com/)


4 - Henderson Field and the Beginnings of the Cactus Air Force



"…the only place on Earth where you could stand up to your knees in mud and still get dust in your eyes." Marion Carl


3 - Withdrawal of the Carriers



"It is true, Marines will take a pounding until their own air gets established (about ten days or so), but they can dig in, hole up, and wait. Extra losses are a localized operation. This is balanced against a potential National tragedy. Loss of our fleet or one or more of these carriers is a real, worldwide tragedy." Colonel Melvin J. Maas, USMC TF-61 Staff


2 - First Day's Air Support -Problems



It was one thing to defend Midway operating in open ocean; being closely tied to the geography of the island and surrounding waters to provide air support was a whole other thing. With intelligence far inferior to that during Midway, staying in one general area exposed the carriers to submarine, land and sea based attack. There was much to be learned – at the expense of all participants.


1 - First Day's Air Support – Overview



An hour before dawn on 7 August, Dog Day, Fletcher's three TF-61 carriers (with Noyes, CTG-61.1, in tactical command) closed Point Victor, thirty miles west of Guadalcanal. … TF-61 was ready to begin the first Allied counter-offensive of the Pacific War. Ghormley exhorted Fletcher, Turner, and McCain, "Electrify the world with news of a real offensive," and "Sock 'em in the Solomons."



I most appreciate your time to read through this. I fully appreciate that the subject may not be high on your current interest or time available list. So, any reading/response of whatever nature will be most appreciated. (Intriguing note though - the Chinese are reportedly studying the Guadalcanal Campaign)



Good single malt awaits- on me - if by chance we ever get the opportunity.


Boris



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Thanks to John



The Chu Lai Incident

captainbillywalker.com|


The Chu Lai Incident
December 13 , 2016

By : Billy Walker
Category : WAR STORIES


THE CHU LAI INCIDENT

by Billy Walker and Arv Schultz


Some news from around the world

USA—Counterterrorism Center Adds Focus On Domestic Threats Daily Beast | 08/07/2019 The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) has begun targeting domestic terrorist threats, reports the Daily Beast. A review conducted last year concluded that the laws governing the organization would permit it to target purely domestic threats, as long as such work helps the FBI and the Dept. of Homeland Security, a senior counterterrorism official told the news site. Since then, efforts have expanded to include domestic terrorist threats, although some say the new team has not received adequate resources. The NCTC was established after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, to serve as a clearinghouse for all intelligence except that relating purely to domestic terrorism. Some civil liberties groups have expressed concern that having NCTC, an intelligence agency, coordinate with the FBI could erode the boundaries between law enforcement and intelligence. The revelation comes days after mass shootings in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, killed at least 31 people. Police in El Paso say they are investigating the shooting there as an incident of domestic terrorism, citing the shooter's racist manifesto against immigrants. On Tuesday, the FBI Agents Association (FBIAA) called on Congress to pass a law making domestic terrorism a federal crime, reported the Hill (Washington, D.C.).



USA—Navy Takes Delivery Of Next-Generation Jammer Pod For Testing Raytheon | 08/07/2019 Raytheon says it has delivered its first Next-Generation Jammer Mid-Band (NGJ-MB) pod to the U.S. Navy. The pod is the first of 15 engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) systems ordered by the Navy, along with 14 aeromechanical pods for airworthiness certification. The pods will be used for ground and aircraft integration testing, including verification of ground procedures, mass properties, aircraft installation and built-in test checks. Raytheon's NGJ-MB is slated to replace the legacy ALQ-99 pods currently in service on the Navy's EA-18G Growlers, noted Aviation Week & Space Technology. The ALQ-99 has been in service for more than 50 years. The NGJ-MB offers significantly increased range, the ability to attack multiple targets at the same time and advanced jamming techniques. The Navy selected Raytheon to develop the NGJ-MB in 2013 with the goal of fielding the pod in 2020. Delays, including a redesign to reduce drag in order to maintain the Growler's range, caused that date to slip by two years. The next stage of trials is scheduled to begin later this month with flight testing and risk reduction for the prime power generation capability pod installed on a Gulfstream test aircraft.



USA—Army Futures Command Working On Wearable ID Technology For Network-Based Capabilities U.S. Army | 08/07/2019 The U.S. Army Futures Command is developing wearable identification and authorization technology to enable secure network access by soldiers in future contested environments, reports the U.S. Army. The technology is intended to replace the Common Access Card (CAC) that serves as the current government standard for network and system security access control. The wearable technology will provide such control in threat environments where the CAC card is not operationally suitable. It will also provide for standard identification at every level of command for soldiers to authenticate their identity when operating on Army networks. The technology being developed with the subordinate U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) involves a lightweight, flexible, rugged token that can be carried in a pocket or sleeve or worn around the wrist. The token is recognized when a soldier approaches a system, which then requires a PIN to gain final access into the network. Soldiers are automatically logged out when the system detects that the token has left the area. According to project officials, the technology will provide cost savings, since the tokens do not require new hardware to be integrated into existing network systems as might be required by other authentication technologies.



Ukraine—4 Soldiers Killed In Russian-Backed Attacks In East Ukrinform | 08/07/2019 Four Ukrainian soldiers have been killed in fighting with Russian-backed rebels in Ukraine's eastern Donbas region, reports Ukrinform. On Tuesday, militants launched an anti-tank weapon at the 36th Marine Brigade in Pavlopil, killing four and injuring one, said the Ukrainian military, as reported by the Kyiv Post. Eight other rebel attacks were reported across the northern and eastern military regions. On Wednesday, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy contacted Russian President Vladimir Putin following the attack, reported Reuters. Zelenskiy urged Putin to pressure the Russian-backed forces to stop attacks and accelerate efforts to dismantle fortifications. Putin called on Ukraine to stop shelling settlements in the Donbas. Six Ukrainian soldiers have been killed and nine injured since a cease-fire entered effect on July 21, said Lt. Gen. Ruslan Khomchak, the Ukrainian chief of General Staff. Nevertheless, the intensity of fighting in the east has decreased since the cease-fire, the general said.



Ukraine—Military Seeks More Javelin Anti-Tank Missiles Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty | 08/07/2019 Ukraine wants to acquire additional Javelin anti-tank missile systems through the U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, reports Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. William Taylor, the charge d'affaires of the U.S. Embassy in Kyiv, confirmed the plan in an interview. The embassy had previously confirmed in early July that an FMS request had been submitted by Ukraine, but did not specify the equipment sought at the time. This would be the first purchase of U.S. military equipment by Ukraine, Taylor said. Washington has provided approximately US$1.5 billion in military aid to Ukraine since the illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014. Such aid was expanded to include lethal equipment in 2017. The U.S. provided 210 Javelin missiles along with 37 launcher units in April 2018, under the understanding that the systems would only be used in the event of a large-scale escalation of the conflict in the Donbas.



China—Government Vows Response If U.S. Deploys Ground-Launched Missiles In Asia Channel News Asia | 08/07/2019 The Chinese government says it will undertake countermeasures if the U.S. deploys long-range ground-launched cruise missiles in Asia, reports Channel News Asia. "If the U.S. deploys missiles in this part of the world, at the doorstep of China, China will be forced to take countermeasures," said Fu Cong, the director general of arms control at the Chinese Foreign Ministry. No specific details were given on what such countermeasures might involve. Fu's statement comes after the U.S. officially withdrew from the Intermediate Nuclear Forces treaty last Friday, which prohibited U.S. ground-launched weapons with a maximum range between 310 miles (500 km) and 620 miles (1,000 km). Beijing also has no interest in any trilateral talks on such weapons with Russia and the U.S. given the disparity in the size of their respective nuclear arsenals, said Fu. He argued that most of China's missiles were not able to reach the U.S. heartland. The statement follows comments by Defense Secretary Mark Esper, who said that he supported the placement of ground-launched intermediate-range missiles in Asia during a visit to Australia on Saturday. Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison ruled out the basing of such missiles in Australia following talks with Esper, reported the Sydney Morning Herald.



Philippines—Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group Makes Port Call In Manila U.S. Seventh Fleet | 08/07/2019 The Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group has arrived in Manila for a port call, reports the U.S. 7th Fleet. The visit on Wednesday illustrates the strong friendship and partnership with the southeast Asian ally, said U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines Sung Kim. In addition to the Nimitz-class carrier, the group includes the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers Chancellorsville and Antietam. During the port call, naval personnel from both countries will take part in leadership exchanges as well as cultural and entertainment events. The visit comes amid U.S. efforts to reassure Manila of its commitment to the 1951 Mutual Defense Treaty.



Australia—Canberra Renews Partnership Agreement With NATO Nato Press Release | 08/07/2019 Australia has signed a new enhanced partnership agreement with NATO, reports the alliance. Defense Minister Linda Reynolds and NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg signed the document in Sydney on Wednesday. The agreement between Australia and NATO is renewed and updated every two years, noted the Australian Associated Press. The newest iteration has an expanded focus on the Indo-Pacific region, reported Deutsche Presse-Agentur. NATO countries are also increasingly concerned about Iranian activities that threaten maritime security in the Strait of Hormuz, said Stoltenberg. Australia is considering sending ships to participate in a U.S.-led maritime security mission. Access to rare earth minerals, which are used in some military technologies, will be another area of focus, officials said.



Afghanistan—Deadly Blast At Kabul Police Station Kills 18 TOLONews | 08/07/2019 At least 18 people have been killed and 145 injured in an attack on a Kabul police station, reports the Tolo News (Afghanistan). On Wednesday, a suicide car bomber set off their explosives at a security checkpoint outside a police station in the southwestern 6th police district, reported the Independent (U.K.). Four police officers were killed, interior ministry officials said, as quoted by Radio Free Afghanistan. Ninety-two civilians were wounded in the blast. An interior ministry spokesman denied eyewitness reports of gunfire after the explosion. The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack, which they said targeted a recruitment center for Afghan forces, reported the New York Times. The militant group has threatened to disrupt planned elections next month and called on citizens to boycott the polls. In Qatar, Taliban and U.S. negotiators continue to discuss terms of an agreement to withdraw U.S. forces from the 18-year war.



Iran—Defense Ministry Unveils New Guided Bombs Fars News Agency | 08/07/2019 The Iranian Defense Ministry has unveiled three new unpowered smart munitions, reports the semi-official Fars news agency (Iran). The precision-guided munitions were unveiled as part of a ceremony to mark the National Day of Defense Industry. Two of the weapons, designated Yassin and Balaban, were of entirely new designs. The third is the latest development in the Qaem family of electro-optically guided bombs. The Balaba features pop-out wings for extended range and hybrid inertial navigation system/GPS guidance, reported Radio Farda. It can be launched from aircraft, helicopters and drones. The Yasim can be launched from crewed or uncrewed aircraft and has a range of about 30 miles (50 km), while the Qaem can hit within 20 inches (500 mm) of a target, said Defense Minister Amir Hatami. Such smart weapons and precision-guided munitions are intended in part for use on the air force's uncrewed aircraft, said Brig. Gen. Aziz Nasirzadeh, the air force chief.



Iran—Damavand Corvette Set To Return To Service After Repairs, Upgrades Mehr News Agency | 08/07/2019 An Iranian corvette damaged in a mishap in early 2018 will soon return to service after being repaired and upgraded, reports the Mehr News Agency (Tehran), citing senior navy officials. The Damavand, assigned to Iran's northern fleet in the Caspian Sea, struck a breakwater on Jan. 10, 2018, while attempting to come into port during a severe storm. The ship was less than three years old at the time, having joined the fleet in March 2015. On Monday, Rear Adm. Hossein Khanzadi, the navy chief, said that the corvette would rejoin the northern fleet later this year after completing repairs and upgrades. In addition to addressing design defects, a new radar and vertically launched missiles are being fitted, reported the Tasnim news agency. The Damavand's newest sister ship, Dena, and a guided-missile destroyer are scheduled to join Iran's southern fleet by the end of the Iranian calendar year in March 2020, Khanzadi said.



Algeria—Arrest Warrant Issued For Former Defense Minister Algeria Press Service | 08/07/2019 A military court in Algeria has issued an international arrest warrant for former Defense Minister Khaled Nezzar and his son, reports the Algeria Press Service. The court charged the two with conspiracy and disruption of the public order, reported the Yeni Safak (Istanbul). Nezzar, who served as defense minister from 1990 to 1993, is currently in Spain, having traveled there for therapeutic purposes with his family several weeks ago, reported local media. The plan to charge Nezzar has apparently been in place for over a week. He tweeted from Spain on July 26 that authorities were planning to arrest him upon his return. The warrant also targeted Farid Belhamdine, the head of a pharmaceutical firm, noted Xinhua, China's state news service.



United Nations—Israeli Missile Protection System Ordered For Mi-17 Helicopters Defence Web | 08/07/2019 The United Nations has ordered airborne missile protection systems from an Israeli firm for installation on its Mi-17 helicopters operating in Africa, reports Defence Web (South Africa). The Airborne Missile Protection System-MV (AMPS-MV) automatically detects, verifies and defeats surface-to-air missiles through the use of flares and chaff as well as directional infrared countermeasures. The MV variant includes BIRD's missile approach confirmation sensor (MACS), which reduces false alarms to ensure that only real threats are acted upon by the system and pilot. The AMPS-MV can manage up to eight threats simultaneously. The AMPS-MVs will be installed on helicopters operating in dangerous and complicated areas in Africa, the U.N. said. The U.N. previously purchased the AMPS for installation on its helicopters. The newly announced order covers systems for additional helicopters.



Mali—Rival Militias Sign Peace Deal In Bid To End Violence Agence France-Presse | 08/07/2019 Rival ethnic militias in Mali have signed a cease-fire agreement after a series of tit-for-tat attacks that killed hundreds of people, reports Agence France-Presse. Dozen of armed groups representing the Dogon and Fula communities in the central Mopti and Segou regions signed the agreement on Monday during a visit by Prime Minister Boubou Cisse. The document calls for an immediate end to attacks and the free movement of peoples, goods and humanitarian groups across the region. Several cease-fires in the past have failed to stop the violence. Hundreds of people, many of them civilians, have been killed in reprisal killings between the nomadic Fula and sedentary Dogon. The number of people fleeing attacks increased from 18,000 in May 2018 to 70,000 in May 2019, according to the U.N. Humanitarian Coordinator. Tensions have been exacerbated by accusations that extremist groups linked to Al-Qaida and other terrorist organizations have fought on behalf of the Fula, leading to what many in the community say is ill-treatment by security forces. The ethnic Dogon and Bambara communities created self-defense militias in response to the rise in attacks by Fula militias starting in 2015.



Equatorial Guinea—Work Begins On Wall On Border With Cameroon Agence France-Presse | 08/07/2019 Cameroonian military officials say that Equatorial Guinea plans to construct a wall along their shared border, reports Agence France-Presse. Equatorial Guinean soldiers have begun placing milestones for the planned barrier on the Cameroonian side of the Ntem river, which separates the two countries, said an army officer. The milestones were placed at points between 0.6 miles (1 km) and 1.2 miles (2 km) inside Cameroonian territory, he said. Army chief Rene Claude Meka visited the site in July and criticized what he called the "expansionist ambitions" of Cameroon's southern neighbor. Residents on the Guinean side of the border say that construction work is proceeding rapidly. In December 2017, about 30 armed men from the Central African Republic, Chad and Sudan were arrested in the area in what Guinean authorities said was a coup attempt. Equatorial Guinea has also accused Cameroon of letting West Africans move into its territory illegally. Equatorial Guinean authorities declined to comment on the project.



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