Saturday, June 8, 2019

TheList 5015

The List 5015 TGB
A bit more history and a few tidbits
You are probably wondering why this is on again. I misinterpreted the note from Admiral Cox saying that he had I added a few extra comments embedded in the original note. I thought the URLs in that note were what he meant until Micro pointed out that he had actually put notes the original version and those are below
The USS Missouri:  Tokyo Bay.  Interesting facts
  Why did the US choose a US Navy Iowa-class battleship as the location for Japan's surrender in World War 2 even though they were in Tokyo Bay and could have used a building on land? Pure symbolism. Nothing says "you're utterly defeated" than having to board the enemy's massive battleship in the waters of your own capital city. A naval vessel is considered sovereign territory for the purposes of accepting a surrender. You just don't get that if you borrow a ceremonial space from the host country. NOTHING IN THE RECORD CONFIRMS THIS BUT IT IS PLAUSIBLE.
In addition, the Navy originally wanted the USS South Dakota to be the surrender site. It was President Truman who changed it to USS Missouri, Missouri being Truman's home state.  THERE WERE SEVERAL POSSIBILITIES OF SHIPS WITH LONGER AND MORE DISTINGUISHED WAR RECORDS THAN MISSOURI, BUT MISSOURI WAS ADMIRAL HALSEY'S FLAGSHIP AND THAT WAS PROBABLY THE REASON IT WAS CHOSEN.
The Japanese delegation had to travel across water to the Missouri, which sat at the center of a huge US fleet. It's a bit like those movie scenes where someone enters a big-wig's office, and the big-wig is sat silhouetted at the end of a long room, behind a massive desk. The appellant has to walk all the way to that desk along a featureless space, feeling small, exposed, vulnerable and comparatively worthless before the mogul enthroned in dramatic lighting before him. By the time he gets there the great speech he had prepared is reduced to a muttered sentence or two. THE ONLY WAY TO GET TO A SHIP AT ANCHOR IS BY BOAT.  NO HELICOPTERS THEN.
In addition, the USS Missouri flew the flag of Commodore Perry's 19th century gun-boat diplomacy mission that opened the closeted Edo-era Japan to the world and forced upon them the Meiji restoration which ended the rule of the samurai class. THE FLAG DIDN'T FLY.  IT WAS MOUNTED IN A FRAME (IN RECERSE) AND HUNG ON THE BULKHEAD ABOVE THE SURRENDER TABLE.
The symbolism here is pretty clear - "this is how we want you to be, and remember what happens to countries that defy us."
It was particularly humiliating for a proud country like Japan, and that was entirely the point.
The symbolism of the ceremony was even greater than that. The ship was anchored at the precise latitude/longitude  recorded in Perry's log during his 1845 visit, symbolizing the purpose of both visits to open Japan to the West. Perry's original flag was also present, having been flown all the way from the Naval Academy for the ceremony.
When the Japanese delegation came aboard, they were forced to use an accommodation way (stairs) situated just forward of turret #1. The freeboard (distance between the ship's deck and the water line) there makes the climb about twice as long as if it had been set up farther aft, where the freeboard of the ship is less.  THE LOCATION OF THE SURRENDER CEREMONY PROBABLY HAD MORE TO DO WITH PROXIMITY TO SENIOR OFFICER QUARTERS, BUT IT WAS AN UNUSUAL PLACE TO BRING PEOPLE ABOARD,
NOTE: This was even more of an issue for the Japanese surrender party as the senior member, Foreign Affairs Minister Shigemitsu, was crippled by an assassination attempt in 1932, losing his right leg in the process.
The #1 and #2 turrets had been traversed about 20 degrees to starboard. The ostensible reason for this was to get the turret overhangs out of the way to create more room for the ceremony on the starboard veranda deck, but in fact this would have only required traversing turret #2 had it been the real reason. However, the turret position also put the gun tubes directly over the heads of the Japanese. They were literally boarding the ship "under the gun".  PLAUSIBLE BUT NO CONFIRMATION.
The honor guard of US sailors (side boys) were all hand-picked to be over six feet tall, a further intimidation of the short-statured Japanese.  PROBABLY TRUE.
The surrender documents themselves, one copy for the Allies and one for the Japanese contained identical English-language texts, but the Allied copy was bound in good quality leather, while the Japanese copy was bound with light canvas whose stitching looked like it had been done by a drunken tailor using kite string.  DON'T KNOW THAT THE JAPANESE DOCUMENT LOOKED THAT BAD, BUT IT WAS DEFINITELY BOUND DIFFERENTLY TO A LOWER STANDARD.
After the signing ceremony, the Japanese delegation was not invited for tea and cookies; they were shuffled off the ship as an Allied air armada of over 400 aircraft flew overhead as a final reminder that American forces still had the ability to continue fighting should the Japanese have second thoughts on surrender. TRUE.  NO COOKIES AND FLYOVER WAS A MASSIVE SHOW OF FORCE.
Thanks to Mud
Received from a former HS classmate now a retired Physics Professor -- Exceptional also!!
The first link below is the best.
Here is a remarkable video, produced in 1977, which I used to show to my astronomy and physics classes. It shows the tremendous range of sizes in creation, from the farthest reaches of the known universe (at that time), to the inner limits of our understanding of the nucleus:
And here is a map by National Geographic, showing how galaxies, clusters of galaxies and super clusters of galaxies, etc. populate the universe as far as we can imagine:
I like to think that all of that is but a speck in the creative imagination of our God!
Thanks to Doc
Restored B29 Named "Doc"
Great story! 
Thanks to USNA-At-Large:
USNA-at-Large Exemplary Graduate of the Day:
RADM C. Wade McClusky USN '26
(Edited by Dick Nelson '64)
Today, June 4, is the anniversary of the epic Battle of Midway, in which numerous USNA graduates participated, from Admirals to Ensigns.  While there were many heroes and great leaders that worked to produce this important victory, there was one man whose initiative was directly responsible for neutralizing the powerful Japanese carrier force of four carriers---all of which had attacked Pearl harbor six months before, along with two others.  When a major sea battle is decided by the courageous decision-making of one man, he is usually an admiral.  But at Midway, something different happened.  In the words of Admiral Chester Nimitz, LCDR Wade McClusky's decision to continue the air search for the enemy and his brilliant judgment as to where the enemy might be found, "decided the fate of our carrier task force and our forces at Midway."  This was truly an Exemplary Graduate.
Clarence Wade McClusky, Jr. was born in Buffalo, New York, on 1 June 1902. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1926, the same class as Max Leslie, and became a Naval Aviator three years later.  These two classmates would later turn the tide in the Battle of Midway.
Over the next decade, McClusky served in several air units, but was primarily trained as a fighter pilot.  He also served on command staffs, as an instructor at the Naval Academy, and at various shore facilities.  In 1940, he was assigned to Fighting Squadron Six (VF-6), based on USS Enterprise, and assumed command of that squadron in April 1941.
Lieutenant Commander McClusky became Enterprise's air group commander ("CAG") in April 1942.  During the Battle of Midway, while leading his air group's scout bombers on 4 June 1942, he made the critical tactical decision that led to the sinking of two of Japan's fleet carriers, Kaga and Akagi.  When McClusky could not find the Japanese carriers where he expected them, and with his air group's fuel running dangerously low, he spotted the Japanese destroyer Arashi steaming north at flank speed.  (The Arashi had stayed behind to attack the submarine USS Nautilus, which had been harassing the Japanese fleet.)
Surmising that the Arashi must be following the main fleet, McClusky ordered a change in course to follow the Arashi, even though his group of dive bombers was running dangerously low on fuel.  This led him directly to the enemy carriers.  He then directed his dive bombers into an attack which led to the destruction of both Kaga and Akagi.\
A squadron from the Yorktown, led by his classmate LCDR Max Leslie, had taken off an hour later, but it used a more recent, and therefore more accurate, sighting for the location of the Japanese carriers.  Leslie arrived at the same moment as the Enterprise's bombers and attacked the Soryu.  Within minutes, three of the four Japanese carriers had been turned into burning hulks.  [Ed. Note:  The fourth Japanese carrier, the Hiryu, was put out of action that afternoon, making the battle a clean sweep and saving Midway.  Without his air power, ADM Yamamoto was forced to abandon the assault on Midway and return to Japan.]
After dropping his ordnance, McClusky's aircraft was jumped by Japanese Zero fighters, which put 55 holes in his SBD aircraft and wounded him.  But it was too late for the Japanese. McClusky, through his intelligence, courage and perhaps sheer luck, had thus made a vital contribution to the outcome of this pivotal battle.  For his actions, McClusky was awarded the Navy Cross.
Later in World War II, McClusky commanded the escort carrier USS Corregidor.  McClusky served in a variety of staff and shore positions in the later 1940s.  During the Korean War, he was chief of staff to the commanders of the First and Seventh Fleets.  He commanded Naval Air Station Glenview, Illinois, in 1952–53, and the Boston Group of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet in 1954–56.  McClusky retired from active duty in July 1956.  At that time, in recognition of his vital contributions to the outcome of World War II, he was advanced to flag rank.
USS McClusky (FFG-41) was named in his honor.  The Wade McClusky Award is given annually to the most outstanding attack squadron in the U.S. Navy.
In addition to the Navy Cross, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal, Commendation Ribbon, and the Ribbon for the Presidential Unit Citation to the USS ENTERPRISE, and the Purple Heart Medal, Rear Admiral McClusky has the American Defense Service Medal, with Fleet Clasp; the American Campaign Medal; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal; World War II Victory Medal; Navy Occupation Service Medal, Asia Clasp; China Service Medal; National Defense Service Medal; Korean Service Medal; United Nations Service Medal, and the Korean Presidential Unit Citation.
Following retirement, RADM McClusky and his wife, the former Ruth Mundy of Orange, Virginia, with his son Philip Mason McClusky, resided in Towson, Maryland.  He had another son, Wade Sanford McClusky, by a former marriage.  RADM McClusky died in 1976 at the age of 74, and is buried in the Naval Academy Cemetery.
Air Medal: "For meritorious achievement in aerial flight...during operations against enemy Japanese forces in the vicinity of Wake, Marcus and the Hawaiian and Marshall Islands from December 7, 1941 to March 4, 1942, completing his fifth mission during this period..."
Distinguished Flying Cross: "For heroic conduct in aerial flight as Commander of a Fighting Squadron in the initial attack on Wotje Atoll, Marshall Islands, on February 1, l942...he repeatedly bombed and strafed objectives causing severe damage to the enemy. Later, while leading a combat patrol over the task force, contact was made with two twin-engined bombers... He led his command in repeated aggressive attacks...resulting in the destruction of one and serious damage to the other ..."
Letter of Commendation: "For distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of a Fighting Squadron in the attack against Wake Island on February 24, l942.  In spite of unfavorable weather conditions, the attack was pushed home in a resolute manner and all enemy objectives were successfully attacked..."
Navy Cross: "For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous devotion to duty as Commander (Enterprise) Air Group, in the Battle of Midway on June 4, 1942..." The citation further states that he "led his Air Squadron in a thorough and dogged search flight, maintained until the objective was sighted, and followed by a bold, determined attack against four enemy Japanese carriers in complete disregard of heavy enemy anti-aircraft fire and fierce fighter opposition, with the result that such severe damage was inflicted on enemy carrier flight decks as to effectively put them out of action."
Some Midway thoughts from Barrett whose new book with Stephen Coontz is recommended by the Bear
From the Bear:  Two superb books on the Vietnam War are on the current best seller lists and most strongly recommended for summer reading. Stephen Coonts and Barrett Tillman have teamed up to write the story of the almost indestructible bridge at Thanh Hoa. The title of the fast and fun read is DRAGON's JAW. It is a fast, fun read. Four and a Half stars. The other best seller is Captain Dan Pedersen's TOP GUN: An American Story. Dan was in at the very start and stand-up of the now famous "center of excellence" for fighter pilot training. This is a great story, smoothly told, that goes well with a cool drink, a little shade, and a comfortable lounger… Four stars…  
The Brewster F2A Buffalo has been excoriated (like totally) since 4 June 42 as a Death Trap.  Fact is, I never knew a Buffalo pilot who did not enjoy flying the bird, including New Zealand's top ace.  Marion Carl preferred it as a gunnery platform over the F4F Wildcat.  The Buff's main problem was carrier suitability.
Thing was: that interception at Midway was only going to end one way.  VMF-221 was committed piecemeal, caught at an altitude disadvantage by superior numbers of better fighters flown by more experienced pilots.  If the squadron had been 100% Wildcats the outcome would not have been much different.
Long as I'm at it:
The Douglas TBD Devastator has been called a suicide coffin, especially by Geooorge Gay, "The Sole Survivor of Torpedo 8."  Fact is, no airborne TBD was lost to enemy action until 4 June 42.  And The Sole Survivor wasn't.  At the Midway 50th anniv. event in DC GG made that statement to a few hundred Midway vets and historians.  Afterward I was seated on the aisle when Capt. Bert Earnest (later test pilot) came by and grinned. He was the only one of 6 VT-8 TBF Avenger pilots to RTB on Midway. "C'mere, I want you to meet my radioman."  Feisty little guy stuck out his hand and said "Hi, I'm Harry Farrier THE THIRD SOLE SURVIVOR OF TORPEDO EIGHT!"
Thanks to Mud
An All Time Favorite
Some news from around the world
Iraq—Coalition Airstrike Kills 3 Militants In Anbar Province Xinhua | 06/05/2019 A U.S.-led coalition air attack has killed at least three suspected Islamic State militants in Iraq's western Anbar province, reports Xinhua, China's state news agency. The coalition aircraft struck ISIS positions south of the Akkas gas field in response to intelligence reports, the Iraqi military said. The strike killed three militants, destroyed three motorcycles and a hideout. ISIS remains active in the vast Anbar desert despite its territorial losses in Iraq and Syria.    
Iraq—6 Security Personnel Killed While Hunting Terrorist Cell Iraqi News | 06/05/2019 At least six Iraqi security personnel have been killed while investigating a terrorist attack on a police vehicle in the Al Tarmiyah district in Iraq's northern Salahuddin province, reports the Iraqi News. Security forces had launched a manhunt for the terrorist cell implicated in the bombing when they were attacked by militants, officials said. Six troops and three militants were killed in the fighting. The death toll was expected to rise. No group has claimed responsibility for the attack, but the Islamic State is typically behind attacks on security forces across Iraq, the news service said.   
China—Xi Arrives In Moscow For Official Visit Xinhua | 06/05/2019 Chinese President Xi Jinping has just arrived in Moscow for a state visit to Russia, reports Xinhua, China's state news agency. Xi is scheduled to meet with President Vladimir Putin to discuss bilateral relations and strengthen cooperation. The leaders are also expected to discuss various international and regional issues. This is Xi's eighth visit to Russia since he was elected president in 2013.    
Israel—Talks On Maritime Border With Lebanon Anticipated Soon TV 7 Israel News | 06/05/2019 Israel expects to begin U.S.-mediated discussions with Lebanon in the next several weeks that will cover several key issues, including the demarcation of the maritime border, reports TV 7 Israel News. The headquarters of the U.N. peacekeeping force in southern Lebanon is expected to host the long-awaited bilateral talks, said a senior Israeli official on Tuesday. Lebanon has not commented publicly on whether it would attend talks or on a possible timeline, noted Reuters. U.S. diplomats have been conducting shuttle diplomacy in an effort to bring the sides together. The neighboring countries have long disagreed on border demarcations in the eastern Mediterranean. The issue has gained importance in recent years due to the discovery of natural gas deposits in the region.      
Pakistan—Military Agrees To Budget Cuts In Light Of Economic Difficulties Geo News | 06/05/2019 The Pakistani military has agreed to a voluntary cut to its budget to assist with the government's financial problems, reports Geo News (Pakistan). Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa, the chief of army staff, emphasized that the cuts would not affect the military's ability to defend the country. As part of the reductions, officers will not receive a pay raise in the coming fiscal year, the general said. Enlisted soldiers will receive raises. Cuts to the budget will not affect the military's ability to respond to threats or the quality of life for troops, Bajwa said. Prime Minister Imran Khan expressed appreciation for the military's decision and said savings will be used for the development of newly merged tribal areas and Baluchistan. Islamabad has made an agreement with the International Monetary Fund for a US$6 billion loan with the requirement that it reduce its expanding fiscal and current account deficits to gain access to the funds, noted Reuters. Khan has not revealed how much military spending would be cut.    
Egypt—Militants Kill 8 Police In Attack On Sinai Checkpoint British Broadcasting Corp. | 06/05/2019 Thirteen people have been killed in a gun battle after militants attacked a police checkpoint in Egypt's northern Sinai peninsula, reports BBC News. Eight police officers and five militants were killed in the fighting west of the city of El-Arish, said the Egyptian Interior Ministry on Wednesday. Several militants escaped and were being pursued by security forces, the ministry said. There were reports of attacks on multiple checkpoints, suggesting that the casualty figures could rise, said Egyptian media cited by Al Jazeera (Qatar). No group immediately claimed responsibility for the attack.    
Sudan—Military Council Offers To Resume Talks With Opposition Reuters | 06/05/2019 The head of the Transitional Military Council in Sudan has offered to restart talks with the opposition without conditions, reports Reuters. Lt. Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan made the offer on Wednesday, two days after security forces launched a deadly raid on demonstrators in Khartoum. The move also marked a step back from the army's decision to cancel its agreements with the opposition following the operation. It comes as international criticism of violence against protesters has increased. At least 60 people were killed in the raid and subsequent violence around the country, according to medics linked to the opposition. On Wednesday, the Sudan Doctors' Committee said security forces had shot and killed at least 10 people in Khartoum and its sister city Omdurman. Another 10 people had been killed on Tuesday, reported the Guardian (U.K.). The opposition did not immediately respond to Burhan's offer.   
  USA—Russian Jet Makes Unsafe Intercept Of Navy Patrol Aircraft Over Med U.S. Naval Forces Europe/Africa | 06/05/2019 A U.S. Navy maritime patrol aircraft was intercepted over the Mediterranean Sea in an unsafe manner by a Russian fighter jet, reports U.S. Naval Forces Europe/Africa. On Tuesday, the U.S. P-8A Poseidon was flying in international airspace over the Mediterranean when it was intercepted three times over three hours by a Russian Su-35 fighter. The first and third interactions were deemed to be safe. The second involved the Russian jet conducting a high-speed pass directly in front of the patrol aircraft, putting its pilots and crew at risk, the Navy said. The P-8A crew reported wake turbulence following the pass. The Navy emphasized that the Poseidon was operating in line with international law and did nothing to provoke the Russian actions. Moscow denied the accusations, saying that its pilot had behaved responsibly and returned to base after the U.S. aircraft changed course, reported Reuters. The Russian Ministry of Defense said it had scrambled the Su-35 because the P-8 was approaching the Russian naval base in Tartus on the Syrian coast, according to RIA Novosti.      
Israel—New Heron UAV Optimized For Tactical Missions Israel Aerospace Industries | 06/05/2019 Israel Aerospace Industries says it will unveil the newest variant of its Heron family of uncrewed aerial vehicles at the Paris Air Show later this month. The T-Heron is designed for tactical missions and can support ground and maritime forces, according to an IAI release on Tuesday. The air vehicle features high levels of flight safety and reliability and can operate in extreme weather conditions. It is powered by a Rotax engine that enables a ceiling of 24,000 feet (7,320 m) and a top speed of 120 knots. The T-Heron can carry payloads of up to 400 pounds (180 kg), according to the manufacturer.     
USA—Lockheed Announces Delivery Of 400th F-35 Lockheed Martin | 06/05/2019 Lockheed Martin has announced the delivery of the 400th production F-35 Lightning II stealth fighter jet. The 400th aircraft is a U.S. Air Force F-35A that will be stationed at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, the company said on June 3. Lockheed has delivered 382 F-35As, 87 F-35Bs and 30 F-35Cs to date. The entire fleet, including developmental, training and operational aircraft in the U.S. and abroad, has racked up 200,000 flight hours, said a company release. The F-35A has completed around 125,850 flight hours; the F-35B, 52,410 hours; and the F-35C, 22,630 hours.      
Central African Republic—MINUSCA Launches Operation Against Rebels In West Caj News | 06/05/2019 The U.N. peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) has launched a new operation against rebel groups in the western part of the country, reports the CAJ News Agency (Johannesburg, South Africa). The move comes in a response to the recent killing of 34 civilians in the villages of Lemouna and Koundjili by the Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R) rebel group. The MINUSCA operation is designed to protect civilians in the region, prevent further attacks and halt the movement of armed groups. As part of the operation, temporary operational bases will be established in some locations, said a spokesperson for the peacekeeping mission. The 3R group last week apologized for the May 21 attack and said that it had dealt with the militants allegedly responsible for it. MINUSCA has demanded that the group turn over all of those responsible and fully cooperate with the ongoing investigation.      
Somalia—Senior Al-Shabaab Commander Surrenders In South Dalsan Radio | 06/05/2019 Somalia authorities in Bardale in southern Somalia say a senior militant commander in the region has turned himself in, reports Dalsan Radio (Mogadishu). The defector, identified as Ibrahim Mohamed Adan, would now be helping security forces in the battle against Al-Shabaab as well as providing information, according to Strategic Intelligence. The Somali government has been encouraging Al-Shabaab militants to surrender by offering amnesty to those that lay down their arms. Defections have increased significantly due to the offer as well as stepped up operations by Somali and African Union peacekeeping troops, the news station said.     
Belize—Air, Land, Sea Forces Drill Together With U.S. For 1st Time Air Force News Service | 06/05/2019 For the first time, U.S. Air Force advisors have conducted a joint air, land and sea exercise with Belize's air wing, ground forces and coast guard, reports the Air Force News Service. The 571st Mobility Support Advisory Squadron conducted various training courses with the three services, including an aircrew flying hours program; aircraft scheduling program; tactical first aid course; aircrew flight equipment program management course; hands-on radio course; and an information technology principles course. Advisors also held a high-frequency radio communications course with the coast guard, which culminated in the first-ever joint maritime exercise. The IT principles course also introduced Belize personnel to various types of cyber attacks and malware as well as policies to strengthen cyber defenses, said the Air Force.    
South Korea—Accord Inked With New Zealand On Defense Cooperation Yonhap | 06/05/2019 The governments of South Korea and New Zealand have formalized a memorandum of understanding designed to strengthen bilateral defense cooperation, reports the Yonhap news agency (Seoul). The signatories agreed to proactively seek areas in their defense industries for joint development, such as co-production of equipment and information sharing, the South Korean Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) said on Tuesday. The agreement is expected to bolster defense industry cooperation, DAPA officials said. The two countries have maintained close cooperation in defense, including the production of a new fleet tanker for the New Zealand navy by Hyundai Heavy Industries.      
USA—Structural Problems Keep B-1B Bombers On The Ground Air Force Times | 06/05/2019 Much of the U.S. Air Force's fleet of B-1B bombers is unable to fly due to structural problems, reports the Air Force Times. The House Armed Services seapower and projection forces subcommittee has called on the service to come up with a plan to address the problem. In its markup of the House's version of the fiscal 2020 defense policy bill that was released on Monday, the subcommittee said that the poor readiness of the aircraft could hinder American long-range strike capabilities. According to lawmakers, the number of B-1Bs that are fully mission capable has fallen to single digits. In addition, aircrew are being transferred to other aircraft because there are not enough of the bombers to support the necessary training. The proposed authorization bill would require the Air Force to brief the House Armed Services Committee by March 1, 2020, on its plan to improve B-1B readiness. The subcommittee also wants a training plan for pilots and maintainers and a timeline to meet future deployment requirements. The proposals must still be approved by the full House and Senate.      
Bulgaria—Potential Purchase Of F-16 Fighters Approved By U.S. U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency | 06/05/2019 The U.S. State Dept. has approved a possible Foreign Military Sale of fighter jets to Bulgaria, reports the U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency. The proposed US$1.7 billion deal covers eight F-16C/D Block 70/72 aircraft; 10 General Electric F110 engines (including two spares); 10 Link 16 Multifunctional Information Distribution System-JTRS (MIDS-JTRS) radio systems (two spares); and nine improved program display generators (one spare). The potential sale also includes nine AN/APG-83 active electronically scanned array radars (one spare); four AN/AAQ-33 Sniper targeting pods; nine Modular Mission Computers 7000AH (one spare); nine LN-260 embedded GPS/inertial navigation system; nine 20-mm M61 Vulcancannons; 16 AIM-120C7 AMRAAMs and one spare guidance section; 24 AIM-9X Sidewinder missiles, eight captive air-training missiles and four spare tactical guidance sections; and 48 LAU-129 multipurpose launchers. Other equipment covered includes 15 GBU-49 Enhanced Paveway II kits; 15 GBU-54 Laser JDAM kits; 28 GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs; 24 Mk 82 bombs; nine ALQ-211 Internal Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suites (one spare); nine AN/ALE-47 countermeasure dispensers (one spare); and associated training, technical and logistics equipment. The proposed deal would enhance Bulgaria's ability to defend its airspace, contribute to regional stability and strengthen interoperability with its allies, said a DSCA release.

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