Thursday, February 21, 2019

The List 4931

The List 4931 TGB

To All,
A bit of history and some tidbits.

This day in Naval History
Feb. 20
1815—During a night engagement off Madeira, Africa, the frigate Constitution, commanded by Capt. Charles Stewart captures HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.
1942—While defending Lexington in a F4F "Wildcat" fighter, Lt. Edward H. "Butch" O'Hare repeatedly attacks nine Japanese bombers, shooting down five and damaging a sixth. O'Hare is meritoriously promoted to lieutenant commander in April 1942 and awarded the Medal of Honor.
1945—USS Pargo (SS 264) sinks Japanese destroyer Kokaze off Cape Varella, French Indochina, and survives counter-attack by destroyer Kamikaze, which had been steaming in company with Nokaze during the attack.
1962—Lt. Col. John Glenn, USMC, becomes the first American to orbit the Earth. Recovery is by USS Noa (DD 841).
1962—USS Dixie (AD 14) rescues a lone crewman aboard a sailing yawl adrift for four days.
1974—The S-3A Viking Anti-submarine aircraft is officially introduced and given to Anti-Submarine Squadron Forty-One (VS 41).
Thanks to CHINFO
No CHIINFO Executive Summary this morning
This day in History
2016 February 20

Pope Julius II dies. He will lay in rest in a huge tomb sculptured by Michelangelo.

New Hampshire militiamen partake in the first recorded scalping of Indians by whites in North America.

The U.S. Postal Service is created.

The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the power of the federal government is greater than any individual state in the Union.

Polish revolutionaries defeat the Russians in the Battle of Grochow.

Confederate troops defeat a Union army sent to bring Florida into the union at the Battle of Olustee, Fla.

J.F. Pickering patents his airship.

Russian troops seize large portions of Mongolia.

President Woodrow Wilson opens the Panama-Pacific Expo in San Francisco to celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal.

The Soviet Red Army seizes Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine.

Hitler demands self-determination for Germans in Austria and Czechoslovakia.

The United States sends war planes to the Pacific.

Lt. Edward O'Hare downs five out of nine Japanese bombers that are attacking the carrier Lexington.

German troops of the Afrika Korps break through the Kasserine Pass, defeating U.S. forces.

The Ford Foundation gives a $25 million grant to the Fund for Advancement of Education.

The FCC applies the equal time rule to TV newscasts of political candidates.

Mercury astronaut John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth.

Moscow offers to allow on-site inspection of nuclear testing.

Ranger 8 hits the moon and sends back 7,000 photos to the United States.

North Vietnamese army chief in Hue orders all looters to be shot on sight.

Young people protest having to cut their long hair in Athens, Greece.

Carnegie Hall in New York begins $20 million in renovations.
This  bit of personal history of someone who fought in the Battle of Iwo  Jima
Thanks to Dick "Brown Bear" Schaffert Capt USN Ret
CPL Clifton E. Osborn Diary of the Battle of Iwo Jima
Preface:  The following is a transcription of PFC Clif Osborn's original handwritten diary describing the events leading up to, and, the battle of Iwo Jima.  PFC Osborn was a member of Weapons Company, 27th of the 5th Marine Division.  The period covered is December 31, 1944 to March 16, 1945.  Because of the age of the original document, and the writing conditions, an occasional word or phrase is unreadable.  These are left blank if unreadable, or shown in italics if spelling is questionable.  However, two fellow Marines (Mel Jarstad and Sandy McLeod), who fought beside PFC Osborn, corrected some spellings and made other minor corrections in late 2005.  Diary originally transcribed September 1995 by RADM O. E. Osborn USN (Ret), brother.
Left Hilo - 31st Dec 1944
Arrived Pearl Harbor
Left Pearl Harbor 11th January 1945
Went to Maui for practice landings. Returned to Pearl Harbor the 18th. 
Left Pearl Harbor the 27th Jan.
Arrived Marshall Islands 5th Feb
Left          "            "       8th Feb
Arrived  Saipan 11th Feb.  Spent 1 day ashore sighting 37MM guns
Left Saipan 16 Feb
D Day on Iwo Jima was the 19th.  The three days between Saipan and Iwo Jima were spent in getting equipment ready and the last instructions on the landing and campaign.
D Day - 19th
  Left the ship at about 0800, H Hour 0900 and we were to land at 0950.  As we were circling around waiting for our wave to go in we circled around a hospital ship to which they were bringing the first casualties - not a very good morale booster for us.  We hit the beach at nearly 1100.  As we got close, the shore artillery and mortar shells started landing around our boat.  Then was the first time I got jumpy.   We had a jeep to pull our 37MM gun and when the ramp went down the jeep just barely pulled the gun off the ramp and it sank to the axles.  Just as the jeep started out of the boat an artillery shell just cleared our boat and sunk the one next to us. I was really jumpy by then.  We tried to pack the jeep and gun up the beach but just then a large shell hit just to the rear of our boat so we left the jeep and gun there and got protection behind a fifteen foot sloping bank about 3 yards from the water.   Three of our four guns got in.  Then one was ruined by a tank which left us with two guns to the platoon.  We couldn't get the guns off the beach until about 3 o'clock in the afternoon.  All the time on the beach we got a little mortar and machine gun fire.  Finally we got some ammo trucks to pull our guns off the beach to the end of the first airfield.  That night we were in reserve.  A battery of 75MM pulled in right behind us and started firing.  The Jap artillery laid in on the 75's and I think we caught most of it.  A very bad night.
D + 1 - 20th Feb.
We got ready to move up to the lines early.  As we were nearly ready a terrific artillery barrage laid in on us.  I still don't know how the platoon got through it without a casualty.  About 0900 we started to move.  As we moved up the west side of airfield No. 1 we caught mortar and sniper fire.  It was slow with the guns and at five in the afternoon we were still a couple of hundred yards behind the front lines.  A report came in that there was a Jap tank on the airfield.  Three of us took bazookas and went with Lt. Clark to the top of the airfield.  We finally located a 4th division tank and that was all.  That night we moved up just behind the lines on a ridge so we could fire over the riflemen's heads.  We caught a lot of mortar fire that night including some overhead bursts.  We were digging in the gun when some shells burst about 10 ft off the deck about fifteen yards away.  It's amazing that no one got hit.  The ammunition beside Lacy and my foxhole was hit by a mortar shell.  That was too close.
D + 2 - 21st Feb.
This started as a pretty good day but turned out to be very exciting.  We couldn't move our guns up to the lines so we carried ammunition to the riflemen.  The mortar fire was heavy and it wasn't healthy to get out of a foxhole.  Mel Jarstad, two other men and I started out loaded with ammo for H Company.  We moved up the edge of the airport but couldn't find H Co. Mel finally took a look up over the airport and he saw some men out across the strip.  He said it might be H Co. so we took off on the double across the open strip.  The mortars and machine guns peppered but we got across.  Another miracle.  We left the ammo and some way got back to our gun without getting hit.  That afternoon some of our men got in front of the front lines while taking machine gun carts to D Co.  Our first casualty. Kazak got hit in the arm by a sniper out there in front of the lines.  We started out in total darkness to try to find D Co.  Several times we wondered if we hadn't bypassed the lines but finally we found D Co.  This was a very miserable night.  It rained and we got wet and it was cold and I was scared.  We didn't see a Nip that night.
D + 3 - 22nd
This morning we were relieved by the 26th Marines.  They came up to ----  ---- --- in the line and we grabbed our rifles and took off.  Just as we left a mortar barrage started and followed us right down the hill away from the lines and we ran like scared rabbits to get away from the mortar shells.  The rest of the day was a day of leisure.  All we had to do was stay out of the way of the mortars and artillery they threw at us back there about 300 yards behind the line.  That afternoon it started to rain and we were soaked in no time.  Lt. Clark, Lacy and I sat all night in a foxhole about big enough for one man.  No Nips, just mortars.
D + 4 - 23rd
The rain had stopped this morning and about 0900 we moved up again.  We moved to a ridge overlooking the wide part of the west beach.  This wide beach (about 500 yds wide) was still Jap held.  As we moved in the Nip mortars pounded us terribly- the worst barrage we ever had.  That morning Cpl Howard lost two fingers and part of his hand when he was hit by a piece of shrapnel.  We were pounded all day long by mortars and artillery.  About five o'clock Vukervich cracked up, the strain was too much.  That night we had our first air raid.  The Navy put up a heavy ack-ack and not a bomb was dropped.  A peaceful night except the lack of sleep was beginning to tell on us.
D + 5 - 24th
I was awakened that morning by Smith as he was on watch.  He was firing his carbine and he said there were Nips coming up the beach.  I grabbed my rifle and dashed from our foxhole to the gun where True Robbins and Rone were.  I hadn't seen any Nips until I got to the gun.  There were three right down below the gun about 30 yards.  I fired at one I could see the best and True also had fired at him.  Someone from the right flank was firing with a machine gun so we don't know who got the three Nips.  One raised up right in front of us and I fired my rifle.  Pittman in the foxhole next to the gun dug the bullet out of the sandbag later.  The Nip dropped back down in a shell hole and we put 2 rounds of HE from the 37 in the hole.  A little later an assault company came in from the left and flushed a few more out.  There were only about 25 and we have no idea how many we got.  The rest of the day and night uneventful.
D + 6 - 25th
That morning True was on watch at dawn.  He woke me up and said there were more nips.  Well it turned out there was one Nip down there and we took him prisoner.  Some of the men went down to the beach and found some more in pill boxes which they got.  That day and night were peaceful.
D + 7 - 26th
We stayed on the beach defense that day and nothing happened except an occasional mortar shell.
D + 8 - 27th
That morning we were ready to move out at daybreak.  Just as we started we got more mortar fire.  We moved about 600 yards across and up the island.  We stopped next to a road to wait call to the lines.  We stayed there until 6:30 in the evening.  All the day we caught a lot of artillery and mortar fire.  Also about 30 minutes before we moved out 4 or 5 large rockets landed close.  They were tremendous things and threw a lot red hot shrapnel.  Allenson and Johnston both got hit in the head by the shrapnel.  Right at dusk we moved out for the front.  Lt. Clark, the gun commanders and several men had gone on up to dig positions.  Koch cracked up.  By the time we got there it was dark.  We had to take the gun by hand about 400 yards over rocks, across craters, and through brush.  It was a job and we were pretty jittery taking that gun on the line when we didn't know where we were going.  Soon after we got dug in and settled down a Nip got up and ran right out of our lines.  The whole line opened up on him and he dropped just as he got to the ridge in front of us.  The rest of the night was peaceful.
D + 9 - 28th
In the morning the infantry started to take the ridge in front of us which they had been pushed off of twice before.  The CO of the infantry Co. wanted a runner so he could send for men.  Lacy went.  We hated to see him leave because that ridge was a hot spot.  After about two hours we decided we couldn't get the gun up on the ridge so we pulled out and moved back a ways.  Early in the morning we had gotten our own artillery in our lines and we didn't like the place..  About 1200 Lacy showed up and said he was lucky to get out of that spot in one piece.  We then got word to join the other two guns down about 400 yards to our left.  Hill and I had just returned from about a 2 mile walk trying to find the rest of the platoon.  We saw Lt. Hefner for the last time that morning.  About 2:00 PM we joined the rest of the platoon.  Nothing happened the rest of the day or that night.
D + 10 - March 1
Early in the morning we got the word we were getting relieved to go back and get some real rest.  It surely sounded good.  Just before we left DeGravilles got hit.  A sniper shot him in the side.  Not a very bad wound.  I saw Archie Patrick on the way moving up.  We went back about a half a mile to where the 75's worked from.  We were out of the mortar and artillery fire (we thought) then.  We washed our hands and faces that day and cooked some rations.  Mel Jarstad, Pittman, True Robbins and I had a large foxhole.  We had a good night's sleep with only a couple of hours of watch. 
D + 11 - March 2
We did nothing all day but talk, sleep and eat.  Mostly eat.  We fixed up a stove to cook on and had some good chow.  We got our first mail on the island at this place.  We got two mail calls there.  Oh happy day.  This morning Lt. Clark and Timmy Rowe left to go to C Co. 1st Bn.
D + 12 - March 3
In the morning we saw a Nip artillery piece firing at a munitions ship of the shore.  The ship didn't get hit.  I wrote two letters, V Mail and told them I didn't think we would have to go back to the front. About noon we got the word to move out.  We moved back up to about where we had come from two days before.  We then moved on foot up over and across the largest ridge on the island.  It was about 3/4 of a mile.  We dug in that evening next to a platoon of ---Weapons Co. 26th Marines.  I saw Johnny McLain and some more of the men from the old outfit.  About six o'clock McLeod called me and told me to go to the 1st Battalion CP as a runner.  I stayed there for nearly and hour before a major called me and told me to go with him.  He took me up on a high plateau.  He told me where he wanted the guns that night.  I reported back to Mac and we moved the guns in after dark.  No action that night except a Nip cut in on our phone line and kept talking and gumming up the works all night.
D + 13 - March 4
In the morning we started moving up again.  We moved along a road for about 500 yards and then into some rocky country which was steaming a lot from the craters in the ground.  It started to rain and that made more steam and it was hard to see.  We got a little mortar fire and sniper fire.  About noon they called for a gun on the line.  Don Stanton took ----.  He, Sonora, McLeod, Jarstad and Beno Villegas took the gun up.  It had to be pulled cross open country and some of the way by hand.  Its a wonder someone wasn't hit.  They got the gun in position but not too good a one.  The gun was pretty well exposed on the right.  They started firing at caves and finally knocked the -----off a large artillery piece.  They pounded away at it and later the dope was put out that a 37 mm was credited with a possible artillery piece.  To change the position of the gun once D. Stanton had to get out in front of the gun to move a rock.  The bullets hit at his feet as he was out there.  Jarstad was firing his B.A.R. at a cave and a Marine Lt. jumped into his line of fire and was hit.  The Lt was hit in the shoulder and arm.  Jarstad went out and patched him up and brought him back of a small ridge.  The Lt. came through it but Jarstad felt bad.  Just after that Sonora saw some movement on the right.  He picked up the trails of the gun and moved it to face a Nip machine gun just as the gun cut loose.  The bullets hit the shield and did no damage.  In the meantime they called for ammo and about 6 of us took up ammo.  We made 4 trips.  On the last trip it was just Pittman and I and we stayed with the gun.  Gunner Looney was with the infantry and he got hit.  Mac saw him fall and thought he was dead because he didn't move.  He was just playing smart though because if he had moved he would have drawn fire.  Jarstad was firing the 37 and we were firing rifles.  Sonora and I were laying beside the gun and bullets ricocheted off the shield of the gun.  Sonora would fire one and I would load the other.  Then I'd pass it to him and load the other.  About 5 pm we pulled off the line and went back to the platoon.  That night after dark we moved all three guns back in that same area.  A pretty peaceful night except there was a Nip artillery piece directly in front of us firing right over us and it was so close in we could hear them loading it.
D + 14 - March 5
About 0800 we found out we were to be relieved some time before noon.  Around 0900 we got the word to take the guns out.  We moved our gun out and as it was such bad terrain we had to use both Ollerman and our crews to move one gun.  As we were moving a sniper opened up on us but no one was hit.  As we went back in to get the other gun Hill was hit.  Doc Johnson gave him first aid and he was taken back.  Later we learned he died at the aid station.  Some of us stayed there and the rest of the platoon shoved off.  Later when the place cooled down a little we took the gun out.  We went back to where we had been the night before.  D. O. Johnston was hit but we couldn't find him.  The jeep was hit but he wasn't in it.  He was listed as missing until they finally located him in a hospital in Saipan.  We had been back about 2 hours when we were ordered up with another outfit on the line.  We went up and dug in.  A couple of Nips tried to infiltrate our lines.  Maletich got one and a couple of other men got one.
D + 15 - March 6
Nothing happened all day.  We were just holding that part of the line.
D + 16 - March 7
Don Stanton, Kazak, Zertuche and I were on a 50 Cal. machine gun up on a high crest of rock.  We had had two men sleeping and two on watch the whole night and nothing had happened.  About 5 a.m. that morning Zertuche and I were on watch when Zer saw a Nip officer walk into a crevice leading up to our position.  He was about 10 feet from Zar.  Zer reached for his 45 but the Nip jumped back behind the rock.  Zer fired his shotgun and we threw hand grenades but we didn't know whether we had gotten him or not.  Suddenly he stuck his arm out from behind the rock and tossed a hand grenade up into our position.  It landed right on the edge of the hole.  It kept bouncing around so we couldn't get a hold of it to throw it out.  It went off right on the edge of the hole.  We all ducked and by some miracle none of us were hurt.  We threw more hand grenades but a little later the Nip stuck his head around the rock below us out of sight.  However, Jordan saw him and shot him.  When daylight came we found out he was an officer.  Jordan got a beautiful sword from him.  Next to keeping a whole skin, souvenir hunting was our greatest job.  About 0900 Van  Nice decided he would reconn the cave just below the ridge where we had been dug in all night.  He, Zer, Kazak and I went down there.  Van rolled back a couple of rocks and started to step down in the narrow opening of the cave.  He had about half of his body in the cave when a couple of hand grenades went off in the cave.  Zer grabbed him and pulled him back out.   Zer, who had gone to language school, tried to get the Nips to come out but they just threw more grenades so we got some C2 explosive and blasted the cave.  It closed that opening and blew a Nip about half way out of the other side of the ridge.  He was still alive but he didn't suffer long.  We stayed right on that ridge until about 5 o'clock in the afternoon.  We then started to move up.  It was the roughest terrain we had seen yet on the island.  Things had moved good that day though and the line had moved about 600 yards by dark.  It was a bad spot and I was worried.  True Robbins and I had to dig in solid rock right next to a small gully.  We couldn't see down the gully so we just had to sit and listen.  We had to depend on our ears.  It was a cold night but we had a 2 oz bottle of brandy to help warm us up.  Don Stanton got a Nip from the foxhole next to us.  Otherwise it was a peaceful night.
D + 17 - March 8
We were relieved about 0800 and got to go back far enough to escape the mortar and artillery fire.  We dug foxholes, covered them with some tin we found.  We fixed some pretty nice shelters.  We got to heat chow and get some sleep.
D + 18 - March 9
Stayed in the same place all day.  We had the life of leisure.  We heard that afternoon that Lt. Holner, Judd, Killan had been killed.  We got the word that we were going back up the next morning.  I was jittery that night, so bad I couldn't sleep.  I prayed long and felt much better.
D + 19 - March 10
We moved out early in the morning but didn't go on the line until about 5 pm.  We relieved the combined 1st and 2nd Platoons of our Company.  It didn't seem to be such a hot spot, a little sniper and mortar fire.  Don Stanton, Pete Carlin and I dug in together.  None of us three fired a shot but there was a lot of firing around us.  A machine gun bullet hit the barrel of Jarstad's BAR barely missing True.  A close one.
D + 20 - March 11
At daylight Pete Carlin and Don and I went to sleep.  There was a combination of our artillery, Nip artillery and Nip mortars.  The shrapnel was thick.  I had a very rude awakening as did Don.  A large piece of shrapnel went through 2 ponchos, tore the seat out of my pants scratching and burning me and hit Don in the knee.  It put a dent in Don's knee and barely drew blood. It was the awfulest feeling I -------.  I was afraid to reach back and feel because I was so sure I would be all torn up.  I was pretty sore for couple of days but got over it.  Don's knee came out of it all right too.  About the same time this was happening Kupers was hit bad.  A shell exploded right where he was looking out of his foxhole.  He was hit in the head and face.  Sonora jumped out of his foxhole to help a wounded man and got a small shrapnel wound in the leg.  About noon we were pulled back of the lines a ways again.  We were there just a couple of hours and were called up to the line just to the left of where we had been that morning.  Our positions were on top of a high ridge.  Three foxholes of the platoon were on the front side of the ridge.  Don, Pete and I were in one of the holes.  We were out in front of the infantry holes.  I didn't like it at all.   We had to dig our hole laying on our belly because the snipers had a good view of where we were digging in.  Size, Pittman and Heltner were digging a little back of us up higher on the ridge.  A knee mortar shell landed right Size' shoulder but it was a dud.  If it had gone off it would have probably gotten all three of them as well as Jack and  Maletich who were close by.  All Size got was a possible broken shoulder.  He was evacuated.  Just after dark we got a terrific mortar barrage, we believe our own mortars.  A couple of boys were hit on a machine gun on our right.  The stretcher bearer came in to get them and I had to direct them.  Not a pleasant job, running around in the dark.  Smith and Reynolds replaced the men.  About midnight I happened to be looking across at the closest foxhole to us.  There were two holes close together in which were Rone, Lacy, Stranahan, Robbins, Jarstad and Villagas.  I saw a man run past their foxholes and dive off the ridge in front of them.  I found out later that two nips had gotten right up to their holes.  The nips walked right up over the ridge to their left.  True couldn't get his pistol to fire and Villagas couldn't fire his rifle because of True.  Lacy fired a clip of ammo.  He got one and scared the other away. ----- threw a grenade but was so excited he forgot to pull the pin.  They found it the next morning on the edge of the hole.
D + 21 - March 12
We stayed on the ridge all day waiting for the outfit on our left to swing around.  About noon a mortar outfit from another battalion opened up on our position.  It got so heavy before it was stopped we had to leave the ridge.  A naval gunfire officer and several other men were hit.  That evening Adams, Colby and Longmeyer relieved us three in the foxhole were were in.  They had been back on the other side of the ridge that night.  Just after they got there Longmeyer and Adams were laying out in front of the foxhole firing down below when Longmeyer was hit.  Adams got him back in -------.  Doc Johnson worked on him and we carried him out on a stretcher but he died before he got to the aid station.  Reynolds and I spent the night on the highest point of the ridge.  It was cold but quiet.  Jarstad and Villagas got a couple of nips.
D + 22 - March 13
Not much happened all day.  We stayed on the ridge.  That night I got to stay at the CP behind the ridge.  Lafora, Ollerman and Maletich had a picnic on about 6 nips trying to get through the lines.  They didn't make it.
D + 23 - March 14
VanNice and I left at daybreak to go back and direct Decker and his platoon to our position.  They were to relieve us.  By the time we got back there and brought them up it was nearly noon.  We went back of the lines and spent the rest of the day and night in peace.
D + 24 - March 15
Early in the morning we got the word to go back to the line.  We moved up to the battalion CP and stayed there till about 2 PM.  Then we moved on up. The line was on the ridge looking down to the sea.  The last stretch.  It was nearly over.  We heard scuttlebutt that we were to be relieved for good in the morning.  We just had to get through that last night.  Ollerman and his squad went further down the line from where we were set up.  VanNice, Hastings and I were together.  We had poor vision so we had to depend on our ears.  A peaceful night for us.  Kazak, Zertuche, Monfreda and Spositer got into some trouble.  Zar got a bullet through the cap he was wearing.  They got several nips.  Monfreda and Spositer got a saber each.
D + 25 - March 16
We got the word early that we were to be relieved.  We got out of the line about 0900.  We left as our own artillery laid down a terrific barrage.  We moved back to where the whole company was.  Soon after the company went down on the west beach of the island.  We stayed there until the 22nd of March.  All the time we were four hour standby to go to the lines again and also a standby to go aboard ship.  During this time we took a couple of trips over the island.  We saw the cemetery and the dedication of the cemetery.  We saw the repaired airstrips which were loaded with P-51s, P-61s and B-29s.  We got a close look at them and saw them take off.  Late the afternoon of the 22nd we went aboard an LST.  We got aboard the USS Storm King PA171 about 11 PM the 22nd.  The 27th the ship pulled away from Iwo Jima shores headed for Hawaii.  As we pulled away we could see the white spot on the western slope of the island which marked the resting place of our comrades.
Certified to be a true copy.
O. E. Osborn,  RADM USN (Ret.)
141 Loon Cove Lane, Winthrop, Me. 04364  (207) 377-8446
11030 Maverick Drive, Dade City, FL 33525 (352) 523-0959
Thanks to Chuck
New SU-57
A marketing video that has a lot of INTEL collection potential.
Published on Feb 18, 2019
Finally!! The first serial Su-57 will be delivered to the Russian Aerospace Force in 2019 The first serial fighter of the fifth generation of the Su-57 will go to the aerospace forces of Russia this year. This was stated by the President of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC), Yuri Slyusar in an interview with RIA Novosti.
thanks to Doctor Rich 
Thanks to Ray …. neat story!
Do you know who this is a photo of? Chances are you don't, but don't feel bad because probably not one American in one million does, and that is a National tragedy. His name is Eugene Jacques Bullard, and he is the first African-American fighter pilot in history. But he is also much more then that: He's also a national hero, and his story is so incredible that I bet if you wrote a movie script based on it Hollywood would reject it as being too far-fetched.

Bullard was an expat living in France, and when World War 1 broke out he joined the French Infantry. He was seriously wounded, and France awarded him the Croix de Guerre and Medaille Militaire. In 1916 he joined the French air service and he first trained as a gunner but later he trained as a pilot. When American pilots volunteered to help France and formed the famous Lafayette Escadrille, he asked to join but by the time he became a qualified pilot they were no longer accepting new recruits, so he joined the Lafayette Flying Corps instead. He served with French flying units and he completed 20 combat missions.

When the United States finally joined the war, Bullard was the only member of the Escadrille or the French Flying Corps who was NOT invited to join the US Air Service. The reason? At that time the Air Service only accepted white men.

Now here is the part that almost sounds like a sequel to 'Casablanca': After WWI Bullard became a jazz musician in Paris and he eventually owned a nightclub called 'L'Escadrille'. When the Germans invaded France and conquered it in WW2, his Club, and Bullard, became hugely popular with German officers, but what they DIDN'T know was that Bullard, who spoke fluent German, was actually working for the Free French as a spy. He eventually joined a French infantry unit, but he was badly wounded and had to leave the service.

By the end of the war, Bullard had become a national hero in France, but he later moved back to the U.S. where he was of course completely unknown. Practically no one in the United States was aware of it when, in 1959, the French government named him a national Chevalier, or Knight.

In 1960, the President of France, Charles DeGaulle, paid a state visit to the United States and when he arrived he said that one of the first things he wanted to do was to meet Bullard. That sent the White House staff scrambling because most of them, of course, had never even heard of him. They finally located him in New York City, and DeGaulle traveled there to meet him personally. At the time, Eugene Bullard was working as … An elevator operator.

Not long after Eugene Bullard met with the President of France, he passed away, and today very, very few Americans, and especially African-Americans, even know who he is. But, now YOU do, don't you? And I hope you'll be able to find opportunities to tell other people about this great American hero that probably only 1 American in a million has ever heard of.
Thanks to Carl
(I have his book on SOG in Vietnam.  Amazing warriors!  Check out his site: )
Behind Enemy Lines With The CAR-15 Rifle
by Maj. John L. Plaster, U.S. Army, (Ret.) - Thursday, January 24, 2019
thanks to Tam and Dutch R.
Flight from L.A. to London reaches 801 mph as a furious jet stream packs record-breaking speeds
By Matthew Cappucci
Flight from L.A. to London reaches 801 mph as a furious jet stream packs record-breaking speeds
A Virgin Atlantic Boeing 787-9, like the one seen here at Detroit Metropolitan Airport, reached 801 mph Feb. 18, 35,000 feet over Pennsylvania. (Tanya Moutzalias / Associated Press)
Tuesday is a nice day across the Northeast. Temperatures near 40 in New York, light winds out of the north at 5 mph to 10 mph, and wall-to-wall sunshine sound like a tranquil day — especially by February standards. But high up in the atmosphere, it's a different story.
The jet stream, the high-altitude air current along which storms travel, is furious. The river of air was clocked at more than 230 mph over Long Island on Monday. That measure comes from the 250-millibar pressure level, meaning it was at a height above 75% of the atmosphere's mass. It sets the record for the fastest 250-millibar wind speed ever recorded over New York and, probably, the country.
The 250-millibar level generally tends toward 30,000 feet to 35,000 feet. That's about the same height at which commercial planes fly. Unsurprisingly, the jet stream can have big implications on how quickly aircraft reach their destination.
With a speed max currently over central Pennsylvania, airplanes flying through the jet stream will either be sped up or slowed down big time, depending on their direction of travel. It's like the moving walkway at the airport. You have your own forward speed, but if you continue this velocity in an environment that is itself moving, it can propel you at an impressive rate.
A Virgin Atlantic flight from Los Angeles to London peaked at a whopping 801 mph Monday evening 35,000 feet over Pennsylvania. "[N]ever ever seen this kind of tailwind in my life as a commercial pilot," tweeted Peter James, a jet captain.
It appears that's a record for the Boeing 787-9 twin jet, which in the past has flown at speeds up to 776 mph. The ordinary cruising speed of a Dreamliner is 561 mph, with a maximum propulsion of 587 mph. Any speed gained on top of that is thanks to Mother Nature's helpful boost.
Although the plane didn't remain in the "jet streak" — the zone of maximum wind embedded within the jet stream — for long, it still arrived 48 minutes early. And you might notice something about the 801 mph reading — it's above the speed of sound (767 mph). Commercial aircraft ordinarily can't break the sound barrier, because they're not designed to handle the sudden increase in drag and other aerodynamic effects associated with those speeds. Despite a ground speed that high, the plane didn't come close to reaching that threshold because it was embedded in the swiftly moving air.
An LAX-JFK Delta flight overnight hit 678 mph at 39,000 feet over the Ohio Valley, while a 737 from Chicago to New York passed 700 mph at 8:43 Eastern this morning. Chicago to New York/Boston routes will be shortened to 1 hour, 24 minutes Wednesday instead of the usual nearly two-hour flight time.
Likewise, flight times from Dallas to Boston dipped below three hours, with an Embraer ERJ-190 twin jet achieving 739 mph in the jet streak.
Odds are that if you're flying west, you won't find the jet stream helpful. Departing flights out of New England and the New York area will probably incur 20 or 30 extra minutes of travel time, either slowed by the jet streak or forced to divert around it. But if you're traveling east, you might find yourself on the ground a bit sooner than normal.
For the jet stream to get cranking this much, there must be a big storm brewing somewhere, right? Surprisingly, it's the opposite (the closest developing storminess is in the western Gulf of Mexico on Tuesday). Storms cause the jet stream to bend, cresting and dipping into waves that ride across the Lower 48. Just like kinking a garden hose, it causes the flow speed to decline. In the absence of large-scale weather systems, a zonal west-to-east jet is free to gather considerable speed, much like how we reach our fastest highway speeds on straightaways.
The jet stream can usually get to speeds this high only in the winter because temperature differences between the north and south are maximized. Temperatures on Tuesday hovered around minus-10 to minus-20 in eastern Canada while soaring well into the 80s over Florida. Such large differences in temperature (and pressure) power the wind.
Matthew Cappucci writes for the Washington Post.
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China—Military Looks To Supercharge Artillery With Magnetized Plasma  Global Times | 02/20/2019 The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is seeking to procure test systems to evaluate the use of magnetized plasma to increase the capability of artillery, reports the Global Times (Beijing). On Wednesday, the PLA issued a notice on its procurement website for proposals to test the theory of and build a launch system for magnetized plasma artillery. The notice, which is set to expire on Thursday, did not provide details of the test systems. In 2015, the PLA Academy of Armored Forces Engineering filed a patent for magnetized plasma artillery, which could equip tanks and self-propelled howitzers, according to China's National Intellectual Property Administration The patent calls for cannons to be fitted with magnetic material covering the gun barrel and a magnetic field generator to create a magnetic field inside the barrel. When the gun is fired, gas inside the barrel will partly ionize into plasma due to the high pressure and heat. The plasma would then form about a 1 mm-thick sheath on the inner wall of the barrel due to the magnetic field, according to the patent.  The magnetized plasma layer could greatly reduce the radial force the barrel experiences and accelerate the projectile, making it possible for the initial velocity of shells to exceed Mach 6, the limit for conventional artillery. Such technology could extend the range of a conventional 155-mm self-propelled howitzer from 18-30 miles (30-50 km) to 60 miles (100 km), as well as increase weapon accuracy and prolong service life, said analysts.  
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On Friday, Congress approved a $333 billion spending bill, which was signed by President Trump, as part of efforts to prevent another government shutdown. The package allocated $655 million to begin construction of a new heavy icebreaker to replace the aging Polar Star and $20 million to purchase materials for a second.
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The Arctic region is growing in importance as melting sea ice opens shipping lanes and provides access to natural resources. Russia and China have recently increased their presence in the region.
In January, the Coast Guard reported that the Polar Star, the last heavy icebreaker in service, had suffered multiple breakdowns during a recent deployment to Antarctica. The news raised concern about the vessel's operational life and highlighted the urgent need for an icebreaker replacement program, reported KOMO AM radio news (Seattle) at the time.

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