Wednesday, October 3, 2018

TheList 4825

The List 4825 TGB

To All,
I hope that your week has started well.
This day in Naval History
Oct. 2
1799—The Washington Navy Yard is established under the direction of Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert and supervision of Commodore Thomas Tingey.
1863—USS Bermuda seizes the blockade-running English schooner Florie near Matagorda, TX, with a cargo of medicine, wine and saddles much needed by the Confederate cavalry.
1918—A squadron of 11 American submarine chasers screen British-French-Italian naval forces during the Second Battle of Durazzo, destroying mines and driving off an Austrian submarine trying to reach the fleet.
1939—The Act of Panama is approved by the ministers of the American Republics at Panama City, Panama. The act establishes a neutral zone 300 miles to seaward from the continental coastline that is patrolled by the U.S. Navy.
1943—A mine laid by USS Silversides (SS 236) four months' earlier damages Imperial Japanese Navy minesweeper W 28 off Kavieng Bay, New Ireland, Bismarck.
1944—USS Pomfret (SS 391) attacks a Japanese convoy in Luzon Strait, sinking an army transport about 75 miles southeast of the southern tip of Formosa.
1952—USS Marsh (DE 699) and HMCS Iroquois (DDE 217) undergo fire by shore batteries in the vicinity of Songin, South Korea. Marsh escapes without damage but Iroquois receives one direct hit and one airburst, killing three men and wounding 10. Both ships replied with counter-battery fire, silencing the enemy shore batteries.
Today in History
October 2

At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repels an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.

Having landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier reaches a town, which he names Montreal.

An Army under Union General Joseph Hooker arrives in Bridgeport, Alabama to support the Union forces at Chattanooga. Chattanooga's Lookout Mountain provides a dramatic setting for the Civil War's battle above the clouds.

The papal states vote in favor of union with Italy. The capital is moved from Florence to Rome.

Morman leader Brigham Young, 70, is arrested for polygamy. He was later convicted, but the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the conviction.

A dual alliance is formed between Austria and Germany, in which the two countries agree to come to the other's aid in the event of aggression.

Orville Wright sets an altitude record, flying at 1,600 feet. This exceeded Hubert Latham's previous record of 508 feet.

Aerial circus star Clyde Pangborn and playboy Hugh Herndon, Jr. set off to complete the first nonstop flight across the Pacific Ocean from Misawa City, Japan.

The German army launches Operation Typhoon, the drive towards Moscow.

The comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schultz, makes its first appearance in newspapers.

The groundbreaking TV series The Twilight Zone, hosted by Rod Serling, premiers on CBS.

Scientists announce findings that smoking can cause cancer.

Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court justice, is sworn in. Marshall had previously been the solicitor general, the head of the legal staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and a leading American civil rights lawyer.

A plane carrying the Wichita State University football team, staff, and supporters crashes in Colorado; 31 of the 40 people aboard die.

Congressional Representative Mike Myers is expelled from the US House for taking a bribe in the Abscam scandal, the first member to be expelled since 1861.

Flight 8301 of China's Xiamen Airlines is hijacked and crashed into Baiyun International Airport, hitting two other aircraft and killing 128 people.

NATO backs US military strikes in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Thanks to Mugs
Wanta know what a real hero sounds like? Watch this all the way.

Most of y'all have seen the video re: Sgt. Benavides humble beginnings and his ordeals in Nam. I just ran across this video of 25 minutes duration and urge you to watch it. Having lived in Texas for a couple of years, I feel a particular kinship with the Lone Star State. Please recall that the cry of "Remember the Alamo" was the battle cry of Sam Houston's troops at San Jacinto which defeated Santana and gave us that wonderful area as a part of the United States some years later.
I urge those of us that are in the sundown of our years to watch this vid and to realize now, as some o f us faced before, may be experiencing things and situations that are unknown and bewildering to us. Play through the pain, work that hurts. Whatever you do, I would encourage you to take a Texan attitude- Don't give up and don't back down.
Now watch Sgt. Benavides receive his MoH from Ronaldus Maxus with SecDef Cap the Knife (Col.Higgins fans stand easy) standing by the Sgt.'s side. I guarantee his words to salve you and to carry you to the end.
Fair Winds, Semper Fi, and Aim High,
For educational purposes only.
Thanks to Lurch 
September 11th 2018,
Naval Special Warfare,

I thought about what a retired lieutenant from a NYC Rescue Company might say to a group of young United States Navy Seals, on this the 17th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks on our department, New York City and the United States of America.

I thought I might begin by telling you a little of what the experience was like all those years ago as the events of the day unfolded. I often wondered how many other people's day started with a phone call saying 'turn the tv on'. How the news of the day continued to get worse and worse, as the day went on.

I could talk of how the day of the 11th turned into night, and then into the next morning, as we began to realize the magnitude of the destruction. The tremendous loss of life.

I remember working that first night to extricate a Lieutenant whose men had located him, buried under a huge piece of exterior steel from the North tower on West Street. We had nothing but hand tools, a small torch and we weren't making much progress.

A chief was on the scene, and said 'hey guys, we're not going to get him tonight, lets mark the spot and come back when the heavy equipment gets here'. A friend of mine from 238, Billy Romaka said "okay Chief, but respectfully, I'm not leaving my lieutenant." He took his helmet and turnout coat off, and sat down on the steel next to what was left of him…I'll remember that until the day I die.

So, we continued to do what we could, and then the ironworkers showed up like the cavalry, and we really went to work. They already had American flags all over their helmets.

A few hours into the op, I saw a younger guy from 238, who'd been there since the morning. I saw he was upset, crying, so I tried to talk to him, "I said hey bro what's your Lieutenants name?" He said Lt. Glen Wilkinson. Glen was a friend of mine…I graduated high school with his sister, I knew his dad from the gym….my wife and I had just seen him a couple days earlier, the school year had just started, our kids back in school, and we ran into him out for a bike ride.

I might tell you about some of the great men we lost that day, guys we stood next to in the fire academy, guys we worked with, went to fires with, guys who's kids our kids grew up with. Or what it was like as we found out the number of those men we lost went up with each passing hour of the first days, until the number 343 was forever etched in our memories, and now FDNY lore.

I might tell of the immediate days, and weeks, working at what became known as 'The pile', 'the site', or 'Ground Zero', as we recovered our brother firefighters, and fellow Americans killed that day. People who were guilty of nothing other than waking up, and going to work. Watching people have to choose between burning alive, or jumping to their death, 1000 feet below…. Women….. young people.

I could talk about digging at the site, recovering victims, days spent sitting with our lost brother's families waiting for word, or working in the firehouse, and attending the first few funerals for those recovered.

How the days turned to weeks, the weeks into months, hope for survival turned into prayers for recovery, and then the memorials for those who would never be found.

But a lot of the darker memories have begun to fade. The images and the sights not so clear anymore.

So, I thought I'd rather talk to you about how we were able to survive the unbearable losses. How we were able to move forward, rebuilding the FDNY Special Operations Division, the FDNY, lower Manhattan and our own lives. These are some of the things I remember well, things I'll never forget. The good things.

I'd like to tell you how the people of the city came together, they opened their homes to strangers, supported the police and firefighters. Donating their time, food, water, clothing, and most of all their support. People were in the streets talking to each other. Applauding police cars and firetrucks in the first few weeks, holding candles, making the sign of the cross as we headed down to the site.

It was the best of times in what was certainly our worst of times.

I'd like to talk of the bonds we formed with the military, realizing the commonalities our respective callings share, and the respect we have for each other. How proud we are to be part of something bigger than ourselves.

I remember the moment it hit me.

It was early afternoon of September 11th 2001, we heard another jet flying low over Manhattan. We still didn't really know what was going on, or if the attacks were over. Then someone said, "Hey, that's one of ours".

It was an American F-15, and that was the first time that I thought that we were going to be okay, the military was in control here, and that we were going to survive the day.

I would like to tell you of the day when President Bush stood on a pumper with a bullhorn, his arm around an old fireman, in the middle of all that destruction to talk to the FDNY, to tell us that our United States Military would take the fight over there to those that "Knocked these buildings down"

How that bond has since become stronger and unbreakable.

I'd rather talk about the trip we took to Virginia to sail into New York on the USS New York for the 10th anniversary of the attacks.

How we firemen stood in uniform, shoulder to shoulder with the NYPD, United States Marines and The United States Navy, as we 'manned the rails' to sail into New York Harbor, on the ship that has 7 tons of World Trade Center steel in its bow. How the rain turned into sunshine as we stopped to salute the World Trade Center site. And then started raining again when we sailed away from the site. I remember how proud I was to be an American at that moment. In New York in 1776, the patriots pulled down the statue of King George lll, and made 42,088 American bullets out of it. I felt like our response to the attack was to take the steel from the wreckage and make a weapon out of it, and point it right back at them. I felt like we were collectively giving the finger to those who attacked us.

I'd like to talk to you about some of the things, and people I will never forget. About some of our true heroes of 9/11.

I'd like for you to know about men like Ray Downey, United States Marine Corp veteran, and my Captain in Rescue 2, when I went there as fireman back in 1991. Ray was the Chief in charge of the FDNY Special Operations that day. Old school tough guy.

Ray was last seen after the first tower came down. Two off duty members reported into him and asked him what they could do. He grabbed one of them by the shoulders, spun him around and pushed him away, saying 'get the hell out of here'. He died there when the second tower came down about 10 minutes later, along with about 90 of his men, out of the 270 guys assigned to the Special Ops command.

Those of us who knew and loved him say that Downey went down with the ship. He defined the word leader.

I'd like to tell you about John Vigiano, also USMC, and a retired FDNY captain who lost his only 2 sons that day, Joe in the PD, John in the FD. My first Captain when I got promoted to Lt.

He didn't let the loss defeat him. He didn't let it define him.

He took this tragedy and made something good from it. He started visiting the wounded troops at Walter Reed and Bethesda, drafting many of us, and organized countless trips down there.

He talked someone into letting him go to Iraq to visit the troops. Just to thank them.

John showed us the meaning of the word courage, right up until his death last July, when he lost his third and final battle with Cancer. When he was told his battle was over, he absorbed it, he was silent for a minute or two. When he spoke, his thoughts were not of himself, but for his wife, and his family, He said "I'm ready, it's time for me to be with my sons"

Men like Lt. Michael Murphy, US Navy Seal, who died fighting for us, proudly wearing his FDNY 53 Engine, 43 Truck, " El Barrios Bravest" patch.

The military influence on the FDNY is a long one. I'd like to tell you about men like my father, and my Uncle Rodger, who both fought in World War ll. My dad was in the army, my Uncle Rodger in the marines. After his death, my cousin did some research on her dad. She said my uncle Rodger fought on Iwo Jima, or the battle of Saipan, or Guadalcanal…. She's not really sure. My Dad was in Germany, other than that? We have no idea, because they never told a story, they never spoke about it.

I know Mickey near 20 years, and until this week, I never heard how he spent that day.

I wish you could have met these guys. Real heroes, real men. The men who made me and so many of us who came after them the men we are today. The guys who served in World War 2, Korea, and the Vietnam guys who broke guys like me and Mick in. Men who taught us and inspired us to carry on here to honor the memory of those who are no longer.

In the Fire Department we like to say we share our stories. We only share them with each other, with fellow firefighters, our close friends. My wife hasn't heard most of them. We share them with you today, so you get a sense of the privilege it was for us to have known these men.

I'd like to pass them on to you here today. I'm sure you have your own Ray Downey's, John Vigiano's, Uncle Rodgers, dad's, and mentors. Those that taught you. The guys that you look up to and draw strength from, when you face the difficult days and situations that you have, and certainly will. That they're right there with you when you find yourself in a tough spot, to guide you, and help you make the right decisions. I hope you know that we in the FDNY are also there with you.

My dad's dead 35 years. My uncle Rodger 30, and now 17 for the others. But they're still teaching me things, life lessons I try to pass on to those younger than me when we remember them by telling their stories. I feel them here with me today, I draw strength from them.

We had some difficult times when we were operating at the Trade Center. Some long days and nights, and I can tell you there were times when I felt that support of my mentors, my friends and my family, the people in the streets saying "God Bless you", when we were passing them. Contributions large, and small, but all felt and deeply appreciated. And It got me through. It will get you through too.

Men like that and so many others, who were forged in the military and the FDNY taught us to never let the situation overwhelm you. That no matter how bad things get, that if we work together, stay cool, and persevere, we can handle anything that comes our way.

That there's always something positive we can take from our losses. They taught us that good will always triumph over evil. They taught us to be strong, like you men in the Military, because there's people who need us to be.

I wish they could have been here today to meet you fellas.
I wish we had more time with them.
I wish we had taken more pictures.
I pray their souls are at peace.
I live my life with the belief that we'll see them again one day, and I hope I didn't let them down.

That's what I took from the experience of 9/11. That's what I'd like to pass on to you today, 17 years to the day.

So, it has been one of the greatest honors of my life to have this journey come full circle, and be here to talk to you today. I'm truly humbled.

I know how proud we Americans are knowing that there are men like you between us and them. I can only imagine how proud your families and friends are. I want you to know that when you're carrying out your missions, wherever in the world they might take you, that we New York City firefighters will always be there with you in spirit, and I hope you can draw strength and inspiration from that support.

I pray that you always return home to your families safely, and I want to express my eternal gratitude to you men for taking the fight to those over there that us firefighters, us New Yorkers, only wish that we could.

A friend of ours, Tim Higgins was killed in the attacks, at right about this moment 17 years ago. He and his brothers, on occasion when we would raise a glass used to say 'here's to us, and guys like us'. So, I would say to you men, "here's to you, and guys like you"

Daniel Murphy
Lieutenant Rescue 2 (ret)
Skip-I haven't vetted this or read the books mentioned, but this concept of the Vietnam War being a major contributor of the Soviet Union's financial collapse is new to me. Maybe other Bubbas have more info this
"Dear RATNET friends,
.....I would like to make everyone aware of the historical news I have learned regarding Vietnam.
First, there was a book written by a past Russian premier, Yegor Gaidar, titled Collapse of An Empire. This book makes very clear that America's long involvement in Vietnam was the major reason the cold war ended. Our fighting for all those years helped put Russia in the red with foreign currency borrowing, which compounded and ended up resulting in a financial collapse. In addition, the military casualties it sustained were never ending and again, were very discouraging to them according to the book The Soviet Union And The Vietnam War, by Ilya V. Gaiduk, a Russian who uniquely had access for six full months to the private documents of the Politburo during the Vietnam War. The Politburo was constantly looking for ways to settle it because of the financial drain, the casualties and the fear of a hot war with the US Military. It was the terrible length of the Vietnam conflict that drained them financially and emotionally so badly. Only God could have known that such would happen, and we must thank Him for inspiring our leaders to do what they did, even though at the time we all felt we should win the war quickly.
Secondly, there was another famous and extremely respected leader worldwide, the Premier of Singapore from 1959 to 1990, Lee Kuan Yew, who wrote a book titled From Third World To First, because in his more than thirty year tenure, he took Singapore from third world to first. This book shows how it was done. This book is so full of wisdom, I sincerely wish every child on earth had to read it as part of schooling. In the book, he tells how America's prolonged involvement in Vietnam standing firm against communist aggression gave all of Southeast Asia the motivation and time to stand firm and not let the communist infiltrators take over their countries. Lee Kuan Kew said that all of Southeast Asia owes a "blood debt" to America.
The third testimony I have learned of firsthand is from a good friend of many years, Bill Stearman, now 96 and yet still writing outstanding articles for the finest journals in the world. He was a Foreign Service Officer working in the White House during the war, and head of the Indochina Group under Nixon. He was in the first wave of nine Marine landings in the Pacific during WW II as a Navy LSM Gunnery Officer and was with the State Department and Foreign Service from 1950 until his retirement in 1993. He worked in the White House for 17 years for four Presidents altogether. He was top man in the White House on Vietnam on the NSC Staff, the Director of the Indochina Staff. He told me personally that privately, the different governments of Southeast Asia were very thankful for what America did to save their countries by holding the line in Vietnam, and many of them were not friends of America, such as the Indonesian Military Leaders. His personal estimate is that four hundred and fifty million people are free in Southeast Asia according to the private testimony the heads of state made clear to other Foreign Service compatriots at that time. He recently wrote an article in the American Legion magazine, "Vietnam Revisited," March, 2017, pointing out such facts. Further details are in his book, An American Adventure, by William Stearman.
And so attending the funeral of this brother POW of mine brought to mind all the hardship we went through together in our youth in the Hanoi Hilton and the other prison camps. It caused me to reflect upon all those who gave up their lives in Vietnam and the nine million who served loyally during the Vietnam War.
I just wanted to set the record straight, at least in the minds of my friends and family, that history has shown that men like John McCain and the other Vietnam veterans deserve our great praise and honor for doing what they did, because it contributed in a big way to ending the Cold War, and literally stopping cold the expansion of communism in Southeast Asia.
When I grew up, the communist threat was real. They had taken over many countries and were bent on destroying America. We all lived in fear of a nuclear holocaust. There were nuclear bomb shelters maintained in almost all cities of the USA and in many people's backyards. But our enslavement and/or nuclear destruction did not happen. This blessed result wasn't by accident or random chance. Instead, we can sincerely thank the American heroes who fought in that far off land for our freedom and for deliverance from the nuclear nightmare. We can also thank them for the freedom of Southeast Asia to the present day.
Please share this knowledge with your friends, especially Vietnam veterans you know
Thank you!!!
God bless,
Guy and Sandy Gruters"
Another item  from Admiral Cox
Attacks on the U.S. Mainland in World War I and World War II
S.J. Cox
23 Sep 17
Japanese Actions in World War II
     Shortly after Pearl Harbor, seven Japanese submarines commenced operations off the West Coast of the United States, with intent to shell targets in California on Christmas Eve 1941.  The operation was initially postponed to 27 Dec, and then cancelled by the Japanese for fear of U.S. retaliation on the Japanese homeland.  Over the next year, Japanese subs contented themselves with sinking 10 U.S., Canadian, and Mexican merchant ships, some within sight of the U.S. mainland, and also sinking the Soviet submarine L-16 with all 50 hands by I-25 (a big "oops" since the Soviet Union was at that time neutral in the war between Japan and the rest of the Allies; the L-16 was transferring from the Soviet Pacific Fleet to the Soviet Northern Fleet via the Panama Canal.  A U.S. Navy Chief Photographer's Mate serving as an LNO was also lost aboard the Soviet sub.)
      On 23 Feb 42, the Japanese submarine I-17 shelled the Ellwood Oil Field west of Santa Barbara, California, inflicting minor damage (but triggering an invasion scare on the U.S. West Coast, which served as additional pretext for interning Japanese-American U.S. citizens.)  It was followed on the night of 24-25 Feb 42, by the "Battle of Los Angeles," whereupon jittery American anti-aircraft gunners unleashed an intense barrage over the city at non-existent Japanese aircraft, an action "extremely" loosely depicted in the Steven Spielberg/John Belushi movie "1941" in which the submarine that provoked the movie hysteria was the "I-19" which in reality was the float-plane equipped Japanese submarine that sank the USS Wasp (CV-7) on 15 Sep 42.
     Before conducting her float-plane attack on Oregon, the I-25 also shelled Fort Stevens, at the mouth of the Columbia River, on the night of 21-22 Jun 42, the only attack on a mainland U.S. military post during the war, which damaged some phone cables and a baseball backstop.   U.S. shore gunners requested permission to open fire on the submarine but were denied out of concern that doing so would give away number, position and capability of U.S. defenses prior to an actual invasion, thus depriving U.S. coastal artillery of their only opportunity to shoot at a real Japanese ship during the war.  (Another Japanese submarine shelled a target in Canada, but all rounds missed.)
     The Japanese submarine force was fixated on the idea that its purpose was to attack and whittle down the U.S. Battlefleet in preparation for the decisive battle between the U.S. and Japanese battleships expected to occur in the western Pacific.  The force never adapted to the idea of sinking merchant ships or auxiliaries (although the U.S. had an ample supply of fuel oil at Pearl Harbor (thanks to the Japanese failure to bomb the oil tanks during the raid on Pearl Harbor) oilers capable of refueling at sea were in very short supply.  The sinking of the USS Neches (AO-5) by Japanese submarine I-72 off Pearl Harbor on 22 Jan 42 and the loss of USS Neosho (AO-23) by air attack at the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 significantly impacted U.S. fleet operations.)  Japanese submarines would regularly bombard U.S. Marine positions on Guadalcanal and occasionally on other islands, but few would ever be considered effective attacks.  I-25 would be sunk by USS Ellet (DD-398) off the New Hebrides Islands on 3 Sep 43.
    Although the Japanese Navy conducted no further shore bombardments of the U.S. mainland, between November 1944 and early 1945, in retaliation for the commencement of U.S. B-29 raids from the Marianas Islands in Nov 44, the Japanese released over 9,000 balloons carrying incendiary devices ("fire bombs") toward the United States, some launched from submarines but most from the Japanese mainland itself, riding the Pacific jet stream.  Approximately 300 are believed to have reached North America causing a number of fires.  Tight wartime censorship prevented the Japanese (or the American public) from getting any "BDA" on their balloon attacks.  Six Americans were killed (a woman and five children) when one of the children found an unexploded device and disturbed it, setting off an explosion.  These were the only confirmed deaths due to enemy action on the U.S. mainland during World War II.   (The U.S. fire-bombing raid on Tokyo on the night of 9-10 Mar 1945, killed between 80,000 and 100,000 Japanese civilians.)
German Actions in World War II
    Although German U-boats sank numerous Allied merchant ships just off the U.S. east coast and Gulf of Mexico, they never opted to shell the U.S. mainland.  The U-507 did sink the tanker Virginia right in the mouth of the Mississippi River on 12 May 42.  Another German submarine did shell the American Standard Oil refinery on the Dutch Caribbean island of Aruba in early 1942.  However, on 12 Jun 42, the German submarine U-202 landed a party of four agents at Amagansett, NY (Long Island) whose mission was to destroy power plants at Niagara Falls and several aluminum factories across the U.S.  After landing, the team leader quickly turned himself in to the FBI and compromised the rest of the team, who were promptly arrested.   On 17 Jun 42, U-584 landed a second team of four agents at Ponte Verde Beach (near Jacksonville) Florida, tasked to attack multiple targets in the U.S., including New York City's water supply pipes.  They were also compromised by the first team leader's defection.  Although the teams had landed wearing military uniforms, they were captured in civilian clothes.   All eight were tried by military tribunal; six were executed as spies, and two who had turned themselves in were given 30 year sentences before being deported to Germany in 1948.
   On 29 Nov 44, the Germans tried again with much the same result.   U-1230 landed two agents at Hancock Point, Maine, with intent to gather intelligence.  One soon turned himself into the FBI, resulting in the other's capture.  Both were sentenced to death, but the sentences were commuted.
German Actions in World War I
   The most damaging attacks on the U.S. mainland by a foreign power (not counting the War of 1812 and the American Revolution) were actually carried out during World War I by a German sabotage ring.  On 30 Jul 1916, the major munitions storage depot and loading facility at Black Tom Island in Jersey City, New Jersey exploded with a massive blast felt for a hundred miles, blowing out most of the windows in lower Manhattan, damaging the Statue of Liberty (the stair to the torch has been closed ever since), killing at least four people, and injuring hundreds as 2,000,000 lbs. of small arms and artillery ammunition and 100,000 lbs. of TNT detonated, all destined for Russia.  At that time, the United States was officially neutral, but U.S. businesses were happily selling arms and ammunition to anyone who would buy them, although the British Royal Navy's blockade of Germany meant that in reality almost all the U.S.-manufactured arms and ammunition were going to the Allies.   The German government repeatedly objected to this one-way trade, to no avail.
   The initial investigation pinned the blame for the Black Tom Blast on a Slovak immigrant (who later served in the U.S. Army after the U.S. entered the war) who had delivered a suitcase which triggered the blast, however he was mostly an unwitting agent of a German sabotage ring.  Subsequent investigation by the Office Naval Intelligence (which had counter-espionage as a primary mission at the time) revealed one of the most incredibly complex spy and sabotage rings in history.  The details go beyond the scope of this paper but are worthy of a Le Carre novel, and include Germans, Communists, Mexicans, the Irish anti-British Clan na Gael group, the Indian anti-British Ghadar Party (mostly Sikhs,) and other gun-running mercenaries, mostly operating out of San Francisco, California.   (The break-up of an arms smuggling effort by elements of this group resulted in the most sensational and highly publicized trial of the day, sometimes referred to as the "Hindu-German Plot.")  A key member of the ring was a German naval officer, Lieutenant Lothar Witzke.  At the start of World War I, Witzke was an officer aboard the German light cruiser SMS Dresden, which after running amok for several months in the Pacific, was eventually trapped in some islands off Chile (the British flagrantly violated Chilean neutrality in the process.)  The Dresden subsequently scuttled herself and her crew was interned in Chile for the duration of the war.  Witzke, however, escaped from Chile on a merchant ship, which he jumped in San Francisco, where he eventually met up with the master German spy Kurt Jahnke.  The two were primarily responsible for several espionage and sabotage events, including the Black Tom Blast.
      After the U.S. entered the war, Jahnke relocated to Mexico, but with Witzke conducted another spectacular sabotage attack in the United States, when on the morning of 9 Jul 17 a massive blast rocked the Mare Island Shipyard and numerous barges filled with munitions, killing six, wounding 31, and causing damage across a wide area of northern San Francisco Bay.  Witzke would eventually be caught and imprisoned before being pardoned by President Calvin Coolidge (and sent back to Germany, where he served the Third Reich with as much zeal as Imperial Germany.)  Jahnke also served Nazi Germany, and he and his wife were both captured and executed by the Soviets in April 1945.  Although the munitions that Jahnke and Witzke had blown up at Black Tom had been destined for Czarist Russia (which had sued the U.S. government for lax security that enabled the blast,) the Soviets weren't any more forgiving than the Czar.
Item Number:1 Date: 10/02/2018 AFGHANISTAN - 13 KILLED IN SUICIDE ATTACK AT ELECTION RALLY IN NANGARHAR PROVINCE (OCT 02/ALJAZ)  AL JAZEERA -- At least 13 people have been killed and 25 injured in a suicide bombing at an election campaign rally in Afghanistan's eastern Nangarhar province, reports Al Jazeera (Qatar).   The bomber set off his explosives on Tuesday at the rally of a parliamentary candidate in the Kama district outside of the provincial capital of Jalalabad, said provincial officials.   Around 250 people were attending the meeting, said a member of the provincial council.   There was no immediate claim of responsibility.   The Taliban and Islamic State have ramped up attacks across the country ahead of the parliamentary vote on Oct. 20.  
  Item Number:6 Date: 10/02/2018 FRANCE - SHI'ITE CENTER IN NORTH RAIDED OVER ALLEGED TERROR CONNECTIONS (OCT 02/F24)  FRANCE 24 -- French police have raided the headquarters of a Shi'ite Islamic association in northern France and the homes of its leaders who are suspected of supporting "terrorist organizations," according to security sources cited by France 24.   The operation against the Center Zahra France outside of Dunkirk was part of terrorism prevention procedures, said regional authorities.   Eleven people were arrested and the financial assets of the center were frozen, a security source told Agence France-Presse. The leader of the center, Yahia Gouasmi, is known for anti-Zionist views and links to Iran.   Separately, the French government seized assets belonging to Iran's intelligence services and two Iranian nationals in response to a June plot to attack a rally by an exiled Iranian opposition group outside of Paris, reported Reuters.  
Item Number:10 Date: 10/02/2018 NIGERIA - FIGHTER JETS COLLIDE DURING PREPARATIONS FOR AIR DISPLAY; 1 KILLED (OCT 02/THIS)  THIS DAY -- A pair of Nigerian fighter jets collided while practicing an air display for independence day celebrations, reports This Day (Lagos).   On Sept. 28, two air force F-7Ni fighters went down in Abuja, the capital, after striking each other during the rehearsals, said the air force.   Witnesses described seeing the wings of the fighters hit in the air before the crash, reported Reuters.   All three pilots ejected. One later died from injuries sustained upon hitting the ground, said an air force spokesperson.   An investigation has been launched into the cause of the crash.   Nigeria marks it independence from British rule on Oct. 1.  
  Item Number:12 Date: 10/02/2018 SOMALIA - 9 AL-SHABAAB MILITANTS KILLED IN U.S. AIRSTRIKE (OCT 02/GAROWE)  GAROWE ONLINE -- The U.S. military says it has killed at least nine Al-Shabaab militants and wounded one in an airstrike in southern Somalia, reports the Garowe Online (Somalia).   On Monday, U.S. forces attacked a rebel-held area about 25 miles (40 km) northeast of the port city of Kismayo, said a U.S. Africa Command statement.   The strike was reportedly conducted by a manned aircraft. No civilians were believed to be injured or killed in the strike, said AFRICOM.   The U.S. has stepped up attacks against Al-Shabaab and other Islamist militants in Somalia since President Trump granted AFRICOM commanders new authorities last year.  
  Item Number:14 Date: 10/02/2018 USA - CHINESE DESTROYER MANEUVERS NEAR U.S. WARSHIP IN S. CHINA SEA (OCT 02/S&S)  STARS AND STRIPES -- The U.S. Navy says a Chinese destroyer came within 45 yards (41 m) of one of its warships near the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea, reports the Stars and Stripes.   On Sunday, USS Decatur was conducting a routine freedom of navigation patrol near the Gaven Reefs when the Chinese destroyer Luyang approached.   "The PRC destroyer conducted a series of increasingly aggressive maneuvers accompanied by warnings for [the] Decatur to depart the area," said a U.S. Pacific Fleet spokesman. "The PRC destroyer approached within 45 yards of [the] Decatur's bow, after which [the] Decatur maneuvered to prevent a collision."   Chinese warships frequently challenge U.S. vessels and aircraft traveling through the South China Sea.  
Item Number:16 Date: 10/02/2018 USA - WASHINGTON PREPARED TO DESTROY BANNED RUSSIAN CRUISE MISSILE IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES, SAYS NATO AMBASSADOR (OCT 02/REU)  REUTERS -- The U.S. ambassador to NATO says Russia must stop its secret development of a banned cruise missile system or Washington will try and destroy it before it becomes operational, reports Reuters.   The U.S. believes Russia is developing a ground-launched system in violation of a Cold War treaty.   The new weapon could enable Moscow to launch a nuclear strike on Europe at short notice. The Russian government has consistently denied the charges.   On Tuesday, Amb. Kay Bailey Hutchison said Washington is committed to a diplomatic solution but was prepared to consider a military strike if development of the medium-range system continued.

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