Wednesday, July 11, 2018

TheList 4764

The List 4764 TGB

To All,
I hope that your week has started well.  A bit long  today but lots of interesting history.
This day in Naval History
July 10
1934—President Franklin D. Roosevelt travels to Cartagena, Columbia, by USS Houston (CA 30). His visit was the first by a U.S. president to South America.
1943—In Operation Husky, naval gunfire helps Allied troops land on Sicily, Italy. It is the first extensive use of LSTs and smaller landing craft to deliver heavy equipment over the beach.
1945 - 14 carriers from Third Fleet carriers begin air strikes on Japanese Home Islands which end 15 August.
1945—USS Runner (SS 476) sinks the Japanese minesweeper (No.27) off Tado Saki, Honshu.
1971—USS Ponce (AFSB 15) is commissioned. The final Austin-class amphibious transport dock is named after a city in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
1993—USS Nebraska (SSBN 739) is commissioned at New London, CT. 
Executive Summary:
Top national headlines include the nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court by President Trump, ongoing coverage of the rescue of a boys' soccer team from a flooded cave in Thailand, and this week's NATO Summit in Brussels, Belgium. The New York Times reports that NATO allies remain uncertain as President Trump prepares to travel to Brussels for this year's NATO summit meeting. Allies are concerned that President Trump will use American troop strength in Europe as a bargaining chip for increased military spending amongst European allies. Seapower Magazine reports that the USS Coronado and Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 1 have completed the first comprehensive initial operational test and evaluation for the MQ-8C Fire Scout. Additionally, USNI News reports that 23-year-old Ensign Sarah Mitchell died from injuries following a small-boat incident in the Red Sea.
Today in History July 10

The Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes is driven from Tenochtitlan and retreats to Tlaxcala.

The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria.

The British crown claims New Hampshire as a royal colony.

The statue of King George III is pulled down in New York City.

In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declares war on England.

Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th president of the United States following the death of Zachary Taylor.

Wyoming becomes the 44th state.

Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs the first successful open-heart surgery, without the benefit of penicillin or blood transfusion.

The trial of Tennessee teacher John T. Scopes opens, with Clarence Darrow appearing for the defense and William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution.

Germany begins the bombing of England.

General Carl Spaatz becomes the head of the U.S. Air Force in Europe.

American and British forces complete their amphibious landing of Sicily.

U.S. carrier-based aircraft begin airstrikes against Japan in preparation for invasion.

Armistice talks between the United Nations and North Korea begin at Kaesong.

Belgium sends troops to the Congo to protect whites as the Congolese Bloodbath begins, just 10 days after the former colony became independent of Belgian rule.

The satellite Telstar is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, beaming live television from Europe to the United States.

"(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" becomes the Rolling Stones' first No. 1 single in the USA.

Singer Bobbie Gentry records "Ode to Billie Joe," which will become a country music classic and win 4 Grammys.

In Seveso, near Milan, Italy, an explosion in a chemical factory covers the surrounding area with toxic dioxin. Time magazine has ranked the Seveso incident No. 8 on its list of the 10 worst environmental disasters.

Coca-Cola Co. announces it will resume selling "old formula Coke," following a public outcry and falling sales of its "new Coke."

Boris Yeltsin is sworn in as the first elected president of the Russian Federation, following the breakup of the USSR.

Kenyan runner Yobes Ondieki becomes the first man to run 10,000 meters in less than 27 minutes.
July 4, 1942 The8th Air Force flies its first mission in Europe using borrowed British equipment. Only three of the six aircraft return to England. A real indication of things to come. We lost more men in the bomber crews than all the marines in the Pacific campaigns.
1940 The Battle of Britain begins as the Luftwaffe attempts to destroy the RAF in anticipation  of a German invasion  of England
1943 Allied forces commence the invasion of Sicily
Thanks to my friend  Pete for this bit of history. Pete was standing by with all his fire fighting gear  a few days ago as a fire got within a mile or so of his house in  the mountains East of San Diego near Alpine. 'we are glad he did not have to put on his scuba gear and go to the bottom of his pool if the fire got past him. What do you expect from a former F-8 Driver.
            This morning's List mentioned a sub kill by VP-94 on this date:
1943—PBY (VP 94) sinks German submarine (U 590) at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil.
Attached are some BDA photos, taken from the step of 94-P-10, my dad's PBY, if you are interested. I've got the official action summary as well!
            My father was flying copilot in 94-P-10 (PBY-5A) that morning with his best friend (Ltjg Frank Hare) in the left seat (their lineal numbers were 1 # apart, and most crews alternated left & right seats on the long patrols). My dad spotted a sub on the surface, after another PBY (Ltjg Auslander 94-P-1) radioed that they had seen another 60 miles away. When Frank Hare rolled into the surfaced sub, their PBY was lit up by 50 cal fire from the sub. Apparently, the Germans were losing too many subs to the PBY's in the clear blue waters off Brazil, so they changed their tactics and decided to fight it out on the surface with the slow PBY's.
            The first shots killed Frank Hare immediately, wounded my father in the left leg, and seriously wounded the port blister gunner. My dad was able to pull out, circle the sub and re-attack it, dropping 2 depth charges which apparently crippled the sub, because it didn't dive again. They remained circling overhead, radioing for backup; both sides licking their wounds. Until later, when Auslander arrived in 94-P-1 and finished off the sub.
            My father never talked about this event in any detail; PTSD I suppose. I found out about it mostly in some books and war histories, and from some of his squadron mates.  I'm an F-8 guy; I can't imagine having your best friend get blown away two feet away from you, and continuing the mission for another 3 hours!
            Big day in my family! I was born 1 year later; probably conceived during his R&R recuperation!
Pete Phelps
Sub Kill report from 9 July 1943
The night of July 7-8, convoy TJ-1 was attacked in the Trinidad area, two ships being sunk and others damaged. Planes were immediately despatched from Belem to operate out of Amapa, taking over coverage of the convoys. On the morning of 9 July several sightings were made at a distance, both by planes and surface craft, indicating that the attack was being continued. BT-18 was entering the area from the South at this time and is was necessary for five planes in Belem and a limited number of pilots to give night and day coverage and fly daylight sweeps. Lt. (jg) Stanley Ernest Auslander, USNR, 104 673, Lt(jg) John Milton Elliot, USNR, 113 067, Lt.(jg) Frank Joseph McMackin Jr., USNR, 112 627, in 94-P-1, enroute to relieve on convoy coverage, sighted the swirl of a submerging submarine just before noon and advised the base that gambit tactics would be employed. At approximately 1230 Peter, 94-P-10 sweeping the area immediately east of TJ-1 sighted a surfaced submarine about 60 miles distant from the swirl sighting. Just after starting the first leg of the sweep at 1235 Peter, the co-pilot sighted the U-boat 12 miles distant at 03-54 North, 49-52 West. The submarine apparently did not see the plane until quite late for no attempt to submerge was made. At a distance of more than a mile from the submarine, orange flecks from the submarine's anti-aircraft fire were noticed, and almost immediately thereafter an explosive shrapnel shell enterd the bow on the port side exploding against the instrument panel, setting fire to the Sperry oil, and causing billowing smoke and flame. The pilot, Lt. (jg) Frank Fisher Hare, USNR, 112 640 was struck by shrapnel in the head, heart, and body. The run was continued and the two starboard depth bombs released. Interrogation of those of the crew who could see the drop of bombs indicated that they landed close together, approximately 25 to 35 feet from the stern of the submarine and about 45 degrees to starboard. There was no visible indication of damage. The bow gunner fired his .30 calibre guns continuously during the approach and the port blister ;.50 calibre gun was brought to bear after the drop. About 20 to 30 minutes after the original attack, the plane departed, the submarine being still surfaced. The evaluation of the attack was "no damage." 94-P-1 and 107-B-5 investigated the area about 1300 Peter, but found no traces of the submarine.

The complement of the aircraft included:
Pilot Lt. (jg) Frank Fisher Hare, USNR, 112 640
Co-Pilot Lt (jg) Jean Price Phelps, USNR, 112 158
Navigator Lt.(jg) Michael Carl Argento, USNR, 112 141
Tower Lombardo, Joseph (n), AMM3c, 316 78 75, USN
Bow Eisaman, Clifford Emery, AMM3c, 652 10 02, USNR

Blister Testen, Andrew Frank, AOM3c, 613 99 69, USNR

Blister Brown, Thomas Russell, ARM3c, 268 81 22, USN
Radio Lack, James Thomas, ARM3c, 356 66 90, USN


Lt(jg) Hare was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Purple Heart. J Price Phelps was awarded the Air Medal and Purple Heart for wounds sustained from the initial attack as well as for continuing the attack and probably damaging the sub; causing it to remain on the surface for Lt Auslander's later attack and kill. Meanwhile, 94-P-1 continued its gambit and at 1424 Peter, a surfacing submarine was sighted about three miles dead ahead, position 03-22 North, 48-38 West. The plane was flying at 3700 feet over a broken cloud base of .4 to .6 cumulus at 1700 feet and had just passed through a fairly heavy cloud. The U-Boat was about 2 1/2 miles distant. As the pilots could not see the submarine, the nose was pushed over to bring it into view. Water was running from its decks and within a few seconds it was fully surfaced, cruising at about 15 knots on 125 degrees true. The pilot held the plane in a dive directly toward the submarine, without changing course and threw on the bombing switch. Lt. (jg) McMackin blew the warning horn and rushed to the waist compartment to take pictures of the enemy underseas craft through the port blister. The throttles were cut, but still the plane attained a speed of 200 knots indicated. At an altitude of about 150 feet, Lt.(jg) Elliot released the depth bombs by intervalometer spaced at 73 feet. The submarine was fully surfaced, proceeding on course, and there was no evidence that the crew, three or four of whom could be seen in the conning tower, were aware of the approach of the plane. An easy turn to port was made after the plane was pulled out of its dive and while the spray was still visible. When the water subsided no trace of the submarine would be seen. All of the occupants of the waist hatch were thrown into the bilges by the pull-up. The gunner had been firing the .50 calibre and had sprayed the conning tower with 7 to 10 rounds. As he fell, the gun was apparently elevated, so that one or two bullets went through the starboard wing of the plane. No serious damage was done. While circling, a greenish-brown slick was visible and in the center of it, two swimming men, a large timber, several small articles and two boxes. A crew member then reported seeing three additional men in the water and Lt.(jg) Elliot spotted them on the next approach. Five were counted at this time, but three apparently sank very quickly. A life raft was dropped, but drifted away before the swimmers could reach it Four life jackets were dropped, two inflated and two uninflated and the survivors appeared to get into the inflated ones. Emergency rations were also dropped within reach. Four minutes after the drop a large amount of oil started to rise two or three hundred yards from the slick along the sub's track and observation showed the slick continuing to grow in length and breadth to a size of half to a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. There was no forward motion to the oil slick. The attack was assessed as "probably sunk." 94-P-1 was manned as follows:

Pilot Lt.(jg) Stanley Ernest Auslander, USNR, 104 673
Co-Pilot Lt.(jg) John Milton Elliot, USNR, 113 067
Navigator Lt.(jg) Frank Joseph McMackin, Jr.,USNR, 112 627
Port Blister Denauw, Frank Joseph, AMM2c, 606 19 58, USNR
Starboard Blister Watson, John Harry, ARM2c, 406 77 87, USN
Radio Garren, Hoyt Edwin, ARM2c, 296 00 73, USN
Bow Smith, Elmer Bryant, AMM3c, 268 81 81, USN
Tower Mustone, Joseph James, Jr., AOM3c, 607 52 10, USNR
H-019-5: "Black Sunday" and the Battle of Orleans
H-Gram 019, Attachment 5
Samuel J. Cox, Director NHHC
June 2018 
Although the quick arrival of numerous U.S. destroyers in European waters in May 1917 and the subsequent arrival of relatively small numbers of U.S. Marines and U.S. Army troops in France in June 1917 improved Allied morale, the vast majority of U.S. troops had yet to arrive in France by the spring of 1918. With a large number of German troops on the Eastern Front freed up by the collapse of Czarist Russia, the Germans gambled on launching a massive offensive in France in the spring of 1918, hoping to knock Britain and France out of the war before significant numbers of U.S. reinforcements could arrive. Although the offensive gained considerable ground, casualties were extremely heavy on all sides, and the offensive ran out of steam before achieving its objective and the bloody stalemate on the Western Front resumed. At the same time, the Allied convoy effort, improved technology and anti-submarine tactics (including the use of air cover), along with reading the Germans' message traffic, resulted in increasing ability for the Allies to get men and supplies through to Europe, and increasing losses of German U-boats. Because the British had broken the German navy submarine codes, the Allied strategy was generally to route convoys to avoid where they knew the U-boats were—to the growing frustration of the German navy.
Increasingly desperate to reverse the situation in the Atlantic, the Germans decided to convert several very large submarines that had been originally built as unarmed "merchant" submarines (in an attempt to run the highly effective British naval blockade) into U-cruisers (Unterseeboots-Kreuzer). Two of these submarines had made successful voyages to the United States in 1916 when the country was still officially neutral. Seven of the merchant cruisers had been built (and even larger ones were under construction) and five would be converted to U-cruisers. Armed with two 5.9-inch deck guns, two 20-inch torpedo tubes, 18 torpedoes, as well as mines, these were the largest (1,500 tons and a crew of six officers and 50 men), most heavily armed submarines in the world, and possessed enough range to reach the U.S. east coast and operate there for over a month.
U-151 departed Kiel, Germany, on 14 April 1918, destined for the United States, the first time a German submarine sailed to the western Atlantic intent on attacking shipping. The voyage was no secret to the Allies due to the broken codes, but this fact was successfully kept from the Germans. After laying mines, cutting cable, and sinking three fishing schooners, U-151 finally made her presence known (or so she thought) on 2 June. On that day, the submarine sank six ships and damaged two more over the course of about two hours. These included the liner SS Carolina, the freighters Winneconne and Texel, the schooner Isabel B. Wiley, and two other schooners, all with a combined crew and passengers of about 448 people. In all cases, U-151 fired warning shots and gave the crews time to abandon ship in an orderly fashion—women and children first in the case of Carolina—before sinking them with gunfire. The only fatalities were 13 dead (eight male passengers and five crewmen out of 218 passengers and 117 crew), when one of Carolina's lifeboats capsized.
On 3 June, the tanker Herbert L. Pratt struck one of the mines previously laid by U-151 off the Delaware Capes and sank, although it was later raised. On 9 June, U-151 stopped the Norwegian cargo ship Vindeggan off Cape Hatteras and set scuttling charges after transferring a very valuable cargo of 70 tons of copper ingots off the vessel. On 14 June, U-151 sank the Norwegian barque Samoa, also with no casualties.
Up to this point, U-151's actions had displayed a civility that by this time was absent on the eastern side of the Atlantic, but on 18 June, the submarine sank the British flag liner SS Dwinsk and loitered near the seven lifeboats in order to ambush any ships coming to the rescue. The auxiliary cruiser and troopship USS Von Steuben (ID-3017) initially took the bait. Von Steuben was originally the German passenger liner SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, which had been armed and operated as raider, sinking or capturing 15 ships before she was interred in the United States in 1915 when she ran short of coal. Converted to an auxiliary cruiser after the United States entered the war, Von Steuben had been one of the first ships to respond to the 7 December 1917 disaster in Halifax, Nova Scotia, when an ammunition ship exploded in the harbor, killing over 2,000 people.
U-151 fired torpedoes at Von Steuben, which were sighted by alert lookouts, and the Von Steuben's skipper, Captain Yates Stirling, Jr., avoided the torpedoes with the unorthodox maneuver of a hard starboard turn with engines at full astern (normal procedure was to try to turn away from the torpedo and possibly outrun it). After the torpedoes missed, Von Steuben responded with a depth charge attack on U-151 that actually did inflict some damage on the sub. For his actions, Captain Stirling was awarded both the Navy Cross and the French Legion of honor. In the meantime, the captain of the Dwinsk ordered all of those in the lifeboats to lie low so as not to draw any other ships into the trap. Eventually, six of Dwinsk's lifeboats made it to safety, but the seventh, with 22 aboard, was never seen again. The Von Steuben went on to make nine Atlantic crossings, carrying about 2,000 troops each time. U-151 returned to Kiel on 20 July after a 94-day cruise that covered 12,500 miles. The commanding officer reported sinking 23 ships totaling 61,000 tons, of which three were later salvaged, and four more were sunk by mines laid by the submarine.
On 15 June, U-156, sister of U-151, under the command of Korvettenk√§pitan Richard Feldt, deployed from Kiel. She arrived off New York harbor and laid a string of mines in the shipping lanes off Long Island just east of the Fire Island Lightship. On 19 July, the armored cruiser USS San Diego (Armored Cruiser No. 6—former USS California) suffered a large explosion about 10 miles southeast of Fire Island, with damage severe enough that she sank. No torpedoes had been sighted nor had any other evidence of a submarine. San Diego had previously suffered a damaging boiler explosion in January 1915, but she was probably sunk by one of the mines laid by U-156. The explosion on the port side flooded the port engine room and warped the bulkhead and watertight door, resulting in flooding of the Number 8 fireroom. Unfortunately, progressive flooding could not be controlled and she sank in 28 minutes. Of her crew of 80 officers, 745 enlisted sailors, and 64 Marines, two were killed instantly and four more died later. Two crewmen were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions during the sinking. At 14,000 tons, 500 feet long and armed with four 8-inch guns and 14 6-inch guns, San Diego was the largest U.S. warship to be sunk in the war. The ship sank in relatively shallow 110 feet of water, and her wreck has been extensively pillaged by divers. However, more sport divers have died on the wreck site than crewmembers were killed in the actual sinking.
On 21 July, U-156 surfaced just off the Cape Cod town of Orleans and opened fire on the tugboat Perth Amboy, which was towing three barges (some accounts say four). The tug was quickly in sinking condition and U-156 turned her attention to the barges and opened fire. Because of their low silhouettes, a number of shells went long and impacted in a marshy area near Orleans, although some reports say some structures were damaged. The shelling caused startled bathers to flee the water, while at least one townsperson opened fire on the U-boat with a shotgun, which, of course, did nothing. There were at least some women and children aboard the tug and barges, so a surfboat from Station 40 of the U.S. Life-Saving Service (later part of the U.S. Coast Guard) valiantly rowed out under fire and succeeded in rescuing all 32 people from the tug and barges. Townspeople were immediately on the phone to the Boston Globe and to the Naval Air Station at Chatham, Massachusetts. The paper provided an event-by-event reporting, which later became an early example of a media frenzy, and an end result of numerous contradictory reports, such that it is difficult to tell what really happened. The incident served to further fuel the wild rumors and outright hysteria that swept the U.S. east coast during this period, such as reports that German submarines were equipped with aircraft, resulting in anti-aircraft defenses being set up in New York City and the gold dome of Massachusetts' statehouse being painted over so it could not be used as a navigational landmark.
After initially being incredulous that a submarine was that close in to the shore, NAS Chatham quickly launched at least four (and maybe nine—reports vary) Curtis HS-1L flying boats and R-9 seaplanes. (As an aside, over 600 of the HS-1Ls were built and deployed in the space of a little over a year, an example of U.S. industrial might, once mobilized). A small flotilla of U.S. Navy submarine chasers sortied from Provincetown. The first aircraft caught the submarine by surprise, but a release lever failed to work on the first aircraft, and bombs failed to explode from several others. Some of the aircraft hit close enough to the submarine that, had the bombs worked properly, the submarine would at least have been damaged. In frustration, one pilot claimed to have thrown a wrench at the submarine. The sub quickly submerged, then changed her mind and came back up, apparently intending to duke it out on the surface using shrapnel rounds against the aircraft. (It should be noted that only one submarine was confirmed sunk by air attack during World War I, although air cover was very effective at disrupting U-boat attacks on convoys and no ships were lost in convoys that had air cover).
As the attempted air attacks went on for some time, as did the equally fruitless submarine air defense, the flotilla of sub chasers turned back, apparently deciding that discretion was the better part of valor since the submarine's 5.9-inch guns were much more capable than their own 3-inch guns. The result, however, was that the aircraft and the life-saving boat garnered the glory, which was probably appropriate, and the U.S. Navy did not. U-156 was on the surface for over 90 minutes and fired almost 150 rounds. In fact, the U.S. Navy took a public beating from politicians and public because despite the hugely expensive naval expansion act of 1916, intended to create a Navy equal to that of any of the world, the Navy could not seem to hunt down and deal with one solitary submarine. Navy leaders, however, quickly reached the conclusion that the U-cruiser operations were just a high-visibility attempt to divert Allied assets from the main effort, i.e., to get as many American troops across the Atlantic as fast as possible in order to regain ground lost to the spring German land offensive.
Following the circus off Orleans, U-156 went into the Gulf of Maine and ran amok amongst the U.S. fishing fleet, sinking 21 of them herself, while manning and arming a captured Canadian trawler that sank seven more. In the end, U-156 sank 34 ships for a total 33,500 tons and, like U-151, had operated with effective impunity off the U.S. east coast for a combined three-month period. For the most part, both U-151 and U-156 had made an effort to rescue survivors, and their very large hauling capacity and lack of effective opposition gave them the luxury of keeping rescued crewmembers on board until they could be off-loaded safely. However, on 25 September, while attempting to return to Germany, U-156 struck a mine in the recently laid North Sea mine barrage (mostly laid by the U.S. Navy) and sank with all 77 hands. The 100,000 or so mines laid in the North Sea barrage in the summer of 1918 accounted for about six German submarines lost, but was a big morale buster in the German navy. (More on the North Sea mine barrage in a future H-gram.)
By the time U-156 departed the western Atlantic, three more U-cruisers had arrived in waters off the U.S. These were the U-140, U-117, and U-155. U-155 was the former merchant submarine Deutschland, which had made two trips to the United States in 1916 before the country entered the war and before it was converted to a heavily armed U-cruiser. U-140 was of a new class designed from the keel up to be armed U-cruisers, the largest submarines in the world. U-117 was a long-range minelaying submarine.
Like the first two U-cruisers, U-140 was having a field day off the U.S. east coast until she attacked the Brazilian passenger liner Uberaba on 10 August. Unlike most ships, Uberaba attempted to flee when the submarine surfaced to fire warning shots and, as a result, came under direct fire from the U-boat in a running battle and took some hits. Among the 250 passengers (including women and children) aboard the ship were 100 U.S. Navy personnel, many of whom pitched in to stoke coal in order to outrun the U-boat. Nevertheless, Uberaba got off a distress call, which was answered so quickly by the destroyer USS Stringham (DD-83) that U-140 was caught by surprise and barely managed to submerge. Stringham dropped 15 depth charges and damaged the submarine badly enough that U-140 had to abort her mission and return to Germany in September 1918, having sunk only seven ships. Stringham would go on to earn nine battle stars during World War II, mostly as a fast personnel transport (APD-9).
,After reaching the U.S. east coast about 9 August 1918, U-117 did score a noteworthy success with her mines. On 29 September, the battleship USS Minnesota (BB-22) struck one of U-117's mines off Fenwick Island, Delaware, which resulted in extensive damage that knocked Minnesota out of the rest of the war, but caused no casualties. It could have been worse, had not Vice Admiral Albert W. Grant (commander of Battleship Force 1) not initiated his own program to have ships under his command reinforce their bulkheads (an action that spared Minnesota the damage that had caused the loss of San Diego). Minnesota was the largest U.S. warship significantly damaged during World War I. (The battleship had been under the command of then-Commander William Sims, unusual at the time (or any time), thanks to political influence of Theodore Roosevelt. Sims was actually relieved of command of Minnesota in 1911 for making public pro-British statements before that was considered socially acceptable in the U.S. Navy.) The Fletcher-class destroyer named after Vice Admiral Grant (DD-649) fought at the Battle of Surigao Strait during the larger Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944. While conducting a night torpedo attack against the Japanese battleship force, she got caught in the cross-fire and was hit 22 times; many of the hits were 6-inch shells from U.S. cruisers. Heavily damaged, with 38 killed and 104 wounded, her crew nevertheless saved their ship despite encountering a typhoon.
When World War I ended, three more U-cruisers were en route the western Atlantic, but they turned back and were surrendered to the Allied forces along with the entire German navy. Six U-boats would end up in U.S. hands, one of which (UC-97) was commanded by Lieutenant Charles A Lockwood (future vice admiral in charge of U.S. submarines in the Pacific during World War II) and is now on the bottom of Lake Michigan. (More on that story in a future H-gram.)
(Sources include America's U-boats: Terror Trophies of WWI by Chris Dubbs , 2014, The Kaiser's Lost Kreuzer: A History of U-156 and Germany's Long-Range Submarine Campaign Against North America, 1918 by Paul N. Hodos, 2017, and NHHC Dictionary of American Fighting Ships entries.)
Thanks to Bill. These are interesting and fun
Here's another trick of Doctor Dementia to test your skills....
I've  seen this with the letters out of order, but this  is the first time I've seen it with numbers. Good  example of a Brain Study: If you can read this OUT LOUD,  you have a strong mind. And better than that:  Alzheimer's is a long long, way down the road before it ever gets anywhere near you.
7H15      M3554G3
53RV35      7O PR0V3
H0W      0UR M1ND5 C4N
D0      4M4Z1NG 7H1NG5!
1MPR3551V3      7H1NG5!
1N      7H3 B3G1NN1NG
17      WA5 H4RD BU7
N0W,      0N 7H15 LIN3
Y0UR      M1ND 1S
R34D1NG      17
W17H      0U7 3V3N
7H1NK1NG      4B0U7 17,
B3      PROUD! 0NLY
C3R741N      P30PL3 C4N
R3AD      7H15.
PL3453      F0RW4RD 1F
U      C4N R34D 7H15.
To my 'selected' strange-minded friends: If you can read the following paragraph, forward it on to  your friends with 'yes' in the subject line. Only great minds can read this. This is weird, but interesting!
If you can read this, you have a strange mind, too.
Can you read this? Only 55 people out of 100  can.
I cdnuolt  blveiee  that I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd what I  was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of   the hmuan  mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it  dseno't  mtaetr in what oerdr the ltteres in a word are, the olny iproamtnt  tihng is that the frsit and last ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset  can  be a taotl mses and you can still raed it  whotuit a pboerlm. This is  bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey  lteter by istlef, but the word as  a wlohe.  Azanmig  huh?  Yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! 
If  you can raed  this frowrad it. 
. Item Number:1 Date: 07/10/2018 AFGHANISTAN - JOINT OP WITH U.S. DRIVES ISIS FROM SELF-PROCLAIMED CAPITAL IN NANGAHAR PROVINCE (JUL 10/S&S)  STARS AND STRIPES -- Afghan and U.S. special operations forces forces have captured an Islamic State stronghold in eastern Afghanistan, reports the Stars and Stripes.   The joint force conducted a multi-pronged attack on the town of Gurgorary in the Deh Bala district of the Nangahar province, military officials said on Saturday.   A total of 167 militants were killed in the operation, the officials said.   Five teams of U.S. Special Forces, also known as the Green Berets, and three Afghan commando companies participated in the mission, which began in April and concluded in June. Six hundred Green Berets took part, said officials.   A team of Green Berets and Afghan commandos arrived at Observation Post Krakken in Deh Bala, overlooking the Gurgoray Valley on April 28.   The operation built out from there, keeping the ISIS stronghold under fire, including with U.S. airstrikes.   Troops attacked from the east and cleared the valley of trapped ISIS fighters, leading to the capture of the city by June 9. More than 100 militants were killed by airstrikes called down by Afghan troops.   U.S. and Afghan forces are patrolling the area and installing checkpoints.   Gurgorary, on the Pakistan border, served as a key supply route, with the mountain ridges and valleys of Deh Bala district providing shelter. The site was used to prepare and stage high-profile attacks, said military officials.   Locals have expressed concern that once the special operations forces leave, the regular security forces will allow the region to be retaken by militants, whether from ISIS or the Taliban
Item Number:2 Date: 07/10/2018 COLOMBIA - LARGEST PARAMILITARY GROUP SET TO SURRENDER AFTER NEW LAW SIGNED (JUL 10/CR)  COLOMBIA REPORTS -- Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos says that the country's largest armed group will be demobilized in the coming days, reports Colombia Reports.   On Monday, Santos signed a bill that would allow large armed groups to surrender collectively. The move comes as Santos is set to leave office in less than a month.   The bill targets the paramilitary Gaitanista Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AGC), also called the Gulf Clan.   AGC leader Otoniel said last September that he would lay down arms once an appropriate legal framework was established.   The AGC's strength is estimated at 7,000 members. The group is active in a fifth of the country's municipalities.   Washington calls the group the largest drug-trafficking organization in Colombia. It has been accused of a variety of organized crime activities, as well as political and sexual violence.   The AGC rapidly gained strength after paramilitary groups re-armed in 2006 in response to arrest warrants issued against them.  
Item Number:7 Date: 07/10/2018 ROMANIA - FIGHTER PILOT DIES IN EXHIBITION FLIGHT CRASH (JUL 10/RI)  ROMANIA INSIDER -- A Romanian air force pilot has been killed in a crash during an exhibition flight in the southeastern part of the country, reports the Romania Insider.   The MiG-21 Lancer fighter jet crashed while participating in the Borcea Open Day at the 86 Base in Fetesti on Saturday, said a release from the Romanian Defense Ministry.   The pilot had more than 400 flight hours, including around 250 on the MiG-21.   Witnesses quoted by Reuters said that the pilot may have directed the jet to crash in a nearby field instead of hitting the crowd.   The defense ministry created a commission to investigate the cause of the crash.   The air force grounded its MiG-21 fleet until the cause of the crash is known.   The MiG-21 has been in Romanian service for more than 55 years. Twelve pilots have been killed and 20 jets have crashed since 1994.   Romania is acquiring used F-16 fighters to replace its aging MiG-21s. It received its first six F-16s from Portugal in 2016
Item Number:8 Date: 07/10/2018 SOMALIA - AL-SHABAAB ATTACK ON INTERIOR MINISTRY KILLS AT LEAST 9, INJURES DOZENS (JUL 10/ALJAZ)  AL JAZEERA -- At least nine people have been killed and dozens injured in an attack on the Somalia Interior Ministry in Mogadishu, reports Al Jazeera (Qatar).   The attack began when Al-Shabaab militants detonated two car bombs on Saturday morning, said police Capt. Mohamed Hussein.   The first bomb was set off at the gate of the Interior Ministry, located close to the presidential palace and the headquarters of Parliament. The second bomb was remotely detonated outside a nearby police station.   Militants stormed the building and engaged in a two-hour gun battle with security forces. All three attackers were killed.   The attackers were disguised in army uniforms and passed through several checkpoints in the city using identity cards from the security and interior ministries to gain access to the building, reported the Garowe Online (Somalia).   Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for the attack.   The Somali government on Sunday arrested 14 security officials following a meeting between the security minister and the police and intelligence chiefs, reported the Garowe Online on Monday.   The detained officers were responsible for the checkpoints near the compound that was attacked, officials said. At least 20 people died in the assault and dozens were injured, the news site said.   Al-Shabaab is fighting to overthrow Somalia's western-backed central government and establish a government based on its own strict interpretation of Islamic sharia law. The group often targets high-profile areas of the capital.  
Item Number:9 Date: 07/10/2018 SOUTH SUDAN - OPPOSITION REJECTS LATEST RECONCILIATION PROPOSAL (JUL 10/VOA)  VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS -- Rebels have rejected a proposal that was seen as providing a path to end the five-year civil war in South Sudan, reports the Voice of America News.   On Monday, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) said that a power-sharing accord was discussed during talks in Uganda, but that no agreement had been made.   In a statement, the SPLM rejected the peace proposal, arguing that it served the needs of politicians and did not address the significant reforms needed in South Sudan.   The nine-party South Sudan Opposition Alliance, the main opposition bloc to President Salva Kiir, previously rejected the proposal.   On Sunday, Kiir and SPLM leader Riek Machar announced the potentially-groundbreaking deal. A rivalry between Kiir and his former deputy spiraled into civil war in December 2013.   The development followed recent breakthroughs, including a cease-fire agreed to in June and an agreement to remove troops from cities. The cease-fire agreement has held, although numerous violations have been reported, noted Reuters.   Machar later distanced himself from the peace proposal, saying that he only agreed to it in principle.  
  Item Number:11 Date: 07/10/2018 SYRIA - ISRAELI JETS HIT T4 BASE AGAIN, ACCORDING TO STATE MEDIA (JUL 10/HA)  HAARETZ -- Syria has accused Israel of attacking an air force base in the western part of the country, reports Haaretz (Israel).   On Sunday, Syrian state news agency SANA accused Israeli jets of carrying out the strike on the T4 base near the city of Palmyra in Homs province.   The planes flew at a low altitude to avoid detection and passed by al-Tanf, where U.S. forces have a base.   Syrian air defenses shot down one missile while another six hit the base, said a Syrian army officer.   Opposition websites cited by the Jerusalem Post reported that as many as nine people were killed at the base. This has not been confirmed.   The T4 air base in Homs is thought to be a hub for Iranian forces working in Syria.   Israel first targeted the base in April, Israeli official previously told the New York Times. This was the third time that Israel attacked the base.  
  Item Number:15 Date: 07/10/2018 YEMEN - COALITION TOUTS EVIDENCE OF HOUTHI-HEZBOLLAH CONNECTION (JUL 10/SAUDIPA)  SAUDI PRESS AGENCY -- The spokesman for the Saudi-led coalition battling Houthi rebels in Yemen says there is evidence that Hezbollah is operating in the country, reports the official Saudi Press Agency.   Hezbollah experts are training Houthi fighters and supplying them with integrated military communication systems, the spokesman said on Monday.   Evidence obtained by the coalition proved that Hezbollah has become the chief supplier of the Houthi rebels.   "Hezbollah is the Houthi's greatest arms supplier," he said.   The weapons are smuggled through Beirut's southern suburbs -- dominated by Hezbollah -- into Syria before arriving at the port of Bandar Abbas in Iran, said the spokesman, as cited by Asharq Al-Awsat (London).   The spokesman also said that coalition strikes in Saada province destroyed five Houthi command positions set up by Hezbollah in Mashtab, Maran, Razeh, al-Maglag and al-Noua'a mountains.   The Saudi-led coalition and U.S. officials have previously presented evidence said to prove an Iranian hand in supplying missiles to the Houthi rebels.   Some analysts have raised questions about the bilateral Houthi-Iran ties, casting doubt on coalition's portrayal of the rebel movement as a pawn of Iran
  Item Number:16 Date: 07/10/2018 YEMEN - U.S. DRONE STRIKE KILLS 7 AQAP MILITANTS IN SOUTH (JUL 10/ASHARQ)  ASHARQ AL-AWSAT -- Seven suspected Al-Qaida militants have been killed in a U.S. drone strike in southern Yemen, reports Asharq Al-Awsat (London).   A car carrying the suspects was hit while driving on a side road in the Bihan district in Shabwa province on July 6.   The U.S. military is the only force known to operate armed drones over Yemen, reported NDTV (India).   Yemeni intelligence officials supported the strike, said an unnamed security official cited by Xinhua, China's state news agency. Preliminary reports indicated that the targets were active members of Al-Qaida and had taken part in attacks against new military recruits backed by the United Arab Emirates.   The U.S. considers the Yemen-based Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) to be the terrorist group's most dangerous faction. President Donald Trump has increased drone attacks against AQAP since taking office in January 2017.

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