Wednesday, July 11, 2018

TheList 4763

The List 4763   TGB

To All,
I hope that you all had a great weekend.
This day in Naval History
July 9
1846—During the Mexican-American War, Cmdr. John B. Montgomery and his detachment of Marines and Sailors from the sloop-of-war USS Portsmouth raise the U.S. flag over (Yerba Buena) San Francisco, CA.
1943—PBY (VP 94) sinks German submarine (U 590) at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil.
1944—The organized Japanese resistance ceases on Saipan, Mariana Islands.
1950—During the Korean War, Cmdr. Michael J. L. Luosey assumes command of the Navy of the Republic of Korea. He subsequently serves as its Deputy Commander until June 1, 1952.
1960—USS Wasp (CVS 18) departs Guantanamo Bay to support the United Nations effort to calm the newly independent Congo.
1960—USS Thresher (SSN 593) is launched at Portsmouth, NH.
1994—USS Port Royal (CG 73) is commissioned at Savannah, GA. The guided-missile cruiser is the 27th and last ship of the Ticonderoga-class cruisers. The ship is named after American Revolutionary and Civil War battles at Port Royal Sound, SC.
1994—USS Dextrous (MCM 13), an Avenger-class mine countermeasures ship, is commissioned at Ingleside, TX, which includes former Sailors from the original Dextrous (AM 341).
1994—The Ohio-class ballistic-missile submarine USS Rhode Island (SSBN 740) is commissioned at Groton, CT.
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
Top national news headlines include reports that four people were rescued Sunday from a flooded cave in Thailand where they were trapped for 16 days and will resume the mission today to rescue the remaining nine people, and reports of President Trump preparing to announce his pick for the Supreme Court today. Talks between the U.S. and North Korea appear uncertain following a weekend visit by Secretary of State Mike Pompeo reports the Wall Street Journal. In an account that differed from Secretary Pompeo's, Pyongyang accused the U.S. of "gangster-like tactics" and increasing the "risk of war." According to Reuters, two U.S. warships passed through the Taiwan Strait on Saturday on a voyage that will likely be viewed in the self-ruled island as a sign of support by President Donald Trump amid heightened tension with China.   Additionally, USNI News reports that the future USNS Burlington has completed builders trials.
History July 9

Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, makes his entry into the city.

Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, becomes Emperor of the West.

Maurice of Saxony is mortally wounded at Sievershausen, Germany, while defeating Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.

Emperor Rudolf II grants Bohemia freedom of worship.

General Edward Braddock is killed by French and Indian troops.

In Versailles, the French National Assembly declares itself the Constituent Assembly and begins to prepare a French constitution.

The Swedish navy captures one third of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.

U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies in office at the age of 65. He is succeeded by Millard Fillmore.

Confederate cavalry led by John Morgan captures Tompkinsville, Kentucky.

The Commonwealth of Australia is established by an act of British Parliament, uniting the separate colonies under a federal government.

Anne Frank and her family go into hiding in the attic above her father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.

American and British forces make an amphibious landing on Sicily.

The United States turns over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to South Vietnamese units.

Monday Morning Humor Thanks to Al…..We did get some heat here. I saw 110 on Friday and more on the weekend.
All of us could take a lesson from the weather. It pays no attention to criticism.
 I've come to the conclusion that weather forecasts are horoscopes with numbers.
 How hot has it been in San Diego?
So hot that I saw a fire hydrant chasing a pack of dogs!
How hot is it?
the cows are giving evaporated milk.
the chickens are laying hard-boiled eggs
I saw a dog chasing a cat and they were both walkin'
hot water now comes out of both taps.
every time I think about ice, water pours out of my ears.
you actually burn your hand opening the car door.
you realize that asphalt has a liquid state.
the birds have to use potholders to pull worms out of the ground.
the potatoes cook underground, and all you have to do to have lunch is to pull one out and add butter, salt and pepper.
farmers are feeding their chickens crushed ice to keep them from laying hard-boiled eggs.
you start buying stock in Gatorade.
the trees are whistling for the dogs.
you start putting ice cubes in your water bed.
you no longer associate bridges (or rivers) with water.
you can say 113 degrees without fainting.
the four seasons are: tolerable, hot, really hot and are you kidding me?
you eat hot chilies to cool your mouth off.
your dream house is an igloo.
you can make instant sun tea.
your car overheats before you drive it.
you learn that a seat belt makes a pretty good branding iron.
the temperature drops below 95, you feel a bit chilly.
electric bills for A/C are more than the house payment.
you've canceled your Hotmail account because you didn't like the name
you refer only to a Celsius thermometer to enjoy summer temperatures that rarely exceed 35 degrees.
corn on the stalks starts popping and flying through the air.
popsicles melt completely within 20 seconds of removing them from a container of dry ice.
you go outside for a smoke and the cigarette lit itself!
I'm sweating like a politician on election day!
all the bread in the store is toast!
Lance Armstrong tested positive for water!
my Reese's peanut butter cups turned into Reese's peanut butter shooters...I drank 'em anyway!
your change melts into a medallion in your purse!
Jehovah's Witnesses started telemarketing.
Polar Bears are wearing sun screen.
everyone is wearing 'sweat" pants
your clothes iron themselves.
even white collar workers are red necks.
they installed a fan in the debt ceiling.
today I saw a funeral procession pull into a Dairy Queen.
     When I got out of the shower, I said to Patty,  "Honey, it's too darned hot to wear clothes today, what do you think the neighbors will say if I mow the lawn naked".
     She immediately replied, "That I married you for your money".
Submitted by Pastor Lubs:
Some facts to cool you off…
60 above zero:
Arizonians turn on the heat.
People in Iowa plant gardens.
50 above zero:
Californians shiver uncontrollably.
People in Wisconsin sunbathe.
40 above zero:
Italian & English cars won't start.
People in Maine drive with the windows down.
32 above zero:
Distilled water freezes.
The water in Minnesota gets thicker.
20 above zero:
Floridians don coats, thermal underwear, gloves, wool hats.
People in North Dakota throw on a flannel shirt.
15 above zero:
New York landlords finally turn up the heat.
People in Montana have the last cookout before it gets cold.
People in Miami all die.
Iowans close the windows.
10 below zero:
Californians fly away to Mexico
People in Green Bay get out their winter coats.
25 below zero:
Hollywood disintegrates.
The Girl Scouts in Iowa are selling cookies door to door.
40 below zero:
Washington DC runs out of hot air.
People in Sioux City let the dogs sleep indoors.
100 below zero:
Santa Claus abandons the North Pole.
Iowans get upset because they can't start the Mini-Van.
460 below zero:
All atomic motion stops (absolute zero on the Kelvin scale.)
And best of all at 500 below zero:
Hell freezes over.
Wisconsin public schools will open 2 hours late.
Stay cool and have a great week,
This is one of my favorite and worth repeating
Thanks to Dutch R.
A Short Vietnam War Story:  USN KA-3B vs. Russian Trawler AGI
09 July 2018 0716
Thanks to Phil Rognlien
A Short Vietnam War Story:  USN KA-3B vs. Russian Trawler AGI
The Russian "Trawlers" (NATO designation: AGI for Auxiliary General Intelligence) with what looked like one thousand "fishing" antennas plied the Gulf of Tonkin on a daily basis...needless to say, it was a cat-and-mouse game to see what havoc they could expend towards our two carriers operating there 24 hours a day.
Since the U.S. government had proclaimed the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin three miles off the coast of North Vietnam and Hinan Island, People's Republic of China, to be international waters, American ships in the Gulf were bound to obey the international rules of the road for ocean navigation.
This meant that if the Russian ship maneuvered herself into the path of an aircraft carrier where she had the right of way, the carrier had to give way even if she was engaged in launching or recovering aircraft.
The navigation officer was constantly trying to maneuver the ship so that the trawler wouldn't be able to get in position to abuse the rules of the road and gain the right of way.
Sometimes he was successful in sucking the trawler out of position, but the room
available for the ship to maneuver was limited by our on-station requirements, and sometimes the trawler was successful interrupting our flight operations.
The pilots of the air wing were strictly forbidden to take any action against
the Russian ship, but one day CDR John Wunche, the commanding officer of the heavy tanker KA-3B detachment, had finally had enough of the Russians' antics.
John Wunche was a big man with bright red hair and a flaming red handlebar mustache. He was a frustrated fighter pilot whom fate and the Bureau of Naval Personnel had put into the cockpit of a former heavy bomber now employed as a carrier-based tanker.
CDR Wunche flew the tanker like a fighter and frequently delighted the tactical pilots by rolling the "Whale," as we all called the KA-3B tanker, on completion of a tanker mission. Consequently, John's nickname was "the Red Baron."
On 21 July 1967 he proved just how appropriate that name was.
The "Bonnie Dick" had nearly completed a recovery. The Russian trawler had been steaming at full speed to try to cut across our bow, and the bridge watch had
been keeping a wary eye on the intruder. For a while it looked as if the Russian would be too late and we would finish the recovery before having to give way to
the trawler.But a couple of untimely bolters extended the recovery and the Bon Homme Richard had to back down and change course to comply with the rules.
The LSO hit the wave-off lights when the "Whale" was just a few yards from the ramp.
John crammed on full power and sucked up the speed brakes for the go-around. he "Bonnie Dick" began a sharp right turn to pass behind the Russian, causing the ship to list steeply, and there, dead ahead of John, was the Russian trawler.
He couldn't resist. He leveled the "Whale" about a hundred feet off the water and roared across the mast of the Trawler with all fuel dumps open like a crop
duster spraying a field of boll weevils.
The Russian disappeared in a heavy white cloud of jet fuel spray, then reemerged with JP-4 jet fuel glistening from her superstructure and running lip-full in
the scuppers. The Russian trawler immediately lost power as the ship's crew frantically tried to shut down anything that might generate a spark and ignite
the fuel.
She was rolling dead in the water in the Bon Homme Richard's wake-- her crew breaking out fire hoses to wash down the fuel--as the Bon Homme Richard steamed out of sight completing the recovery of the Whale.
The Red Baron was an instant hero to the entire ship's company.
"Flying The Feathered Edge" ...
Thanks to Doctor Rich
R.A. "Bob" Hoover had a good flight surgeon!!  "Keep 'em flying is our motto"!
Thanks to Robert
There were lots of wonderful times we had as kids growing up in the 1950's and early 60's....
With our thanks to THE Bear at  
July 9, 2018      Bear Taylor     
H-019-4: "Black May"—The Tide Turns in the Battle of the Atlantic
H-Gram 019, Attachment 4
Samuel J. Cox, Director NHHC
June 2018 
There were many factors that caused the sudden turn of fortune in the Allies' favor during May 1943, and to say that any one of them was the decisive factor would not be accurate. However, to briefly re-cap the Battle of the Atlantic prior to May 1943, the battle had see-sawed throughout the course of the war to that point. In the months after the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, German U-boats had great success (the "First Happy Time"), but an insufficient number of submarines at the start of the war was a major factor in Great Britain's ability to survive the first year of the conflict despite heavy losses of both merchant ships and warships. However, effective use of convoys, improved ASW sensors, weapons, and tactics enabled the British to decrease their losses and make the U-boats pay a higher price. Nevertheless, the period 1940 to 1941 was very desperate for the British as the island nation faced acute shortages of just about everything, including fuel oil and food, which at times reached critical levels.
When the United States entered the war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Germany immediately (unlike in World War I) sent U-boats to attack shipping right off the U.S. east coast. With the United States unprepared for the onslaught of "Operation Drumbeat," the result was unprecedented carnage at sea. For the U-boats, the first months of 1942 were the "Second Happy Time." For the Allies, they were a near-disaster that cost more lives, and many more ships, than Pearl Harbor. As the United States got its act together along the eastern seaboard in the late spring of 1942, the Germans shifted their operations to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, with initial great success. In the summer of 1942, Arctic convoy PQ-17 was also a disaster in which most of the ships carrying critical supplies to Russia were lost. (Although it is true that the amount of war material produced by the Soviet Union by itself dwarfed that provided to the Soviet Union by the United States and United Kingdom, the material that did get through—at great cost—came at a critical time when the Soviet Union was hanging on by a thread. Had it not been for the Allied supplies, the Soviet Union might not have survived long enough to build the hordes of tanks that eventually took the war to Berlin.)
Throughout late 1942 and early 1943, convoys fought their way across the Atlantic, and although U-boat losses increased, they were still manageable and the submarines were still inflicting serious losses on the convoys. However, increasingly capable and longer-range Allied air cover made operating in certain areas extremely dangerous for the U-boats, and the mid-Atlantic gap, where convoys were most vulnerable because they had no air cover, was getting smaller and smaller. The peak of pitched Atlantic convoy battles occurred in March 1943, when U-boats sank 567,000 tons of Allied shipping. (Note that statistics in the Battle of the Atlantic should be taken with a grain of salt, because many different sources use different frames of reference for how they count things.) Nevertheless, a lot of Allied shipping went to the bottom in March 1943, and the rate of loss would make a build-up for an early Allied invasion of Europe very problematic. In the space of one ten-day period in March, 40 Allied merchant ships would be sunk by U-boats in the Atlantic.
One key factor in the Battle of the Atlantic was the continuing war for intelligence by both sides, and, as in the battles at sea, it was very much a back-and-forth affair, sometimes without either side knowing it. One reason for the Germans' success was that their naval radio intelligence and code-breaking organization, "B-Dienst," was very good, and, from 1941 into most of 1943, the Germans were breaking and reading the British convoy codes fast enough to take operational action (although, like the Allies, the Germans were very careful in how they used code-breaking intelligence so as to not give away the fact that they were doing it). In fact, the British had no idea the Germans were reading their convoy-routing traffic. The British finally changed their convoy-routing code in June 1943 at the urging of the U.S. Navy cryptologic organization, OP20G.
The British had good initial success against the German Enigma encoding machine (which was an extraordinary electro-mechanical device that was close to impervious to being broken, even if a machine was captured). Nevertheless, the British had caught some early breaks with captured code books and development of "cribs" resulting from rare but periodic German communications security lapses that enabled the British to read a fair amount of Enigma code traffic at a useful pace, which they shared with the U.S. However, in February 1942, the German navy added a fourth rotor to their Enigma machines, which resulted in an astronomical (literally) increase in possible numeric combinations, making it impossible to break except by developing electro-mechanical devices even more sophisticated (and costly) than the Enigma machines. The new naval Enigma system was known as "Triton" by the Germans, and "M4 Shark" by the British. Partly as a result of the loss of ability to read Enigma traffic, convoy losses in the Atlantic in the latter half of 1942 were three times that of the same period in 1941.
The counter to the Enigma were massive machines, known as "bombes," which were a marvel of technology at the time, because they required extremely high quality control for components, which were in constant high-speed motion in order to brute-force their way through many millions of possible combinations. Even then, the machines, even when operating in large numbers, could not do it themselves. Code-breaking art by skilled cryptanalysts was still required to give the machines a chance of success. Nevertheless, with the advent of the four-rotor Enigma in the German navy, Britain's best source of Intelligence mostly dried up. (The German army and air force kept using the three-rotor device, so the Allies had much greater success breaking their communications.) The British could still read a German weather signals code and gain some intelligence about U-boat operations, but on 10 March 1943, the Germans switched to a new set of weather codes, and the British lost even that tenuous hold, which was one key factor in the high convoy loss rates in the latter half of March 1943.
Meanwhile, while the British were having serious production difficulties developing and building bombes (and enough of them) to work the four-rotor Enigma, the U.S. Navy had embarked on a hugely expensive crash program to do the same thing. In fact the U.S. bombe effort was given the same resource priority as the Manhattan Project (atom bomb development) and the technological challenges were arguably as great. The bombes were developed at the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory on the National Cash Register (NCR) compound in Dayton, Ohio. Cost overruns in the program were in the millions (in 1942 dollars). The first two "Desch" bombes, known as Adam and Eve, followed by Cain and Abel, were all prone to serious technical difficulties. For many months it appeared as if the Navy was pouring huge sums of money and resources (advanced materials) down a rat hole, all to the frustration of U.S. Navy cryptologist, who for the first year of the war were highly dependent on British intelligence.
Of note, the type of code-breaking employed against the Japanese was completely different than that employed against the Germans. The Japanese used old-fashioned paper-and-pencil code systems and didn't have Enigma machines or an equivalent (except for the diplomatic "Purple" code) in any kind of scale operation. However, success against the Japanese contributed nothing to success against the Germans. Nevertheless, by the spring of 1943, the United States had overcome most of the technical challenges of the bombes, and was starting to build them in large numbers (hundreds would be required to perform the necessary calculations). The Navy also enlisted a small army of several hundred women (WAVES) to mind the hundreds of bombes that were put in operation in a commandeered women's college on Nebraska Avenue in Washington, DC (in what for many years after the war was the headquarters of Naval Security Group). This duty was not without danger, as the bombes were prone to throwing metal components at high velocity. In theory, the WAVES did not know the true purpose of the machines they were minding, other than that it was a extremely important top secret program to which they were sworn to a lifetime of secrecy (and the WAVES kept their oath until the end). Although the U.S. Navy bombes didn't play a significant role in "Black May," by the end of June 1943 they were having significant effects and results. For the duration of the war, the U.S. Navy code-breaking effort emerged into the lead against the Germans. (More on this in a future H-gram.)
Like the British, the Germans didn't think their codes were vulnerable either. As a result, the Germans were prolific communicators, which created vulnerability through techniques of traffic analysis and radio direction finding even during periods when the Allies could not read the contents of the messages. Grossadmiral Karl Dönitz, who had moved from commander of the German submarine force to supreme commander of the German navy (after Grossadmiral Erich Raeder had been relieved when Hitler became unenthused about the performance of the German surface navy), was in frequent communications with German U-boats, providing locations and routing of Allied convoys, and forming wolf packs of multiple submarines to attack the convoys. The Allies were trying just as hard to route the convoys away from where the wolf packs were forming, and the failure to do so in late March 1943 was a factor in the high convoy losses.
Led by the British, the Allies embarked on a crash program for high frequency radio-direction finding (HFDF) on both ships and aircraft, with such considerable and rapid success that the Germans did not really grasp their vulnerability to the technology. The Germans ascribed the sudden appearance of Allied anti-submarine ships and aircraft in unexpected places to a wide variety of other factors, particularly airborne radar and a belief that the British had developed an infrared (IR) sensor (abetted by false reports deliberately planted by the British as deception), which led the Germans to invest considerable resources in special paint for their submarines to imitate the optical properties of sea water, as well as a crash German program to develop IR sensors of their own, with some limited progress before the war ended.
For all the importance of intelligence in the overall Battle of the Atlantic, during the turning point in May, Allied ntelligence capability against the U-boats was at the weakest point of the entire war. Fortunately several other factors and technologies came to fruition at the same time, resulting in a radical shift of fortune.
The first factor was Allied air power, with significantly greater numbers of longer-range aircraft operating from increasing numbers of bases around the Atlantic, as well as from a growing number of small escort carriers, such as the USS Bogue (CVE-9), which played a significant role in operations against German submarines in May 1943. The modified, very long-range B-24 Liberator bombers closed the mid-Atlantic gap, and the escort carriers could provide near continues air cover to the convoy.
The U-boats were acutely vulnerable to aircraft attack, and the Germans even developed "flak" U-boats, designed with a heavy defensive anti-aircraft armament intended to duke it out on the surface with aircraft. The Allies received a rude shock (due to surprise) during the first encounter with a flak U-boat, before they quickly adapted and it became readily apparent that this was not one of the Germans' better ideas. The British, in particular, also resumed air attacks (after early heavy losses) against U-boats returning to their bases in occupied France on the Bay of Biscay. The last few miles of a U-boat patrol quickly become the most dangerous, and many were lost almost within sight of the safety of their massively reinforced U-boat pens. Increasingly equipped with airborne radar, ASW aircraft became significantly more dangerous and could attack at night when the U-boats preferred to surface to recharge their batteries. The preferred tactic by wolf packs was also a night surface attack; taking away the U-boats' sanctuary in the darkness had a major adverse effect on U-boat success and survival.
Another factor was sheer numbers. The anti-submarine production effort was given top priority (and U.S. Navy commanders felt the resulting shortages first-hand during the brutal battles around Guadalcanal in late 1942) but, by 1943, Allied (primarily U.S.) shipyards were cranking out more of everything: ships, aircraft, weapons, sensors. Even during the worst of the U-boat attacks, Allied ship building was keeping pace with losses (sometimes barely) while German shipyards were also keeping pace with their submarine losses. By May 1943, those curves had changed radically. U.S. shipyards were producing many more ships than the Germans could sink, and the Germans were losing more submarines that their shipyards could replace—hence, Dönitz's recall order on 24 May 1943. The Germans didn't make a concerted effort to resume submarine operations in the Atlantic until the fall of 1943, and from then on they were almost constantly on the defensive.
Rapidly improving Allied technology, and the tactics to use it effectively, coupled with advances in scientific operational analysis, also reached a key inflection point in May 1943. The new U.S. Navy short- range communications system, "Talk-Between Ships" (TBS), developed just before the start of the war, represented a significant advance over the CW 936 radio-telephones that had proved very effective when first introduced in World War I. New weapons technology included better sonar, the advent of sonobouys, and FIDO, which was termed the Mark 24 mine, but was actually a U.S. air-dropped passive acoustic homing ASW torpedo, introduced in March 1943.
Another weapons technology was the proliferation of the British-designed forward-throwing ASW Hedgehog depth bomb aboard both British and U.S. ships. (In the Pacific, in May 1944, USS England (DE-635) sank six Japanese submarines in as many days using Hedgehog). With the Hedgehog, the attacking surface ship did not have to first steam over the contact and drop depth charges in her wake, thus allowing the submarine much less time to take evasive maneuvers. Quickly recognizing the deadly threat posed by the Hedgehog (one in five Hedgehog attacks resulted in a kill, compared to one out of 80 for conventional depth charges), the Germans introduced the Falke ("Falcon") acoustic homing torpedo in mid-1943, which was in turn countered by the Allied Foxer noisemaking decoy. The Germans also developed the Wanze ("Tick") radar-warning device to try to counter increasingly deadly attacks by Allied aircraft equipped with microwave anti–surface vessel (ASV) radar. The Allies countered with radars at a frequency Wanze could not detect. In early May 1943, this 10-centimeter radar aboard aircraft detected all 26 attempts by U-boats to attack convoy ONS 5, which were driven off.
Greatly improved Allied tactics were primarily a function of hard-won lessons learned and experience. Commanders and crews had simply gotten better than they were earlier in the war. Scientific analysis was also used to refine tactics. With more assets, independent support groups could be placed at strategic points along the convoy routes, where they could more rapidly reinforce a convoy's organic escorts in the event the convoy came under wolf-pack attack. The German wolf-pack tactics (later used with great effect by U.S. submarines against the Japanese) and Allied support group tactics are arguably early examples of "swarm" tactics.
Allied operational capability had so improved by mid-1943 that it would have actually made more sense to draw the U-boats to the convoy rather than using Ultra (broken Enigma traffic) to avoid them, under the theory that the more U-boats that attacked, the more that could be sunk. Nevertheless, U.S. and British commanders balked at the idea of using convoys as "bait," instead choosing to employ hunter-killer task groups, often driven by intelligence on U-boat locations. Although use of the hunter-killer groups was raised to a fine art, they were resource-intensive and less efficient than letting the U-boats come to the target, but much better for the morale of those on the troopships.
Another major development in May 1943 was the creation of the U.S. Tenth Fleet on 20 May. CNO/COMINCH Admiral King directed that the responsibilities of technological development, scientific operational analysis, ASW doctrine, and training be combined in one command, along with significant intelligence capability. Although the Tenth Fleet did not have its own forces, it would serve as the central command responsible for protecting convoys and hunting down U-boats. Despite being stood up too late to effect the convoy battles in early 1943 or the turning of the tide, Tenth Fleet would have significant effect on the remainder of the Battle of the Atlantic, and would serve as a forerunner of the operational intelligence (OPINTEL) concept that served the U.S. Navy throughout the Cold War, integrating all types of intelligence into a very close operational cycle.
(Sources include The Secret in Building 26: The Untold Story of America's Ultra War Against the U-boat Enigma Codes, by Jim DeBrosse and Colin Burke, 2004, "Turning Point in the Atlantic" by Commander In H. Ha, USN, in the April 2018 issue of Naval History magazine, and Information at Sea: Shipboard Command and Control in the U.S. Navy from Mobile Bay to Okinawa by Timothy S. Wolters, 2013, as well as a host of U-boat books in my personal library.)
Published:Tue Jun 26 09:05:49 EDT 2018
Item Number:1 Date: 07/09/2018 AFGHANISTAN - APPARENT INSIDER ATTACK KILLS U.S. SOLDIER IN URUZGAN PROVINCE (JUL 09/NBC)  NBC NEWS -- A U.S. soldier has been killed and two others injured in an apparent insider attack in Afghanistan, reports NBC News.   Cpl. Joseph Maciel was killed on July 7 in Tarin Kowt District, Uruzgan province, the Pentagon said on Sunday. The incident is under investigation, said officials.   The two soldiers wounded in the incident were reportedly in stable condition.   Maciel was assigned to 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, which is currently deployed in support of the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade, the Pentagon said.   The 1st SFAB was established earlier this year to train Afghan Troops, noted the Columbus Ledger-Enquirer (Ga.).   The Taliban referenced the attack in a statement but did not claim responsibility, reported Agence France-Presse. The statement said the attack took place at the Tarin Kowt airport and was carried out by a member of the Afghan security forces.   A "green on blue" attack by Afghan soldiers on their NATO counterparts last occurred in August 2017. A Romanian soldier was injured in that attack. A U.S. soldier was killed by Afghan soldier two months before that.  
 Item Number:2 Date: 07/09/2018 BRAZIL - NAVY RECEIVES UPGRADED SKYHAWK FIGHTER (JUL 09/DIALOGO)  DIALOGO -- A recently upgraded A-4 Skyhawk fighter jet will soon enter service with the Brazilian navy, reports Dialogo, a digital magazine produced by the U.S. Southern Command.   The navy received the two-seat AF-1C jet from Brazlian firm Embraer in April, according to the July 6 article.   Embraer upgraded aircraft instruments, radar and weapons. The existing radar system was replaced with the Elta EL/M-2032 and a new radar warning receiver was installed.   After successful training on the platform, the AF-1C will enter service with the 1st Attack and Interceptor Jet Squadron (VF-1).   After the upgrades, the aircraft can operate effectively during day and night and in all weather conditions, squadron officials said.   Embraer signed a contract in 2009 to upgrade four single-seat AF-1Bs and three two-seat AF-1Cs for the Brazilian navy. Delivery is scheduled to be completed by 2020
Item Number:3 Date: 07/09/2018 DEM REP OF CONGO - NAVAL FORCES CLASH WITH UGANDAN TROOPS ON LAKE EDWARD (JUL 09/REU)  REUTERS -- Two troops from the Democratic Republic of Congo have been injured following clashes with Ugandan armed forces on a lake that lies along their shared border, reports Reuters.   On July 5, the Congolese navy launched patrol boats in response to reports of Ugandan forces stopping Congolese fishermen on Lake Edward.   The Ugandan forces entered Congolese waters when doing so, said Donat Kibwana, administrator of the DRC's Beni territory.   The Congolese patrol was then ambushed by Ugandan forces.   Two Congolese troops were injured in the exchange of gunfire, said Kibwana. One Ugandan soldier was killed and another was injured, according to Ugandan officials.   A spokesman for the Ugandan army said two boats were on patrol off the Ugandan village of Rwensha when they were fired on by unknown gunmen.   Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo have a tense security relationship. Uganda backed forces fighting the Congolese government in the first and second Congo Wars in 1996 and 1998.   Uganda has also accused of DRC of failing to respond adequately to activities by the Allied Democratic Forces rebel group along the border.   The two countries are currently planning joint operations against the group.  
  Item Number:8 Date: 07/09/2018 NORTH KOREA - SATELLITE IMAGERY INDICATES WORK CONTINUES ON SLBM, SAYS S. KOREAN LAWMAKER (JUL 09/WSJ)  WALL STREET JOURNAL -- A senior South Korean lawmaker says that North Korea is developing a new submarine capable of launching nuclear-armed ballistic missiles, reports the Wall Street Journal.   Work on the submarine is ongoing at the eastern port of Sinpo, said Kim Hack Yong, former chair of the National Assembly's defense committee   According to satellite imagery cited by Kim, workers and materials appear to be moving to an indoor facility, where the boat is being built.   North Korea began its sub-launched ballistic missile program in 2014 and has conducted at least four missile tests.   U.S. intelligence estimates last year suggested that the sub displaced about 2,000 tons and had a 36-foot beam, making it the largest ship to be built for the North Korean navy, reported Business Insider.   The satellite imagery appears to be genuine, according retired South Korean army Lt. Gen. Hwang Jin Ha.   Both Hwang and Kim belong to a conservative opposition party.   After a broad public pledge by the Northj to denuclearize following the summit between President Donald Trump and North Korean dictator Kim Jong Un in June, reports have suggested that work continues on nuclear and missile production facilities.  
Item Number:11 Date: 07/09/2018 SYRIA - ARMY SAYS DERAA POISED TO FALL; RESISTANCE CONTINUES AROUND THE PROVINCE (JUL 09/REU)  REUTERS -- The Syrian army says the rebel-held city of Deraa in southwestern Syrian is about to fall as Russian negotiators plan to move up to 1,000 rebel fighters and their family members, reports Reuters.   The fighters will be moved from Deraa to the northwestern Idlib province, Russia's Interfax news reported on Monday.   The Syrian army said on Monday that it had surrounded the city. A rebel commander confirmed the situation, reported the Australian Associated Press. Thousands of people are now encircled, said rebel sources.   At least 90 towns have joined Russian-led reconciliation efforts that have allowed the government of Bashar Assad to gain control of several cities in the southwestern province, reported Russia's RIA state news agency.   Meanwhile, rebels in Um al-Mayadin refused to surrender their weapons, accusing Moscow of not abiding by the surrender accord, reported Al Jazeera (Qatar). At least four people in the region were killed in a Syrian airstrike on Sunday.   In western Deraa province, at least 11 rebel factions have joined to create "the Southern Army."  
  Item Number:13 Date: 07/09/2018 TUNISIA - INSURGENT ATTACK KILLS NINE GUARDSMEN IN RESTIVE BORDER REGION (JUL 09/TAP)  TUNISIAN NEWS AGENCY -- At least six members of the Tunisian national guard have been killed in an apparent insurgent attack near the Algerian border, reports the state-run Tunis Afrique Presse.   On Sunday, the guardsmen were on patrol in the Gar Dimaou, Jendouba province, when the attackers hurled a grenade at the first of two all-terrain vehicles.   The attackers and guardsmen then exchanged fire.   In a statement, Interior Minister Sofiene Zaak suggested that the troops might have hit a land mine instead of a grenade, fitting the pattern of other attacks in the area.   Reports of the death toll ranged from six reported by Reuters to nine according to the state-run agency. It was the highest death tool in an attack in Tunisia since 2015.   The Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb-affiliated Oqba bin Nafi Battalion claimed responsibility for the attack, according to a statement cited by Turkey's official Anadolu Agency.   The majority of attacks against Tunisian security forces near the border with Algeria have been attributed to the Oqba bin Nafi Battalion
Item Number:14 Date: 07/09/2018 TURKEY - NEW WAVE OF ARRESTS TARGETS GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES WITH ALLEGED TERROR LINKS (JUL 09/WSJ)  WALL STREET JOURNAL -- More than 18,000 government employees in Turkey have been dismissed for alleged links to terrorist groups, reports the Wall Street Journal.   The individuals were listed in an emergency decree published in Turkey's Official Gazette on Sunday.   There were 9,000 police officers, 6,000 military personnel and 1,000 employees from the justice ministry identified for dismissal. The government also fired 199 academics, reported the Hurriyet Daily News (Istanbul).   The decree also closed 12 associations, three newspapers and a TV channel.   The statement did not list the organizations to which the employees belonged, saying only that they acted "against national security."   Analysts said that the move resembled the firings following a failed coup attempt in 2016 and expanded actions against Kurdish separatists. Those arrests and firings focused on members of the Gulen movement, which was formerly allied with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, and the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).   The decree was released the day before Erdogan assumed his first term under a greatly-expanded presidential system. Using his expanded powers, Erdogan may be able to rule by decree without resorting to "extraordinary rule" granted to him after the failed 2016 coup.   At least 130,000 employees have been fired over alleged terror links since 2016.

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