Saturday, April 7, 2018

TheList 4694

The List 4694
To All
I hope that you all have a great weekend.  Cowboy solved the problem with yesterday's list 4693 so most of you should have received it.
This Day In Naval History – April 6, 2018
April 6
1776—The Continental Navy Squadron, commanded by Commodore Esek Hopkins, is attacked by the British frigate HMS Glasgow and her tender while entering Long Island Sound.
1776 - Sloop-of-war Ranger, frigate Queen of France and frigate Warren capture British Hibernia and 7 other vessels
1862—Naval gunfire from gunboats Tyler and Lexington protect the advanced river flank of Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's army at the Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing).
1909—Cmdr. Robert E. Peary reports reaching the North Pole, dropping a note in a glass bottle into a crevice in the ice that states: "I have this day hoisted the national ensign of the United States of America at this place, which my observations indicate to be the North Polar axis of the earth, and have formally taken possession of the entire region, and adjacent, for and in the name of the President of the United States of America."
1917—Following the sinking of U.S. merchant vessels by German U-boats, the U.S. declares war on Germany, entering World War I.
1945—The first heavy kamikaze attacks begin on ships at Okinawa. USS Bush (DD 529), USS Colhoun (DD 801), USS Emmons (DMS 22) and (LST 447) are damaged beyond repair.
1945—USAAF B-25s attack Japanese convoy HOMO-03 and destroy a Japanese destroyer, minesweeper, a cargo ship and other ships. USS Besugo (SS 321) and USS Hardhead (SS 365) also sink Japanese ships.
1961 - USS Lake Champlain brings oxygen to aid stricken passenger of British liner Queen of Bermuda.
1968—USS New Jersey (BB 62) is re-commissioned for shore bombardment duty at Vietnam.
1989 - President orders DOD to assist in Exxon Valdez oil spill cleanup
1993 - Branch Navy Hospital Adak responds to crash of civilian Chinese airline providing lifesaving treatment and medical evacuation of 89 injured passengers. Only one passenger out of 265 passengers died.
2013—The commissioning ceremony for USS Arlington (LPD 24) is held at Naval Station Norfolk, the ship's homeport. The San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock ship joins sister ships USS New York and Somerset to be named for the sites attacked by terrorists on Sept. 11, 2001. Steel salvaged from the Pentagon, based in Arlington, are showcased in the ship's museum.
On this day in history (April 6):
1896: The first modern Olympic Games began in Athens, Greece.
1930: Hostess Twinkies were invented by bakery executive James Dewar. It is a creamy-filled sponge cake created in order to use small baking pans that would otherwise remain in storage except for each year's brief strawberry shortcake season. About a billion Twinkies are eaten every year.
1954: The TV Dinner was first put on sale by Swanson & Sons. It was black and white at the time.
1992: The Great Purple Satan begins charming millions of unknowing tiny followers into his cult of Dino-worship as "Barney and Friends" makes its debut on PBS.  Remember, sharing is caring and caring is sharing!
And today is:
National Raisin and Spice Bar Day
April 7
1776—The Continental brig Lexington, commanded by John Barry, captures the British tender Edward near the Virginia Capes after a fierce fight that takes nearly an hour.
1944—USS Saufley (DD 465) sinks the Japanese submarine I 2, west-northwest of New Hanover, while USS Champlin (DD 601) is damaged after intentionally ramming German submarine U-856 380 miles off Nova Scotia, Canada. Champlin then teams with USS Huse (DE 145) to sink U-856.
1944—USS Gustafson (DE 182) sinks the German submarine U 857 off Cape Cod, MA.
1945—First two Navy flight nurses land on an active battlefield at Iwo Jima. 
1945—Fast Carrier Task Force 58 aircraft attack the Japanese First Diversion Attack Force, sinking Japanese battleship Yamato and light cruiser Yahagi west-southwest of Kagoshima, Japan, as well as sinking four Japanese destroyers and damaging four others in the East China Sea.
1979—USS Ohio (SSBN 726), the first Trident submarine, launches at Groton, CT. She is commissioned into the Navy in November that same year. Following a conversion to a guided-missile submarine in 2006, she is now SSGN-726.
1990—The Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine USS Albany (SSN 573) is commissioned at Naval Station Norfolk.
1993—The Avenger-class mine countermeasure ship USS Warrior (MCM 10) is commissioned. The ship is currently based in Sasebo, Japan
2017—On the orders of President Trump, USS Ross (DDG 71) and USS Porter (DDG 78) launch Tomahawk missiles into Syria April 7, in retaliation for the regime of Bashar Assad using nerve agents to attack his own people.
April 8
1823—The barges USS Mosquito, USS Gallinipper, and sloop-of-war Peacock chase the pirate schooner, Pilot, which is driven ashore off Havana, Cuba.
1848—The first U.S. flag is flown over the Sea of Galilee when Lt. William F. Lynch sails in an iron boat up the Jordan River. He later authors a book, "Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea."
1925—Lt. John D. Price, piloting a VF-1 plane, makes a night landing on USS Langley (CV 1), at sea off San Diego, CA, the first on board a U.S. Navy carrier.
1944—USS Seahorse (SS 304) and USS Trigger (SS 237) successfully attack a Japanese convoy off Guam, damaging a Japanese destroyer and a tanker.
1961—USS Laffey (DD 724) and USS Tanner (AGS 15) assist in rescue work and firefighting after the British passenger liner Dara catches fire in the Persian Gulf.
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
Top national news headlines include additional tariffs enacted by the United States against China, a magnitude 5.3 earthquake in California, and the sentencing of South Korea's former president Park Geun-hye for corruption. Chief of Naval Operations Adm. John Richardson will announce the formation of the College of Leadership and Ethics at the U.S. Naval War College and release an updated version of the Navy Leader Development Framework today in Newport. The NLDF 2.0 includes updates to the Navy's "Charge of Command", adds the concept of mentor advocacy as a way to more actively develop and promote winning leaders and re-issues Richardson's September 2016 memo "One Navy Team" on inclusiveness. Marine Corps Times reports that U.S. air operations in Djibouti have been halted and the amphibious exercise Alligator Dagger has been canceled after two Marine aviation mishaps on April 3. The Wall Street Journal reports that President Trump has stated that he intends to send 4,000 troops to the border until a border wall is built.
April 6
English King Richard I is killed by an arrow at the Siege of the Castle of Chalus in France.
The First U.S. Congress begins regular sessions at Federal Hall in New York City.
Granted sovereignty in the island of Elba and a pension from the French government, Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates at Fontainebleau. He is allowed to keep the title of emperor.
Joseph Smith and five others organize the Church of Latter-Day Saints in Seneca, New York.
Confederate forces attack General Ulysses S. Grant at Shiloh, Tennessee.
At the Battle of Sailer's Creek, a third of Lee's army is cut off by Union troops pursuing him to Appomattox.
The Modern Olympics begin in Athens with eight nations participating.
French Army Nationalists are revealed to have forged documents to guarantee a conviction for Alfred Dreyfus.
Americans Robert Peary and Matthew Henson become the first men to reach the North Pole.
The United States declares war on Germany and enters World War I on Allied side.
Four planes leave Seattle on the first successful flight around the world.
The United States recognizes Nazi Germany's conquest of Austria.
German forces invade Greece and Yugoslavia.
President Lyndon B. Johnson authorizes the use of ground troops in combat operations.
With our thanks to THE Bear at
April 6, 2018   Bear Taylor  
RIPPLE SALVO… #762…  A 1972 Cornell University study concluded that "a cessation of U.S. air activity would bring about a fairly quick collapse of the pro-Western forces there" and that air power– including Rolling Thunder during the years 1965-1968 — was America's "best bargaining counter."… but first…
GOOD MORNING: Day SEVEN HUNDRED SIXTY-TWO of a short course on OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER, one day at a time, fifty years after the fact…
HEAD LINES from the OGDEN, UTAH, STANDARD-EXAMINER (Associated Press/United Press International) for Saturday, 6 April 1968…
Thanks to Dr. Rich
Back to the boat at 500 ft., 480 KIAS … "Piece 'a cake" ...
Thanks to Felix …
F/A-18F Carrier Break and land. 
Thanks to Dave …
Reminds me of the "Turbo Encabulator" that you've undoubtedly seen.  But just in case not:
Here's the back story from the "Director", which makes the performance even more impressive:  

This is the first time Turbo Encabulator was recorded with picture. I shot this in the late 70's at Regan Studios in Detroit on 16mm film. The narrator and writer is Bud Haggert. He was the top voice-over talent on technical films. He wrote the script because he rarely understood the technical copy he was asked to read and felt he shouldn't be alone. We had just finished a production for GMC Trucks and Bud asked since this was the perfect setting could we film his Turbo Encabulator script. He was using an audio prompter referred to as "the ear". He was actually the pioneer of the ear. He was to deliver a live speech without a prompter. After struggling in his hotel room trying to commit to memory he went to plan B. He recorded it to a large Wollensak reel to reel recorder and placed it in the bottom of the podium. With a wired earplug he used it for the speech and the "ear" was invented. Today every on-camera spokesperson uses a variation of Bud's innovation. Dave Rondot (me) was the director and John Choate was the DP on this production. The first laugh at the end is mine. My hat's off to Bud a true talent.
Item Number:1 Date: 04/06/2018 AFGHANISTAN - FOREIGN MINISTRY ACCUSES PAKISTAN OF CROSS-BORDER BOMBING (APR 06/RFE/RL)  RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY -- The Afghan government has accused Pakistan of carrying out airstrikes in the northeastern Kunar province, reports Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.   On Thursday, the Afghan Foreign Ministry said Pakistani aircraft dropped four bombs in the Dangam district in Kunar, located on the border with Pakistan.   The attack caused "huge financial damage," the ministry said.   The statement did not mention any casualties.   Pakistan denied violating Afghan airspace.   Pakistani security forces have been pursuing militants based in Afghanistan after they launched attacks across the border, said the Pakistani Foreign Ministry.   The accusations came ahead of Pakistani Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi's scheduled visit to Kabul on Friday.   Abbasi was slated to meet with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani to discuss joint efforts to fight militant groups in the region, especially the Taliban.  
  Item Number:2 Date: 04/06/2018 FRANCE - REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT FOR JOINT FIGHTER PROGRAM WITH GERMANY TO BE SIGNED THIS MONTH (APR 06/REU)  REUTERS -- French defense officials expect to ink an agreement with Germany to advance their joint fighter development program later this month, reports Reuters.   France and Germany are currently in "active talks" that should result in an announcement during the Berlin Air Show, French Defense Minister Florence Parly said on Thursday.   The parties are expected to sign a high level common operational requirements document during the air show, scheduled for April 25 to 29.   After the common operational requirements are identified, French and German companies will spend a year working separately before reconvening to work out a common contract.   French companies Dassault, MBDA, Thales and Safran and German manufacturer Airbus are working to create a common fighter platform to replace France's Rafale and the Eurofighter, which compete for sales.   Ongoing discussions are intense but productive, said Parly.   Plans call for launching the program in 2020, with the goal of delivering the first aircraft by 2040.    
  Item Number:3 Date: 04/06/2018 GERMANY - LAWMAKERS EXPECTED TO APPROVE LEASE OF UAVS FOR BUNDESWEHR (APR 06/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- The German Parliament is expected to approve the lease of Israeli drones for use with the German military, reports Defense News.   The 25 million euro (US$31 million) placeholder petition covers the lease of "a handful" of Israeli Heron TP drones. The UAVs would be managed by Airbus and remain stationed in Israel. The program is expected to be worth 1 billion euros (US$1.2 billion).   Partisan gridlock ahead of last year's parliamentary elections prevented the same proposal from passing last summer. The political environment is now said to be more favorable.   The UAV will start with surveillance capabilities. The possibility of arming the drones will be debated at a later date, possibly once the drones are operational.   The Parliament must make its decision before their scheduled recess on May 18 in order to remain within the defense industry's cost calculations, which expire on May 31.   
  Item Number:4 Date: 04/06/2018 JAPAN - UPGRADES PLANNED FOR IWO ISLAND RADAR SYSTEM AS CHINA STEPS UP PACIFIC ACTIVITY (APR 06/MAIN)  MAINICHI SHIMBUN -- Japan plans to install upgraded radar systems on Iwo island in the Pacific Ocean, reports the Mainichi Shimbun.   The Defense Ministry plans to upgrade the existing training system with warning and control capability, the paper reported on Thursday.   Modernization work is expected to begin in fiscal 2018, with operations to start in 2020, the ministry said.   The new system is intended to enhance Japan's air defense capabilities around the Izu and Ogasawara islands, south of the main island, Honshu.   Japan allocated about 500 million yen (US$4.7 million) in fiscal 2017 for upgrades of the training-focused radar, including satellite communications and data links to communicate with military aircraft.   The updates will enable the radar to connect to the Japan Aerospace Defense Ground Environment (JADGE) network, noted IHS Jane's Defence Weekly.   Chinese ships and aircraft have recently increased their activities in the Western Pacific.  
  Item Number:5 Date: 04/06/2018 LIBYA - 1 SOLDIER KILLED IN SABHA CLASHES (APR 06/LIBOB)  LIBYA OBSERVER -- One person has been killed and two wounded during fighting in the southern Libyan city of Sabha, reports the Libya Observer.   On Tuesday, a soldier from the 6th Infantry Brigade was killed by mortar fire on the city's southern edge.   At least 10 people have been killed and 38 injured in fighting in Sabha since late February, according to the Sabha Medical Center, as cited by Turkey's Anadolu Agency.   Some reports indicate the fighting is between the rival Awlad Suleiman and Tabu tribes. Others say the Libyan army has been fighting foreign militias from Chad and Sudan.   Renewed attacks were likely, especially against the city's airport, said a spokesman for the brigade, which is loyal to the internationally-recognized government based in Tripoli.   A Sudanese militant group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), denied a role in the clashes, reported the Sudan Tribune.   "The conflict in Libya is an internal affair of the Libyans and JEM is not and will not be party to it," said a JEM spokesman.   JEM fighters have been accused of fighting as mercenaries in the conflict, most recently on the side of the Khalifa Haftar-led Libyan National Army in Sabha.   
  Item Number:6 Date: 04/06/2018 LITHUANIA - VILNIUS SEEKS REGIONAL CYBERSECURITY CENTER IN KAUNAS (APR 06/BNS)  BALTIC NEWS SERVICE -- Senior Lithuanian officials have proposed creating a regional cybersecurity center with the United States, reports the Baltic News Service.   Lithuania is ready to lead on cybersecurity issues in the European Union and in cooperation with the U.S., officials said.   Vice Minister of Defense Edvinas Kerza said the center could develop cybersecurity tools, conduct research and hold exercises. Specialists from the Pennsylvania National Guard could join the center, he said. The Pennsylvania Guard is partnered with Lithuania through the U.S. National Guard's State Partnership Program.   The new center is planned as a subdivision of the National Cybersecurity Center in Vilnius. It could also control E.U. cyber response forces. The forces would assist member states under cyber attack and work to prevent incidents.   Lithuanian intelligence says that Russia accounts for the majority of malicious cyber activity directed at the country, including state institutions and the energy sector.  
  Item Number:7 Date: 04/06/2018 MALI - 60 TERRORISTS KILLED IN FIGHTING IN EAST, SAYS FRENCH ARMY (APR 06/RFI)  RADIO FRANCE INTERNATIONALE -- The French military says that about 60 terrorists were killed in eastern Mali in clashes with troops from France, Mali and Niger, reports Radio France International.   On Sunday, about 60 terrorists were killed by a combined French, Malian and Nigerien force in the Akabar area in northeastern Mali, near the border with Niger, a French army spokesman said on Thursday.   The French military launched a joint reconnaissance and control operation with Malian and Nigerien forces on March 28, officials said.   The area is a noted hotspot for the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara group, led by Abou Walid al Sharaoui.   Malian forces suffered casualties, said the spokesman.   French forces dispatched two Gazelle helicopters and two Mirage 2000 fighter jets, but the aircraft did not carry out any strikes.   Meanwhile,, two U.N. peacekeepers in northeastern Mali were killed on Thursday in a mortar attack, according to the U.N. Ten others were injured.    
  Item Number:8 Date: 04/06/2018 SENEGAL - DAKAR INKS DEAL FOR 4 L-39NG LIGHT ATTACK AND TRAINING JETS (APR 06/AEROVO)  AERO VODOCHODY -- Senegal has purchased four L-39NG light attack and training jets from Aero Vodochody, reports the Czech defense firm.   President of Senegal Macky Sall announced the purchase during national Independence Day celebrations on April 4, reported Defence Web (South Africa).   The contract includes conversion, instructor and combat training; maintenance training for personnel; spare parts; ground support equipment; and logistic support services.   Senegal is the first international customer for the L-39NG (Next Generation).   Aero Vodochody launched pre-series production of the jet in January. First flight is anticipated in late 2018, with deliveries to begin in 2020. Full-rate production is expected to begin in 2022.   The L-39NG program began in 2014 and takes about half its parts from the existing L-39.    
  Item Number:9 Date: 04/06/2018 SOUTH KOREA - F-15K CRASHES SOUTH OF SEOUL, KILLING BOTH PILOTS (APR 06/YON)  YONHAP -- A South Korean F-15K fighter jet has crashed south of the capital, Seoul, killing the two pilots onboard, reports South Korea's Yonhap news agency.   The pilots were returning to Daegu air base on Thursday after a training flight when their F-15K Slam Eagle crashed into a mountain, said the air force.   The pilots did not eject before impact.   The cause of the crash was not immediately clear, said investigators. Weather did not appear to be a factor.   The fighter was flying on an instrument flight plan, not visual flight, said an air force official.   The jet's flight data recorder was recovered and will be reviewed, the air force said on Friday.   Thursday's incident was the first crash involving a South Korean F-15K fighter since 2006, when a jet fell into the Sea of Japan
Item Number:10 Date: 04/06/2018 SPAIN - MADRID SEEKS 17 CH-47F HELICOPTERS TO BOOST AIRLIFT CAPABILITIES (APR 06/DSCA)  U.S. DEFENSE SECURITY COOPERATION AGENCY -- The U.S. State Dept. has cleared Spain to purchase heavy-lift helicopters from Boeing, reports the U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency.   The proposed US$1.3 billion deal covers 17 CH-47F helicopters with customer specific modifications, including 21 AN/AAR-57A(V)8 common missile warning systems and 42 embedded GPS/INS navigation systems.   The possible sale also includes AN/ARC-231 multi-mode radios; AN/ARC-2010 SINCGARS radios; AN/ARC-220 HF radios; identification-friend-or-foe equipment; and AN/APR-39A(V)1 radar warning receivers.   The helicopters would enhance Spain's heavy-lift capability to strengthen its homeland defense and deter regional threats, the agency said.     
  Item Number:11 Date: 04/06/2018 UNITED KINGDOM - INTELLIGENCE REPORT IDENTIFIES RUSSIAN SOURCE OF NERVE AGENT (APR 06/TL)  TIMES OF LONDON -- A British intelligence briefing has identified a Russian military research base as the source of the nerve agent used to attack a Russian double agent living in England, reports the Times of London.   An intelligence briefing shared with British allies identified the Shikhany military research facility in southwest Russia as the source for the Novichok nerve agent used against Sergei Skripal and his daughter, the newspaper reported on Friday.   British officials included the information in the briefing that led to the expulsion of more than 150 Russian officials from 28 countries.   The intelligence gathered suggested that during the last decade, the Shikhany facility was used to test Novichok as an effective tool for international assassinations.   Chemical stockpiles at the facility were too small for battlefield usage, noted analysts.   British officials were reportedly worried about releasing too much information but felt that Russia had gained the upper hand in a media battle that has flared between both sides since the poisoning of Skripal on March 4.  
  Item Number:12 Date: 04/06/2018 USA - AIR FORCE THUNDERBIRDS PILOT KILLED IN CRASH (APR 06/MIL)  MILITARY.COM -- A pilot with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team was killed on Wednesday after his fighter crashed at the Nevada Test and Training Range, reports   Maj. Stephen Del Bagno was taking part in a routine training flight when the crash occurred, according to a Thunderbirds release.   Del Bagno, a former F-35A evaluator pilot, had more than 3,500 flight hours in more than 30 different aircraft, including 1,400 hours as an Air Force pilot, according to his official biography. He was in his first season with the Thunderbirds.   An investigation into the cause of the crash has been launched.   The crash is part of a troubling trend for the Thunderbirds and the F-16. The demonstration team has lost three aircraft since 2016.   The F-16 has had nine Class A incidents over the same timespan. A lass A incident involves a fatality, damage exceeding $1 million or the loss of an aircraft.   The Thunderbirds have cancelled their show scheduled for this weekend, and it remains unclear how the accident will affect the remainder of their schedule.   
  Item Number:13 Date: 04/06/2018 USA - ARMY SEEKS TO HOLD LARGE-SCALE DRILLS ON LITTLE NOTICE (APR 06/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- In order to be operationally unpredictable to potential adversaries, the U.S. Army plans to hold bigger exercises with less advanced warning, reports Defense News.   The decision is in support of the new National Defense Strategy, which calls for strategic predictability with allies, while maintaining the possibility of operational surprise for potential adversaries.   Gen. Robert Abrams, the head of Army Forces Command, said that he wants to reduce "heel-to-toe" rotational demands and may look to conduct drills with multiple combatant commands.   Such drills could involve units from one combatant command taking part in another combatant command's exercise, said Abrams.   The previous head of U.S. Army Europe had considered a trial of larger deployments in Europe to evaluate the service's capacity to handle more than one brigade's worth of hardware and personnel
Item Number:14 Date: 04/06/2018 USA - GOOGLE EMPLOYEES OPPOSE AI PROJECT WITH PENTAGON (APR 06/)  -- Over 3,000 Google employees have signed a letter requesting their CEO to step away from an artificial intelligence program with the U.S. Dept. of Defense, reports Live Science.   Project Maven, which Google joined in March, covers the development of software to scan drone footage to detect and flag 38 classes of objects, with the goal of freeing up human analysts for other missions.   Google's leadership defended the partnership, emphasizing that the technology was for non-offensive purposes. The letter argues that the technology could be used to assist in lethal tasks.   A Google spokesman said that most of the signatures were collected before the company had the chance to explain the situation, reported the New York Times.   Separately, a group of scientists from 29 countries have accused a leading South Korean science and technology institute of developing "killer robots," and have called for a boycott of the university, reported Science magazine.   The organizer of the boycott is calling for the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology in Daejeon to provide assurances that the center "will not develop autonomous weapons lacking meaningful human control."   AI experts became concerned when KAIST opened its new Research Center for the Convergence of National Defense and Artificial Intelligence in cooperation with defense firm Hanwha Systems in February.   The United Nations Group of Government Experts on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems is taking up the issue of "meaningful human control" next week in Geneva, Switzerland.  
  Item Number:15 Date: 04/06/2018 USA - ONR SEEKS TO DEVELOP ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES (APR 06/)  -- The Office of Naval Research has awarded Concurrent Technologies Corp., Johnstown, Pa., a contract to support the Navy's additive manufacturing efforts.   The two-year, $2.6 million contract covers technology solutions to ensure the producibility of quality metal parts from additive manufacturing machines, said a Concurrent Technologies release. The contract also includes a $3.8 million two-year option, which the company expects the Navy to pick up.   The Navy is looking to additive manufacturing to allow for greater readiness, resiliency and leaner supply chains by employing qualified, certified additive manufacturing components for air, sea and land platforms.   The service has expressed interest building parts for aircraft aboard ships at sea to reduce the challenge of storing components and large parts on vessels and aircraft, said the release.   Concurrent Technologies will develop and demonstrate a suite of additive manufacturing software and hardware technologies needed for the rapid qualification of metallic parts, the company said
  Item Number:16 Date: 04/06/2018 USA - SWIFTSHIPS WINS DEAL FOR NEW NAVY LANDING CRAFT (APR 06/USNIN)  USNI NEWS -- Swiftships, Morgan City, La., has received a Navy contract to design and build new landing craft, reports USNI News.   The $18 million contract covers the detail design and production of the first craft in the LCU-1700 class. The contract contains options for up to 31 additional LCUs with a maximum contract value of $429.4 million.   The LCU-1700 program is a "modified repeat" of the LCU-1610 design that originated in the late 1950s. The new design features reliability and maintainability improvements, according to the Navy. The steel hull will be designed to last for 30 years, while conducting repeated beach landings without structural damage, noted IHS Jane's International Defence Review.   The Navy's fleet of 32 LCUs, with an original design life of 25 years, are all well over 40 years old.   Delivery of the first LCU-1700 is expected in late 2020. If all options are exercised, deliveries would continue through 2027.

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