Sunday, December 17, 2017

December 17th...This Day in History

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First airplane flies 1903


Near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first successful flight in history of a self-propelled, heavier-than-air aircraft. Orville piloted the gasoline-powered, propeller-driven biplane, which stayed aloft for 12 seconds and covered 120 feet on its inaugural flight.
Orville and Wilbur Wright grew up in Dayton, Ohio, and developed an interest in aviation after learning of the glider flights of the German engineer Otto Lilienthal in the 1890s. Unlike their older brothers, Orville and Wilbur did not attend college, but they possessed extraordinary technical ability and a sophisticated approach to solving problems in mechanical design. They built printing presses and in 1892 opened a bicycle sales and repair shop. Soon, they were building their own bicycles, and this experience, combined with profits from their various businesses, allowed them to pursue actively their dream of building the world’s first airplane.
After exhaustively researching other engineers’ efforts to build a heavier-than-air, controlled aircraft, the Wright brothers wrote the U.S. Weather Bureau inquiring about a suitable place to conduct glider tests. They settled on Kitty Hawk, an isolated village on North Carolina’s Outer Banks, which offered steady winds and sand dunes from which to glide and land softly. Their first glider, tested in 1900, performed poorly, but a new design, tested in 1901, was more successful. Later that year, they built a wind tunnel where they tested nearly 200 wings and airframes of different shapes and designs. The brothers’ systematic experimentations paid off–they flew hundreds of successful flights in their 1902 glider at Kill Devils Hills near Kitty Hawk. Their biplane glider featured a steering system, based on a movable rudder, that solved the problem of controlled flight. They were now ready for powered flight.
In Dayton, they designed a 12-horsepower internal combustion engine with the assistance of machinist Charles Taylor and built a new aircraft to house it. They transported their aircraft in pieces to Kitty Hawk in the autumn of 1903, assembled it, made a few further tests, and on December 14 Orville made the first attempt at powered flight. The engine stalled during take-off and the plane was damaged, and they spent three days repairing it. Then at 10:35 a.m. on December 17, in front of five witnesses, the aircraft ran down a monorail track and into the air, staying aloft for 12 seconds and flying 120 feet. The modern aviation age was born. Three more tests were made that day, with Wilbur and Orville alternately flying the airplane. Wilbur flew the last flight, covering 852 feet in 59 seconds.
During the next few years, the Wright brothers further developed their airplanes but kept a low profile about their successes in order to secure patents and contracts for their flying machines. By 1905, their aircraft could perform complex maneuvers and remain aloft for up to 39 minutes at a time. In 1908, they traveled to France and made their first public flights, arousing widespread public excitement. In 1909, the U.S. Army’s Signal Corps purchased a specially constructed plane, and the brothers founded the Wright Company to build and market their aircraft. Wilbur Wright died of typhoid fever in 1912; Orville lived until 1948.
The historic Wright brothers’ aircraft of 1903 is on permanent display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

 (More Events on This Day in History)
  • American Revolution

  • 1777 France formally recognizes the United States
  • Automotive

  • 1979 Stuntman Stan Barrett breaks the sound barrier
  • Civil War

  • 1862 Grant expels the Jews from his department
  • Cold War

  • 1991 Yeltsin supporters announce Soviet Union will cease to exist by New Year’s Eve
  • Crime

  • 1986 “Operation Iceman” nabs the culprit
  • Disaster

  • 1961 Circus catches fire in Brazil
  • General Interest

  • 1944 U.S. approves end to internment of Japanese Americans
  • 1975 “Squeaky” Fromme sentenced to life
  • 1990 Aristide wins Haiti’s first free election
  • 1996 Peruvian rebels seize Japanese ambassador’s home
  • 2011 Kim Jong Il, leader of North Korea, dies
  • Hollywood

  • 2003 Third and final Lord of the Rings movie opens
  • Literary

  • 1843 A Christmas Carol is published
  • Music

  • 1991 A federal court puts its stamp on hip-hop
  • Old West

  • 1889 “Silver Dollar” Tabor born in Denver
  • Presidential

  • 1862 Grant expels Jews from Tennessee, Kentucky and Mississippi
  • Sports

  • 2000 Terrell Owens makes record-breaking 20 catches
  • Vietnam War

  • 1971 Cambodian forces under heavy pressure
  • World War I

  • 1873 Ford Madox Ford is born
  • World War II

  • 1941 Commander at Pearl Harbor canned

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