Friday, November 17, 2017

November 17th...This Day in History

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Elizabethan Age begins 1558

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Queen Mary I, the monarch of England and Ireland since 1553, dies and is succeeded by her 25-year-old half-sister, Elizabeth.
The two half-sisters, both daughters of King Henry VIII, had a stormy relationship during Mary’s five-year reign. Mary, who was brought up as a Catholic, enacted pro-Catholic legislation and made efforts to restore the pope to supremacy in England. A Protestant rebellion ensued, and Queen Mary imprisoned Elizabeth, a Protestant, in the Tower of London on suspicion of complicity. After Mary’s death, Elizabeth survived several Catholic plots against her; though her ascension was greeted with approval by most of England’s lords, who were largely Protestant and hoped for greater religious tolerance under a Protestant queen. Under the early guidance of Secretary of State Sir William Cecil, Elizabeth repealed Mary’s pro-Catholic legislation, established a permanent Protestant Church of England, and encouraged the Calvinist reformers in Scotland.
In foreign affairs, Elizabeth practiced a policy of strengthening England’s Protestant allies and dividing her foes. Elizabeth was opposed by the pope, who refused to recognize her legitimacy, and by Spain, a Catholic nation that was at the height of its power. In 1588, English-Spanish rivalry led to an abortive Spanish invasion of England in which the Spanish Armada, the greatest naval force in the world at the time, was destroyed by storms and a determined English navy.
With increasing English domination at sea, Elizabeth encouraged voyages of discovery, such as Sir Francis Drake’s circumnavigation of the world and Sir Walter Raleigh’s expeditions to the North American coast.
The long reign of Elizabeth, who became known as the “Virgin Queen” for her reluctance to endanger her authority through marriage, coincided with the flowering of the English Renaissance, associated with such renowned authors as William Shakespeare. By her death in 1603, England had become a major world power in every respect, and Queen Elizabeth I passed into history as one of England’s greatest monarchs.

 (More Events on This Day in History)
  • American Revolution

  • 1777 Articles of Confederation submitted to the states
  • Automotive

  • 1998 “Day One” for DaimlerChrysler on NYSE
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, begins
  • Cold War

  • 1969 SALT I negotiations begin
  • Crime

  • 1972 A wealthy heiress is murdered by her son
  • 2003 Washington, D.C., sniper John Muhammad convicted
  • Disaster

  • 1421 Thousands die in massive flood
  • General Interest

  • 1839 Verdi’s first opera opens
  • 1869 Suez Canal opens
  • Hollywood

  • 2003 “The Terminator” becomes “The Governator” of California
  • Literary

  • 1993 The Shipping News, by Annie Proulx, wins the National Book Award
  • Music

  • 1958 The Kingston Trio brings folk music to the top of the U.S. pop charts
  • Old West

  • 1856 U.S. establishes Fort Buchanan
  • Presidential

  • 1973 Nixon insists that he is not a crook
  • Sports

  • 1968 The Heidi Bowl
  • Vietnam War

  • 1965 1st Cavalry unit ambushed in the Ia Drang Valley
  • 1970 My Lai trial begins
  • World War I

  • 1914 Germans make last stab at Ypres
  • World War II

  • 1887 Monty is born

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