Thursday, December 15, 2016

Fw: TheList 4337

The List 4337
To All,
A bit of history and some tidbits.

This Day In Naval History - December 14
1814: Under the command of Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones, U.S. gunboats, along with Sea Horse and Alligator, engage the British during the Battle of Lake Borgne, La. Though the American flotilla is defeated, the engagement delays the British attack on New Orleans for nine days, buying precious time for Gen. Andrew Jackson's successful defense of New Orleans.
1944 - Rank of Fleet Admiral, U.S. Navy (five star admiral) is established.
1944: Task Force 38 aircraft begins the attack on Japanese transport Oryoku Maru which, unbeknownst to the Task Force, is carrying approximately 1,600 Allied prisoners of war. The following day, the ship is sunk at Subic Bay.
1945 - Captain Sue S. Dauser receives the first Distinguished Service Medal awarded to a nurse.
1965 - Navy announces completion of 1,272 ft. radio tower at North West Cape, Australia, highest manmade structure in the Southern Hemisphere at that time, as a link in fleet communications
This Week In American Military History
Fredericksburg to Bastogne
by W. Thomas Smith Jr.
Dec. 11, 1941:  Four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, isolated and embattled U.S. Marines – and a few good sailors, soldiers, and civilian contractors – put up a heroic defense of Wake Island in the Pacific, beating back an attempted Japanese landing with heavy losses to the enemy.
Wake will fall by Christmas. But the heroics exhibited by the American defenders – basically two companies of Marines holding off the Japanese Navy for two weeks – will be compared to the heroic nearly-two-week defense of the Alamo in 1836.
Dec. 15, 1862:  Union Army Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside ends his disastrous series of frontal attacks against Gen. Robert E. Lee's well-entrenched Confederate forces along Marye's Heights during the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia. It is during the battle that Lee – emotionally moved by the valor of the Federal Army, which, despite terrible losses, attacks his impregnable position time-and-again – says, "It is well that war is so terrible, lest we grow too fond of it."
Dec. 16, 1944:  A massive German Army force — composed of SS Panzer (SS armored units), Volksgrenadier (infantry), Panzergrenadier (armored infantry), and Fallschirmj√§ger (paratroopers) — burst through the snow-covered Ardennes Forest and smash headlong into the weakest stretch of the Allied frontlines in Belgium.
The attack — which will become known as the Battle of the Bulge (because of the temporary bulging salient the German thrust will create in the Allied lines) — is a last ditch gamble on the part of the Germans, a surprise counteroffensive aimed at cutting American and British forces in half; crossing the Meuse River; encircling, isolating, and destroying Allied armies west of the Meuse; and perhaps reaching the North Sea.
It is not to be.
Despite the initial shock along a 60-to-70-mile front – and a 50-mile-deep penetration – German forces will quickly find themselves running up against giants of men like Gen. Anthony McAuliffe's diehard paratroopers of the crack 101st Airborne Division, who – though surrounded, outnumbered, outgunned, freezing, and nearly starving to death – refuse to surrender the strategically vital highway hub at Bastogne.
The battle, which will last until Jan. 28, 1945, will prove to be the largest land battle in western Europe during World War II, and it will be a decisive American victory. But it will not be without heavy losses: 19,000 American soldiers will be killed out of 81,000 total U.S. casualties in five weeks
Thanks to Clyde….
:This is really neat
U.S. car manufacturers make 'zillions' of boring car commercials, most of which aren't very compelling.
This Russian commercial is not boring.
Thanks to Carl
(Old humor but married to neat photos in this pdf version!)
Great photos and military humor. "Never fly in the same cockpit with someone braver than you."
Thanks to Carl
December 14, 2016
The final flight for the F-4 Phantom set for next week
The final flight and retirement ceremony for the venerable F-4 Phantom will be December 21st at Holloman AFB, New Mexico.  The Phantom is still in active service at Holloman with Detachment 1 of the 82nd Aerial Targets Squadron. 
The F-4 first flew in 1958 and set it set 15 world records for in-flight performance, including an absolute speed record, and an absolute altitude record.  It first entered active service with the Navy in 1960 and eventually became the frontline fighter not only with the Navy, but also with the Air Force and the Marines.

The Phantom was the fighter plane of the Vietnam generation and was the last US fighter plane flown to achieve Ace status.  To my knowledge, it was also the only aircraft to achieve a supersonic gun kill, also while in action over Vietnam.  The Phantom was the mainstay of US Air Force and US Navy during the Cold War throughout the 70s and early eighties until replaced by F-15s, F-16s in the USAF, and F-14 Tomcats, and F/A 18 Hornets in the Navy.  Phantoms also saw action in the Persian Gulf War as reconnaissance aircraft and as the "Wild Weasel" conducting anti-enemy air defense missions.  The F-4 was finally removed from its combat role in 1996.
Over its production run a total of 5,195 were built, making it the most numerous American supersonic military aircraft.  Phantoms were also used by eleven other nations including Israel where it had extensive combat operations in the many Arab-Israeli conflicts.  And it was the only aircraft to be used by both the Thunderbirds and the Blue Angels flight demonstration teams. 
The last flight and ceremony are open to the public, but attendees must RSVP to the base.  Contact details for access to the base and the agenda are given in the linked article.  Let's hope the Phantom gets a first class sendoff.
John Smith is the pen name of a former U.S. intelligence officer.
Thanks to Bill
good one-XB-70
From: Hank  
There were 2 Valkyrie bombers build the second one was a vastly improved one and this is the one lost in this link:
Thanks to TR
They made me miss my train !!
Item Number:1 Date: 12/14/2016 CHINA - 2 NEW CORVETTES COMMISSIONED FOR DUTIES IN E. CHINA SEA FLEET (DEC 14/CMO)  CHINA MILITARY ONLINE -- The Chinese navy commissioned a pair of corvettes into its East China Sea Fleet earlier this week, reports the China Military Online.   The naming and commissioning ceremony was held Monday in the naval port in Lianyungang in China's eastern Jiangsu province, said the military publication.   The Baoding (511) and Heze (512) are the latest members of the Jiangdao-class (Type 056) corvettes, according to the PLA's publication.   Each displaces 1,300 tons and is equipped for anti-aircraft, surface and anti-submarine warfare
Item Number:2 Date: 12/14/2016 DEM REP OF CONGO - U.S., E.U. SANCTIONS KABILA BACKERS FOR HELPING TO KEEP HIM IN OFFICE (DEC 14/VOA)  VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS -- The U.S. and the European Union have implemented sanctions on officials in the Democratic Republic of Congo for employing violence and other means to delay national elections, reports the Voice of America News.   Under the constitution, President Joseph Kabila should reach the end of his constitutional term on Dec. 19. However, he expects to stay in office beyond that date because he made a deal with an opposition faction to delay elections until 2018.   Most in the opposition rejected the deal and have demanded that Kabila step down on the 19th.   On Monday, the U.S. Treasury sanctioned Congolese Deputy Prime Minister Evariste Boshab, calling him a "key player" in Kabila's plan to keep power.   Also sanctioned is Kavel Mutondo, a leader of the National Intelligence Agency. He allegedly pressured officials so the the DRC's electoral process would favor Kabila, according to the U.S.   For its part, the European Union implemented measures against seven Congolese officials, including four in the police, army and Republican Guard. The E.U. maintains that they were responsible for violence during anti-government protests in September.  
 Item Number:3 Date: 12/14/2016 EGYPT - ISIS CLAIMS CAIRO CHURCH ATTACK, NAMES BOMBER (DEC 14/NYT)  NEW YORK TIMES -- The Islamic State terrorist group has claimed responsibility for Sunday's suicide bombing of a Coptic Christian church in Egypt's capital, reports the New York Times.   The attack in Cairo occured on the grounds of St. Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, the seat of the Egyptian Orthodox Church. The blast killed 25 people and injured dozens.   The terror group said on Tuesday that Abu Abdallah al-Masri was sent to bomb the church. That was apparently a nom de guerre, noted the Guardian (U.K.). Egpytian authorities identified the attacker as Mahmoud Shafik Mohamed Mostafa.   According to the Interior Ministry, the bomber belonged to a cell funded by the Muslim Brotherhood living in exile in Qatar.   ISIS vowed to step up its "war on polytheism" and said it would continue its attacks
Item Number:4 Date: 12/14/2016 ESTONIA - LAWMAKERS CALL FOR ADDITIONAL SNAP DRILLS FOR RESERVISTS (DEC 14/BNS)  BALTIC NEWS SERVICE -- The National Defense Committee in the Estonian Parliament has urged the military to keep holding its unscheduled exercises for reservists, reports the Baltic News Service.   On Monday, the committee reviewed the outcome of the recent Quill (Okas) snap exercise and received an overview of plans for future exercises, said parliamentary spokesmen.   "For Estonia, holding additional reservist trainings or testing the readiness for mobilization is not a matter of choice, but an obligation," said Hannes Hanso, the chairman of the committee. "We must be sure that the system which has been built up over the years actually works. Our national defense must not be based on paper; it must actually function."   During the Quill exercise earlier this month, 265 of the 302 reservists summoned (almost 88 percent) took part. Many who were unable to report within 48 hours said they had been ill or working abroad.   The Estonian military has current plans for at least one short-notice reservist exercise annually
Item Number:5 Date: 12/14/2016 FRANCE - INTERIOR MINISTER WILL PUT MORE TROOPS ON THE STREETS FOR CHRISTMAS HOLIDAY (DEC 14/REU)  REUTERS -- The French government will bolster security throughout the country ahead of the Christmas holiday, says Interior Minister Bruno Le Roux, as reported by Reuters.   More soldiers and police will be deployed to prevent militants from attacking during the Christmas and New Year's celebrations, said the minister on Wednesday.   Meanwhile, Parliament voted to extend the state of emergency on Tuesday night. The extension is expected to be confirmed by the Senate on Thursday.   In his position, Le Roux is authorized to deploy around 3,000 extra police and soldiers during the holiday season
  Item Number:6 Date: 12/14/2016 GAMBIA - TROOPS TAKE OVER ELECTORAL COMMISSION; DEFEATED PRESIDENT SEEKS NEW VOTE (DEC 14/BBC)  BRITISH BROADCASTING CORP. -- With Gambia's president refusing to relinquish his power after losing an election, the nation's security forces have seized the headquarters of the electoral commission, say officials cited by the BBC.   The president has been in office since a military coup in 1994.   President Yahya Jammeh initially conceded defeat in the recent election, then changed his mind, saying there had been irregularities and called for another vote, noted Al Jazeera.   Commission employees were being barred from entering, said the chairman on Tuesday. "The military came to my office and said I am not to touch anything and told me to leave. I am worried for my safety," he said, as quoted by Reuters.   The leaders of Sierra Leone, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria arrived in Gambia on Tuesday to persuade Jammeh to give up power.   A senior official of the ECOWAS regional bloc did not rule out sending troops, reported Radio France Internationale.  
  Item Number:7 Date: 12/14/2016 INDIA - FIRMS OVERSEAS WILL COMPETE TO SUPPLY ADVANCED RADAR TO TEJAS FIGHTERS (DEC 14/ECON)  ECONOMIC TIMES -- The Defense Ministry is readying an international competition to select a radar for India's indigenously developed Tejas light combat aircraft, reports the Economic Times (India).   An "expression of interest" for active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars for the Tejas Mk 1A is expected to be issued shortly, the newspaper said on Wednesday. The government in New Delhi recently cleared an order for 83 of the jets.   The winning firm would also likely have a leg up in supplying radars for India's Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), which is still in development.   Israel's Elta, which is already supplying AESA radars for India's Jaguar strike aircraft upgrade, may have an advantage in the competition said the paper. Raytheon is also said to be interested in the project
Item Number:8 Date: 12/14/2016 INDIA - INDONESIAN, INDIAN LEADERS PROMOTE PEACEFUL RESOLUTION OF S. CHINA SEA DISPUTES (DEC 14/PTI)  PRESS TRUST OF INDIA -- Top Indian and Indonesian officials have committed to expand bilateral defense and maritime security ties and cooperate against terrorism, reports the Press Trust of India.   On Monday, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi hosted Indonesian President Joko Widodo in New Delhi.   Both leaders agreed that the dispute in the South China Sea must be resolved peacefully and without resorting to the threat or use of force, said a statement.   The talks focused on a range of bilateral issues. Both countries agreed to prioritize defense and security cooperation, said Modi.  
  Item Number:9 Date: 12/14/2016 PHILIPPINES - ABU SAYYAF FREES 2 INDONESIAN TUGBOAT CREWMEN HELD SINCE JUNE (DEC 14/PHILSTAR)  PHILIPPINE STAR -- The Abu Sayyaf terrorist group in the Philippines has just released two Indonesian mariners it had held since June, reports the Philippine Star.   The two were freed by ASG on Monday and on Tuesday officially turned over to the Indonesian Embassy in Zamboanga.   The two were among seven crewmen seized from a tugboat off the southern Philippines on June 22, reported AFP. The other five were released after a week.   Officials did not indicate if a ransom was paid.  
Item Number:10 Date: 12/14/2016 RUSSIA - BLACK SEA FLEET'S SQUADRON IN CRIMEA NOW HAS 12 SU-30SMS (DEC 14/SPUTNIK)  SPUTNIK -- Russia's Black Sea Fleet now has a full-strength squadron in Crimea with advanced fighter jets, reports Russia's Sputnik news agency.   A full squadron of 12 Su-30SM multirole fighters has been formed in Crimea, said a spokesman for the fleet on Wednesday.   Nine of the aircraft arrived by October, and three more deployed to the peninsula on Monday.   The formation of the squadron was first announced in March, as reported by Tass at the time.   The squadron's aircraft are fully staffed and operational, said the spokesman.   Moscow annexed Crimea from Ukraine in 2014
Item Number:11 Date: 12/14/2016 SOUTH KOREA - BLAST AT TRAINING BASE LIKELY CAUSED BY DISCARDED GUNPOWDER, SAY ARMY INVESTIGATORS (DEC 14/YON)  YONHAP -- An explosion at an army reserve training base was apparently caused by piles of gunpowder that had been left on the ground, say investigators in South Korea, as reported by the Yonhap news agency (Seoul).   More than 20 soldiers were injured in Tuesday's explosion at the training facility in Ulsan, about 410 km (255 mi) southeast of Seoul.   Some soldiers were seen discarding gunpowder on Dec. 1, said a military officer briefing reporters on Wednesday.   Testimony revealed that an NCO was ordered to get rid of around 1,600 training grenades. Instead of firing them off, he decided to remove the powder and stash it at the site of the explosion, said the briefer.   The gunpowder then came into contact with metal equipment and static electricity when soldiers passed by after finishing some maintenance work, said the military.  
  Item Number:12 Date: 12/14/2016 SOUTH KOREA - PROBE OF N. KOREA HACKING REACHES INSIDE CYBER COMMAND IN SOUTH (DEC 14/YON)  YONHAP -- Investigators have raided South Korea's cyber command as part of a probe into an alleged hacking by North Korea, according to military officers cited by the Yonhap news agency (Seoul).   The Defense Ministry acknowledged in September that around 3,200 computers had been infected with suspected North Korean malware the month before. In October, it was revealed that some military documents had been hacked and Defense Minister Han Min Koo's computer compromised.   The Defense Security Command, the military's intelligence arm, collected documents during Tuesday's raid, said one official.   The command had been investigating how the attacks took place and what information might have been leaked, he said.  
  Item Number:13 Date: 12/14/2016 SYRIA - FIGHTING RESUMES IN ALEPPO; CIVILIAN EVACUATION DELAYED (DEC 14/REU)  REUTERS -- Airstrikes and shelling against rebel-held areas of the Syrian city of Aleppo have restarted, halting a planned evacuation, reports Reuters.   Syrian government forces have taken back most of rebel-held territory in recent weeks. A cease-fire was brokered on Tuesday by Russia and Turkey to allow civilians in the shrinking enclave to leave.   By Wednesday dawn, no one was known to have left. Turkey accused the Syrian government forces of breaking the truce.   According to activists, shelling began before noon Wednesday.   Rebel and U.N. sources said Iran wanted a simultaneous evacuation of wounded from the villages of Foua and Kefraya in Idlib province. Those villages are about 56 km (25 miles) southwest of Aleppo and besieged by rebel forces.   On Wednesday, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that rebel resistance was expected to end within the next two or three days.  
  Item Number:14 Date: 12/14/2016 TUNISIA - NEW DEAL COVERS U.S.-SUPPLIED MARITIME SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR NAVY (DEC 14/PAE)  PAE -- The PAE company says it has receiving a contract to supply maritime surveillance capabilities to the Tunisian navy.   The firm, based in Arlington, Va., was originally called Pacific Architects and Engineers.   The deal, part of the U.S. Navy Regional Maritime Awareness Capability (RMAC) program, covers vital command, control, communications and surveillance capabilities, said a company release on Dec. 12.   The RMAC program provides host nations with improved maritime domain awareness through improved integration of interagency and international partners, according to the release.   PAE will survey, design, install and test the capability and provide training to Tunisian personnel, said company officials.   The project involves integrating multiple maritime sensors into a common operating picture for the Tunisian navy. This will enhance the service's ability to track vessels of all size and rapidly respond to maritime threats or incidents, said the PAE release.  
  Item Number:15 Date: 12/14/2016 USA - CBRN UNIT AT FORT DRUM READY TO RESPOND TO ANY NYC TERROR ATTACK (DEC 14/ARMY)  ARMY TIMES -- The 59th Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Company at Fort Drum, N.Y., has been training to respond to terrorist attacks along with first responders in New York City, reports the Army Times.   The unit is the first active-duty Army CBRN unit to train in New York along with the city's fire department. The company has been on call since May should there be such an attack.   The unit's objective is "to fall in on the New York Fire Dept.'s plan," said Capt. Derek Burke, the company commander. "Arriving to the site when it's already operating, integrating with the [NYFD's] command structure, then taking over the full operation of the site and operating it," he said.   The troops from Drum would not be the first on the scene of any attack, but would be on a 48-hour recall in case local resources were overwhelmed.   The 59th is spending a year as part of the Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosive Response Force mission, an initiative of the U.S. Northern Command, said Burke.   In May, the unit took part in an exercise simulating an incident in the New York subway. The company also participated in follow-on drills in November and December at the FDNY's subway and clandestine lab simulators.  
  Item Number:16 Date: 12/14/2016 USA - CIVILIAN DEATHS IN YEMEN PROMPT 'CORRECTIVE MEASURE' OF SAUDI AID BY U.S. (DEC 14/VOA)  VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS -- The U.S. is altering some of its military cooperation with Saudi Arabia, citing civilian casualties in the Saudi-led coalition's campaign in Yemen, reports the Voice of America News.   Human-rights groups say the coalition has attacked clinics, schools and markets. The Obama administration launched a high-level review of U.S. aid in October after a Saudi strike killed more than 100 people at a Yemeni funeral.   A planned sale of precision-guided weapons to Saudi Arabia will be halted over the concerns raised, said a U.S. official on Tuesday.   Washington will also modify how it trains Saudi air force personnel to improve their accuracy, said the official.   The U.S. will reduce intelligence-sharing that could lead to strikes on civilians, said one official cited by the Washington Post. However, Washington will continue to refuel coalition aircraft. Other arms sales are said to be unaffected.   American official say other types of intelligence-sharing will increase, including Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) targets and along the Saudi border.   One senior unnamed U.S. official told the Post: "This is not a punitive measure; it's a corrective measure."  
 Item Number:17 Date: 12/14/2016 USA - GLOBAL DEFENSE SPENDING KEEPS RISING, LED BY U.S., CHINA, U.K. (DEC 14/FT)  FINANCIAL TIMES -- A new report outlining defense spending worldwide again ranks the U.S. at the top, reports the Financial Times (U.K.).   Global defense spending in 2016 increased by 1 percent to US$1.6 trillion, compared to the 0.6 percent hike in 2015, according to annual Jane's Defense Budget report that was published on Dec. 12.   NATO defense spending has increased for the first time since 2010, in response to threats posed by the Islamic State and Russia, the report says. As a result, alliance defense expenditure through 2023 is projected to exceed that of non-NATO countries, including China and Russia.   NATO countries allocate about 8 percent of their defense budgets on research and development, about twice that of non-alliance nations, which will likely mean that non-NATO countries will continue to be dependent on imports for the newest equipment, said analysts.   China and the U.K. are in second and third place in defense spenders, according to the summary. India has the fourth largest military budget, followed by Saudi Arabia and Russia.   India surpassed Russia and Saudi Arabia over the last year to get fourth place, spending US$50.7 billion. By 2020, Jane's predicts that India will spend more on defense than the U.K.   The U.S. continues to spend the most, with a budget of US$622 billion; China's defense spending totaled at US$191.7 billion; at third was the U.K. with US$53.8 billion. Beijing is expected to spend US$233 billion on defense in 2020, about twice its 2010 defense budget, says the report.  
  Item Number:18 Date: 12/14/2016 USA - LAST WEEK'S U.S. AIRSTRIKE IN RAQQA KILLED 3 ISIS TERRORISTS, INCLUDING PARIS ATTACK PLANNERS, SAYS DOD (DEC 14/FN)  FOX NEWS -- The Pentagon says that a U.S.-led coalition drone strike last week killed three Islamic State fighters, including two who allegedly helped plan the November 2015 terror attacks in Paris, reports Fox News.   The Dec. 4 airstrike killed Salah Gourmat and Sammy Djedou in Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIS, said Defense Secretary Ashton Carter. He announced the strike Tuesday during an address to U.S. airmen in Italy.   The strike was aided by information collected by territory retaken from ISIS in Iraq and Syria, said a Pentagon spokesman cited by the Stars and Stripes.   Those two were close associates of ISIS external operations leader Abu Mohammad Adnani and involved in the Paris attacks that left 130 people dead, said Carter. Adnani was killed in August.   The third fighter killed in the airstrike, Walid Hamman, was allegedly involved in a 2015 foiled suicide attack plot aimed at Europe, said U.S. offiicals.   "The three were working together to plot and facilitate attacks against Western targets at the time of the strike," said a Pentagon spokesman.   The dead men were reportedly part of a network led by Tunisian Boubaker al-Hakim, who was killed in a separate strike on Nov. 16.  
Item Number:19 Date: 12/14/2016 USA - MARINE OSPREY CRASH-LANDS IN SEA NEAR OKINAWA (DEC 14/DOD)  DEPT. OF DEFENSE -- All five crewmen have been rescued after a U.S. Marine Corps tilt-rotor aircraft went down on Tuesday night off the coast of Okinawa, Japan, reports the U.S. Dept. of Defense.   Two in the crew were seriously injured, reported Stars and Stripes.   The MV-22 Osprey went down off the coastline of Cam Schwab Marine Corps Base.   Stars and Stripes said the plane was damaged when a propeller cut a refueling hose. The pilot reportedly did not want to crash in a residential area and flew 18 miles off the coast to put the aircraft down.   On Wednesday, the U.S. military temporarily grounded its V-22s in Japan after Tokyo called for a halt to such flights, reported Reuters.   This is the first crash of the Osprey in Japan. Okinawa residents have previously complained about the aircraft's safety record
  Item Number:20 Date: 12/14/2016 USA - NAVY PUSHES FOR COMBAT NETWORK OF LITTORAL SHIPS, UNMANNED SYSTEMS, SUBS (DEC 14/USNI)  U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE -- The U.S. Navy wants to expand its battle networks to link more assets in the event of future global threats, reports USNI News.   Rear Adm. Ronald Boxall, the Navy's director of surface warfare, said the service is comfortable with the Aegis combat system and Naval Integrated Fire Control-Counter Air (NIFC-CA) systems. However, the service needs to expand it to include submarines, littoral combat ships (LCS) and unmanned systems, said the admiral.   The goal of the service is to create a fleet where "more platforms ... will create a network of armed nodes that the adversary has to deal with" and confront the entire system rather than a single ship or strike group or submarine, said Boxall at a recent symposium.   This means connecting submarines, small ships like the LCS and even the Mk VI patrol boat, unmanned craft, new aircraft and sensors into a network.   Boxall said that adding surface-to-surface missiles to the littoral ships is an exciting advance, since it will give them longer range and fits in with the network objective. The objective is to connect the LCS, its MH-60R helicopter and the missiles to other networks to increase the robustness and redundancy of the overall capability, said the admiral.   Boxall emphasized that the Navy is developing cross-domain warfare approach that would remove some stovepipes that separate various platforms. The concept is that a networked Navy is stronger against any adversary that would seek to disrupt a single node. 


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