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Wednesday, September 12, 2018

TheList 4811


The List 4811 TGB


To All,
A bit of history and some tidbits. This my first attempt to send the list on the new server. It should be transparent to all of you. (or maybe not because Cowboy is sending it now)
Regards,
Skip
This day in Naval History
Sept. 12
  • 1804—In the First Barbary War, the frigates USS Constellation and USS President capture two ships while attempting to enter the harbor during the blockade of Barbary ports, while the brig USS Argus, and USS Constellation later capture a third vessel attempting to enter.
  • 1855—Marines and Sailors from the frigate USS John Adams land at Nukulau, Fiji Islands to seek owed debt to Americans from the King of Fiji, Cakobau. Refusing, he appeals to the American Ambassador in Australia. After years of refusal, Fiji becomes a British possession in 1874 instead.
  • 1942—The Brazilian Navy is placed under operational control of the US Navy.  The Navy is commanded by Vice Adm. Jonas H. Ingram as Commander, South Atlantic Force, Atlantic Fleet.
  • 1944—USS Growler (SS 215) torpedoes and sinks the Japanese destroyer Shikinami 240 miles south of Hong Kong, and escort vessel Hirado 250 miles east of Hainan Island.
  • 1944 - 5th Fleet carrier aircraft begin 3-day attack on Japanese shipping and facilities in Visayas, Philippines
  • 1944—USS Noa (APD 24) and USS Fullam (DD 474) collide off the Palau Islands. Despite this, USS Fullam, not only rescues all of USS Noa's men, but she also carries out daily shore bombardment and night harassing fire, as well as underwater demolition.
  • 1952 - USS Coral Sea (CVB-43) took Marshall Josip Tito for a one-day cruise in the Adriatic Sea where he was shown flight operations.
  • 1961 - Navy task force sails to aid the Galveston area after hurricane Carla hits Texas
  • 1966—Gemini 11 is launched. Gemini 11's Commander is Charles Conrad Jr., Command Pilot. The mission lasts two days and 23 hours and includes 44 orbits at an altitude of 1368.9 km. An HS-3 helicopter from USS Guam (LPH 9) recovers the crew.
  • 1967- Operation Coronado V began in Mekong Delta
  • 1987—USS Key West (SSN 722) is commissioned at Naval Station Norfolk, VA. Following the ceremony, the 35th Los Angeles-class attack submarine made a trip down to its name-sake city at Key West, FL. The boat is the third US Navy vessel to be named after the nation's southern-most city.
  • 1992 - Joint Task Force Hawaii activated to provide humanitarian aid after Typhoon Iniki struck Hawaiian Islands
  •  
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
In national news, reports on Hurricane Florence continue to dominate headlines as the storm continues to move toward the East Coast and grow in size potentially becoming a Category 5 in the next 24 hours.  In an effort to retain senior submarine officers the Navy will begin offering bonuses of $45,000 per year for senior submarine officers who sign two to four-year contracts starting Oct. 1 reports USNI News. USNI News also reports that the Navy is evacuating aircraft based in Virginia, Maryland and parts of Florida ahead of Hurricane Florence. Additionally, the Washington Post reports that China's participation in Russia's largest military drills since the Soviet era signals strengthening military ties between the two countries.


Today in History
September 12
490 BC

Athenian and Plataean Hoplites commanded by General Miltiades drive back a Persian invasion force under General Datis at Marathon.
1213

Simon de Montfort defeats Raymond of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon at Muret, France.
1609

Henry Hudson sails into what is now New York Harbor aboard his sloop Half Moon.
1662

Governor Berkley of Virginia is denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
1683

A combined Austrian and Polish army defeats the Turks at Kahlenberg and lifts the siege on Vienna, Austria.
1722

The Treaty of St. Petersburg puts an end to the Russo-Persian War.
1786

Despite his failed efforts to suppress the American Revolution, Lord Cornwallis is appointed governor general of India.
1836

Mexican authorities crush the revolt which broke out on August 25.
1918

British troops retake Havincourt, Moeuvres, and Trescault along the Western Front.
1919

Adolf Hitler joins German Worker's Party.
1939

In response to the invasion of Poland, the French Army advances into Germany. On this day they reach their furthest penetration-five miles.
1940

Italian forces begin an offensive into Egypt from Libya.
1940

The Lascaux Caves in France, with their prehistoric wall paintings, are discovered.
1944

American troops fight their way into Germany.
1945

French troops land in Indochina.
1969

President Richard Nixon orders a resumption in bombing North Vietnam.
1977

Steve Biko, a South African activist opposing apartheid, dies while in police custody.
1980

Military coup in Turkey.
1990

East and West Germany, along with the UK, US and USSR—the Allied nations that had occupied post-WWII Germany—sign the final settlement for reunification of Germany.
1992

Space Shuttle Endeavor takes off on NASA's 50th shuttle mission; its crew includes the first African-American woman in space, the first married couple, and the first Japanese citizen to fly in a US spacecraft.
2003

UN lifts sanctions against Libya in exchange for that country accepting responsibility for the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988 and paying recompense to victims' families.
2007

Joseph Estrada, former president of the Philippines, is convicted of plunder.
2011

In New York City, the 9/11 Memorial Museum opens to the public.
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From Blood Stripes to Bloody Ridge
by W. Thomas Smith Jr.
09/14/2010
This Week in American Military History:
Sept. 12, 1918:  Battle of St. Mihiel (France) opens between Allied American-French forces (primarily U.S. Army and Marine forces under the overall command of U.S. Army Gen. John J. "Black Jack" Pershing) and Imperial German Army forces under Gen. Johannes Georg von der Marwitz.
In the afternoon, Lt. Col. (future four-star general) George S. Patton – destined to lead America's first tank attack against the enemy – and Brig.
Gen. (future five-star general) Douglas MacArthur will meet on the battlefield, and according to the U.S. Army Historical Foundation: "The lieutenant colonel [Patton] sported a Colt .45 pistol with an ivory grip and his engraved initials. A pipe was clenched in his teeth. The brigadier [MacArthur] wore a barracks cap and a muffler his mother knitted for him.
As they spoke to each other, a German artillery barrage opened up and began marching towards their position. Infantrymen scattered and dove for cover, but the two officers remained standing, coolly talking with each other."
U.S. Marine Gen. John A. Lejeune, will describe his personal experience of the battle: "In war, if a man is to keep his sanity, he must come to regard death as being just as normal as life and hold himself always in readiness, mentally and spiritually, to answer the call of the grim reaper whenever fate decrees that his hour has struck."
Sept. 12, 1942:  Battle of Bloody Ridge opens on Guadalcanal (see next week).
Sept. 13, 1814:  From the deck of a Royal Navy ship aboard which he has been detained, Washington, D.C. lawyer Francis Scott Key pens his now-famous poem, "The Star Spangled Banner," on an envelope as he witnesses the British night-bombardment of Fort McHenry, Baltimore during the War of 1812.
It will be more than a century before the U.S. Congress adopts "The Star Spangled Banner" as the official national anthem.
Sept. 13, 1847:  U.S. Army and Marine forces (including lots of future Civil War generals like Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, George Pickett, Pierre G.T. Beauregard, Thomas J. Jackson, Joseph E. Johnston, Ulysses S.
Grant, future Admiral Raphael Semmes, and I'm probably leaving out a few) participate in the storming of Chapultepec Castle during the Mexican War.
Chapultepec defends Mexico City, which will fall on the 14th.
For those of us fortunate enough since to claim the title, "Marine," the taking of Chapultepec and ultimately Mexico City will give us two things:
First: The first five words of our hymn: "From the halls of Montezuma, to the shores of Tripoli ..."
Second: The "blood" red stripe along the seams of our dress-blue uniform trousers (Marines don't wear pants).
The origin of the blood stripe is more tradition than absolute fact. But we Marines heartily claim it. According to tradition, the blood stripe represents the blood shed by Marines storming Chapultepec. And the reason only corporals and above are authorized to wear the stripe is because there was such a high percentage of NCOs and officers killed in the storming of the castle.
Sept. 13, 1942:  Ninety-five years after defeating the Mexicans at Chapultepec, U.S. Marines beat back a series of wave attacks by Japanese soldiers on Guadalcanal that began on the night of Sept. 12 and will last until the morning of the 14th.
The fighting – since referred to as the Battle of Bloody Ridge (also Edson's Ridge or Raiders' Ridge) – is over which side will control the nearby airfield.
Japanese soldiers led by Samurai-sword wielding officers attack the ridge-defending leathernecks in suicidal waves screaming, "Banzai!" and "Marine, You Die!"
At one point during the fighting, the American line — under the command of Lt. Col. (future major general) Merritt "Red Mike" Edson — is nearly broken. But the Marines hold, and beat back the attacks with terrible losses to the enemy.
Edson will be awarded the Medal of Honor for his command of Bloody Ridge.
Maj. Kenneth Bailey, killed in the fighting, will also receive the Medal of Honor.
Sept. 14, 1966:  Operation Attleboro begins as something of a "feet wet"
operation for a green American unit – the U.S. Army's 196th Light Infantry Brigade – but will evolve into a major combined-arms operation as U.S.
forces make contact with a battle-hardened Viet Cong division and a North Vietnamese Army regiment. The end result by November will be the discovery of one of the largest weapons and equipment caches of the Vietnam War to-date, and over 1,000 dead enemy soldiers.
Sept. 15, 1944: Two years after Bloody Ridge, U.S. Marines land on Peleliu.
Sept. 15, 1950:  United Nations ground forces – primarily U.S. Marines – under the overall command of U.S. Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur, begin hitting the beaches at Inchon, Korea.
Sept. 16, 1776:  Gen. George Washington chalks up his "first victory in the field" against British and Hessian forces under Gen. Alexander Leslie in the Battle of Harlem Heights, New York.
Sept. 17, 1862:  The Battle of Antietam (Maryland) – the bloodiest single-day battle in American history – opens between Confederate Army forces under Gen. Robert E. Lee and Union Army forces under Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan. After 12 hours of fighting, some 23,000 Americans are dead, wounded, or missing.
Though a strategic victory for the Union, the battle will prove tactically inconclusive for both sides.
Sept. 17, 1944:  Operation Market Garden, an enormous Allied Airborne operation during World War II (in fact, the largest parachute operation in history), is launched to seize strategically vital bridges in German-occupied Holland.
After 10 days of fighting and many tactical successes, the operation will be deemed a strategic failure, and Allied forces will be ordered to withdraw.
(Cornelius Ryan's book, A Bridge Too Far, and the film adaptation of the same are based on Market Garden)
Sept. 18, 1947:  Happy Birthday, U.S. Air Force!  America's air and space warfare service (and the descendent service of the U.S. Army Air Forces), the U.S. Air Force becomes an independent and equal arm of the American military.
Sept. 19, 1777:  Battle of Freeman's Farm — first engagement in the Battle of Saratoga (during the American Revolution) — opens between Continental forces under the command of Gen. Horatio Gates and British forces under Gen. John "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne. Brits carry the day, but suffer heavy losses. Continentals will ultimately win Saratoga.
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Thanks to Fred
Remembering A 'Brave,' 'Lucky' Hero In The War Of 1812
by Jeff St. Clair
WKSU - September 10, 2013
Two hundred years ago today, a young U.S. naval captain named Oliver Hazard Perry penned the words, "We have met the enemy and they are ours ..."
Perry's remarkable victory over the British changed the course of the War of 1812, and a full-scale re-enactment — the largest sailing re-enactment ever attempted in the U.S. — recently commemorated the anniversary of the win in the Battle of Lake Erie.
A Bit Of History
America had brashly declared war in 1812 to stop the British from kidnapping U.S. sailors to man the Royal Navy and to settle trade issues. A year later, the war against the world's leading superpower wasn't going well.
It was from Put-in-Bay on Lake Erie's South Bass Island that Perry sailed out to meet the British on Sept. 10, 1813.
Historian Walter Rybka — one of the planners of the re-enactment — says the 28-year-old Perry threw himself into battle. "Perry was, first off, phenomenally brave and determined, but he was damn lucky," Rybka says.
Somehow Perry survived two hours of hellacious fire that killed or maimed 75 percent of the crew on his ship, the Lawrence.
"His last gun had been knocked out of action on the starboard side, his rigging was cut to pieces, he could not maneuver, he could no longer fight. There was no point in maintaining an action because his men were just going to get slaughtered the rest of the way," Rybka says. "Right at the moment the wind fills in ..."
And that's when Perry hopped into his longboat and under heavy fire, rowed to the Niagara, a Great Lakes warship. Rybka says Perry brought along his battle flag, emblazoned with the words, "Don't Give Up The Ship."
"But the only way to do that was to give up the ship and go to the next one," Rybka says. "The real motto was, 'Don't Give Up.' "
A Turning Point
Fifteen tall ships sail out to the spot where the struggle took place 200 years ago. From the reconstructed Niagara, Capt. Wesley Heerssen hails the fleet.
"All tall ships in this battle re-enactment please stand by for roll call," Heerssen says.
And the battle begins.
Six ships make up the British line. The American fleet has nine. The Coast Guard has its hands full clearing a path for the tall ships amid a swarm of more than 2,000 speedboats and pleasure craft. The sea of boats has churned the lake, so in this version of the Battle of Lake Erie, Perry, portrayed by an actor sporting enormous sideburns, is motored from his ship onto the Niagara.
Then Heerssen hails the enemy fleet for the final maneuver of the re-enactment.
"To the British fleet we're going to pass two whistles, starboard to starboard passage," he says.
The Niagara cuts nimbly across the British line and fires its last set of broadsides. And as smoke fills the air, for a second, despite all the distractions, one of America's most famous sea battles vividly comes to life.
And suddenly, it's over.
The smoke clears, and it just another day on the lake, perfect conditions for sailing.
The battle was a turning point in the War of 1812. America had lost Detroit and much of the Northwest Territory. Rybka says if Perry had given up the ship, the Canadian border would have been much farther south.
"I think Michigan probably would have been lost to us and maybe Wisconsin as well," Rybka says.
Heerssen, as captain of the Niagara, has imagined this day for more than a decade. He says the re-enactment is a tribute to America's fighting spirit.
A buoy serves as a permanent marker in the peaceful waters of western Lake Erie. [Copyright 2013 WKSU-FM]

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Quick flight into the eye of Hurricane Florence ...
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Thanks to Chuck
Subject: Flying through a hangar
 Pretty cool!!!
  
https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=13&v=0GCFWKBoV7E
 

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Thanks to Mud. As he says you will not find many selfies like this one
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Item Number:1 Date: 09/12/2018 BURMA - GOVERNMENT SEEKS PARLIAMENTARY APPROVAL FOR U.N. NUCLEAR PROHIBITION TREATY (SEP 12/MYT)  MYANMAR TIMES -- The Burmese government is seeking legislative approval to sign on to the U.N. Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, reports the Myanmar Times.   Minister for International Cooperation U Kyaw Tin presented the treaty, which prohibits the invention, experimentation, storage and possession of nuclear weapons, to the Parliament on Sept. 6.   The treaty would solidify Burma's stance and serve as a political push for the denuclearization of other nations, said U Kyaw Tin.   Burma intends to sign the treaty now and ratify it later, the minister said.   Lawmakers are expected to make a final decision this week.   Burma has signed other international treaties to eliminate weapons of mass destruction including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1992; the Prohibition of Biological Weapons Treaty in 2014; the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Treaty in 2015; and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 2016.  
  Item Number:2 Date: 09/12/2018 CHINA - INDIGENOUSLY BUILT ICEBREAKER LAUNCHED IN SHANGHAI (SEP 12/XIN)  XINHUA -- China has launched its first domestically built icebreaker, reports Xinhua, China's state news agency.   The Xuelong II, Chinese for Snow Dragon, was put in the water during a ceremony at Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai on Monday.   The icebreaker is 402 feet (122.5 m) long and 73 feet (22.3 m) wide, with a displacement of 13,990 metric tons. It has a maximum speed of 15 knots and a range of 20,000 nautical miles, according to China State Shipbuilding Corp., which built the vessel.   The ship was jointly designed by the CSSC and Finland's Aker Arctic Technology, reported the South China Morning Post. Construction began in December 2016.   The vessel is capable of operating in temperatures as low as -22 degrees Fahrenheit (-30 degrees Celsius) and can break 3-foot (1-m) thick ice at speeds of 2-3 knots, whether moving forward or backward.   The Xuelong II is also designed for scientific research missions, as well as seafloor and biological resource surveys, reported the Global Times (Beijing).   The ship is scheduled to complete sea trials and outfitting before entering service in 2019.   In January, Beijing unveiled its first Arctic policy, which calls for China to explore and develop the region's resources together with Arctic states.  
  Item Number:4 Date: 09/12/2018 JAPAN - PUTIN URGES PEACE DEAL WITH JAPAN (SEP 12/CNBC)  CNBC -- The leaders of Japan and Russia have expressed interest in finalizing a peace treaty, reports CNBC.   The two countries never signed a peace agreement following the end of World War II due to a territorial dispute over the Kuril Islands, which Japan calls the Northern Territories.   On Wednesday, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for a peace treaty by the end of year without preconditions during the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok.   Putin later said that he thought a treaty could be signed first, then the individual details worked out.   The Soviet Union seized the Kurils at the end of the war. Japan refused to sign a peace treaty without their return.   Following Putin's announcement, a Japanese government spokesman said that Tokyo will not sign any agreement before resolving the Kurils issue, reported Reuters.   Analysts have expressed skepticism about Putin's offer. "This is called trolling. Putin does not expect anything," Georgy Kunadze, a former Russian deputy foreign minister, told Agence France-Presse. Abe will not accept any deal that would harm him politically at home.   Giving up the islands would risk a Russian political backlash as well, said experts cited by Deutsche Welle.  
  Item Number:5 Date: 09/12/2018 JAPAN - UPGRADED DESTROYER SHOOTS DOWN BALLISTIC MISSILE IN TEST (SEP 12/MDA)  U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY -- A Japanese destroyer has successfully tested the latest ballistic missile defense capabilities during trials off the coast of Hawaii, reports the U.S. Missile Defense Agency.   On Tuesday, the Atago (DDG-177) employed the latest configuration of Japan's Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, J6, to intercept a ballistic missile target with an SM-3 Block IB Threat Upgrade (TU) missile.   This was the first test of the upgraded SM-3 Block IB TU interceptor, reported Defense One.   The event verified the capabilities of the upgraded Aegis BMD configuration for Japanese destroyers, said U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel Greaves, the head of the MDA.  
  Item Number:6 Date: 09/12/2018 LIBYA - TRIPOLI AIRPORT CLOSED AGAIN AFTER ROCKET ATTACK (SEP 12/ALJAZ)  AL JAZEERA -- The only functioning airport in the Libyan capital region has been closed after rockets landed in the area, reports Al Jazeera (Qatar).   Flights to Mitiga airport outside of Tripoli were diverted following the attack late Tuesday.   There were no reports of casualties near the airport but local media reported that some people were injured by rockets elsewhere in the region.   The airport re-opened on Sept. 7 following a week of clashes between militias in the city that killed as many as 60 people.   A flight from Alexandria, Egypt, was redirected to Misrata, about 120 miles (190 km) from the capital. All flights would be re-routed, airport officials said.   A source told Agence France-Presse that there were plans to move other aircraft to Misrata.   A new group, the Tripoli Youth Movement (Harak Shabab Tarablus), claimed responsibility for the attack.   In a statement posted on social media on Sunday, the group warned maintenance workers to evacuate the airport.   Militias affiliated with the Government of National Accord must return control of Mitiga airport to civilians, said the group.  
  Item Number:10 Date: 09/12/2018 SYRIA - ANKARA STEPS UP ARMS SUPPLIES TO REBELS AHEAD OF ANTICIPATED ASSAULT ON IDLIB (SEP 12/REU)  REUTERS -- Turkey has increased arms supplies to Syrian rebels as the Syrian army and its international backers prepare for an offensive to retake Idlib province, the last rebel stronghold in the country, reports Reuters.   The flow of weapons to rebels increased following a summit last week between Iran, Russia and Turkey that failed to produce a deal to avert an armed showdown, said rebel sources.   Supplies include ammunition and Grad rockets, the sources said.   The Turkish military has pledged its complete support for Syrian rebel groups in Aleppo, said a commander in the Free Syrian Army.   The equipment and munitions will enable the rebels to withstand a drawn out conflict, the commander said.   Ankara has warned against the Idlib operation, expressing concern that it could send more Syrian refugees over its border. Turkey already hosts some 3.5 million Syrians.   Russian and Syrian warplanes have launched airstrikes in southern Idlib and neighboring Hama province. They have not yet begun a full-scale ground operation to retake the province. Reports suggest that troops are amassing near the borders of Idlib.   Turkey has strengthened 12 checkpoints with troops and heavy weapons. The outposts ring the northern sections of Idlib province under a de-escalation agreement reached in 2017. Russia and Syria say the deal is not valid because much of the province is under control of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), an umbrella group controlled by key members of the former Nusra Front.   Turkey has also deployed troops into rebel-held territory north of Aleppo city and helped organize FSA groups there into a united force of around 30,000 fighters. Ankara has ordered much of that force to move towards the frontline in Idlib, according to rebel commanders.   Observers have warned of a humanitarian catastrophe in the case of a military operation. The province's population has doubled to about 3 million as rebels and their families have fled other provinces that have come under the control of the government in Damascus.  
  Item Number:11 Date: 09/12/2018 SYRIA - COALITION LAUNCHES FINAL PHASE OF OP TO CLEAR ISIS FROM EAST (SEP 12/WSJ)  WALL STREET JOURNAL -- U.S.-backed forces have launched an operation to liberate the last remaining territory held by the Islamic State terrorist group (ISIS) in eastern Syria, reports the Wall Street Journal.   On Tuesday, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) began the third and final phase of Operation Roundup, which began in May near the village of Baghuz on the eastern bank of the Euphrates River, reported the Stars and Stripes.   The second phase conclude in July around the village of Dashish.   The four-axis ground operation is intended to clear ISIS from villages and farms in an area of about 22 miles (35 km) by 6 miles (10 km), the SDF said in a statement.   The SDF is backed by about 2,000 U.S. troops.   The goal is to eliminate ISIS fighters from Hajin, Deir Ezzor province, near the Syrian border with Iraq.   The operation is expected to take several months, said analysts. Even if successful, ISIS is likely to remain capable of launching attacks elsewhere.  
  Item Number:13 Date: 09/12/2018 USA - AIR FORCE ORDERS ANOTHER 18 KC-46 TANKERS (SEP 12/USDOD)  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE -- The U.S. Air Force has awarded Boeing, Seattle, Wash., a contract modification for another batch of KC-46A Pegasus tanker aircraft, reports the Dept. of Defense.   The US$2.9 billion deal, announced on Monday, exercised an option for 18 KC-46s, two spare engines, five wing refueling pod kits, initial spare parts and support equipment.   Work is expected to be completed by January 2022.   This is the fourth production lot under the program. Boeing received contracts for the first two production lots, covering 7 and 12 aircraft respectively, in August 2016. The third lot, for 15 aircraft, was awarded in January 2017, noted a company release.   The latest contract brings the total number of KC-46s ordered to 52, said Boeing.   Separately, Boeing reported on Sept. 4 that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had granted a supplemental type certificate to the KC-46 program confirming that the aircraft's refueling and mission avionics systems meet the agency's requirements.  
  Item Number:14 Date: 09/12/2018 USA - ARMY RESUMES ACCEPTING APACHES AFTER BOEING FIXES SAFETY ISSUE (SEP 12/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- Deliveries of new AH-64E Apache attack helicopters have resumed after the U.S. Army approved a fix for a safety issue, reports Defense News.   The Army started accepting deliveries on Aug. 31, said Brig. Gen. Thomas Todd, the service's program executive officer for aviation.   Deliveries were suspended in April over concerns with the performance of the strap pack nut, which helps to hold the rotor blades on the helicopter, in challenging coastal environments. The nut suffered corrosion due to climate and stress.   In June, Boeing began retrofitting Apaches with a new strap pack nut. The nut will also be replaced on all Apaches in U.S. and foreign service, including the AH-64D variant.   Boeing is performing the retrofit at no cost to the U.S. government or international customers, said Todd.   Aircraft that fly in coastal environments will be fitted first. There are about six Army units that operate in such environments, the general said   The retrofit of all U.S. and foreign Apaches is expected to be complete by December 2019.  
  Item Number:16 Date: 09/12/2018 USA - RUSSIA SUSPECTED IN HAVANA EMBASSY ATTACKS, SAY U.S. OFFICIALS (SEP 12/NBC)  NBC NEWS -- U.S. officials suspect that Russia was behind a series of unexplained attacks starting in late 2016 that injured 26 employees at the U.S. Embassy in Havana, reports NBC News.   The assessment is based primarily on signals intelligence gathered by FBI, the CIA and other U.S. agencies, said three U.S. and two other officials.   There is not yet enough evidence to formally blame Moscow, the officials said. Previous assessments had cast suspicion on Cuba. Officials have not ruled out that Havana may have provided some cooperation or tacit consent to the Russians.   Beginning in late 2016, employees at the embassy began complaining of cognition, balance, vision and hearing problems after hearing a strange noise.   U.S. officials have said they currently believe a weapon using microwaves or other type of electromagnetic weapon caused the symptoms. Investigators are also exploring whether multiple technologies were used.   Investigators have been attempting to reverse-engineer the weapon since 2017 at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico, which has laboratories to test electromagnetic weapons, including microwaves.   A similar attack was reported in China earlier this year. That investigation is still in its early phase.
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