Tuesday, September 4, 2018

TheList 4804

The List 4804TGB

To All
I hope that your short week has started well.
This day in Naval History
Sept. 4
1804—The ketch USS Intrepid outfitted with a large explosive charge to destroy the enemy fleet in Tripoli harbor, is apparently intercepted while entering the harbor and is destroyed in a violent explosion. Lt. Richard Somers, commanding USS Intrepid, and his dozen volunteer officers and men perish in the mission.
1941—The German submarine U-652 attacks the destroyer USS Greer (DD 145), which is tracking the submarine southeast of Iceland. Though the destroyer is not damaged in the attack, USS Greer's depth charges damage U-652. The attack leads President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue his "shoot-on-sight" order, directing the Navy to attack any ship threatening U.S. shipping or foreign shipping under escort.
1954—The icebreakers USS Burton Island (AGB 1) and USCGC Northwind complete the first transit of Northwest passage through the McClure Strait.
1954—A P2V-5 Neptune from VP-19 is attacked by two Soviet MiG-15s and crashes in the Sea of Japan, 40 miles off the coast of Siberia. One crewman is lost and the other nine are rescued by a USAF SA-16 amphibian.
1960—USS Bushnell (AS 15) and USS Penguin (ASR 12) begin relief operations in Marathon, Fla., after Hurricane Donna.
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
National headlines include coverage on Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh, the search for victims of the Colorado river boat crash, and Sen. McCain's burial at the Naval Academy. Navy Seabee Michael Ivey participated in an "Ask Me Anything" session on the website Reddit as part of an effort to shift the Navy's recruiting strategy away from television towards digital media reports the Virginian Pilot. "It is important to note that the current marketing campaign is the most cost-efficient in Navy history. That is because the majority of the paid advertising is appearing on the digital and social media platforms that are most popular with the Centennial generation," said Lt. Cmdr. Jessica L. McNulty. Defense news reports that the future carrier John F. Kennedy is now 50 percent complete. Additionally, Japan Times reports that the Ronald Reagan carrier strike group and Japan's helicopter carrier Kaga conducted bilateral exercises in the South China Sea on Friday.
Today in History
September 4

At the Battle of Montaperto in Italy, the Tuscan Ghibellines, who support the emperor, defeat the Florentine Guelfs, who support papal power.

After four years of war, Spain agrees to allow a Portuguese monopoly of trade along Africa's west coast and Portugal acknowledges Spain's rights in the Canary Islands.

Los Angeles, first an Indian village Yangma, is founded by Spanish decree.

Louis XVI of France recalls parliament.

Jacques Necker is forced to resign as finance minister in France.

USS Intrepid explodes while entering Tripoli harbor on a mission to destroy the enemy fleet there during the First Barbary War.

Czar Alexander declares that Russian influence in North America extends as far south as Oregon and closes Alaskan waters to foreigners.

Robert E. Lee's Confederate army invades Maryland, starting the Antietam Campaign.

A republic is proclaimed in Paris and a government of national defense is formed.

The Edison electric lighting system goes into operation as a generator serving 85 paying customers is switched on.

Elusive Apache leader Geronimo surrenders to General Nelson A. Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Ariz.

Beatrix Potter sends a note to her governess' son with the first drawing of Peter Rabbit, Cottontail and others. The Tale of Petter Rabbit is published eight years later.

The U.S. military places Haiti under martial law to quell a rebellion in its capital Port-au-Prince.

German submarine U-652 fires at the U.S. destroyer Greer off Iceland, beginning an undeclared shooting war.

Soviet planes bomb Budapest in the war's first air raid on the Hungarian capital.

Allied troops capture Lae-Salamaua, in New Guinea.

British troops liberate Antwerp, Belgium.

The American flag is raised on Wake Island after surrender ceremonies there.

The first transcontinental television broadcast in America is carried by 94 stations.

Arkansas governor Orval Faubus calls out the National Guard to bar African-American students from entering a Little Rock high school.

Operation Swift begins as US Marines engage North Vietnamese Army troops in Que Son Valley.

Mark Spitz becomes first Olympic competitor to win 7 medals during a single Olympics Games.

Sinai II Agreement between Egypt and Israel pledges that conflicts between the two countries "shall not be resolved by military force but by peaceful means."

Google founded by Stanford University students Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
September 4, 2018Bear Taylor
RIPPLE SALVO… #914…EBB TIDE: "the tide at ebb; a period of decline"… "JOHNSON FEELS THE LIMITS OF HIS POWER" by Neil Sheehan: "AUSTIN, TEX.,–IF PRESIDENT JOHNSON WAS THE FOOTBALL COACH CALLING THE PLAYS AT THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION LAST WEEK, HE WAS A COACH SO UNPOPULAR WITH MUCH OF HIS TEAM AND MANY OF THE FANS THAT HE DIDN'T DARE GO TO THE BALL GAME. Rather than displaying the efficacy of Johnson's power and influence as titular head of his party, the events in Chicago seemed to reveal the limits of his power and the extent to which it has been weakened over the past four years…. Continued below… but first…
GOOD MORNING…Day NINE HUNDRED FOURTEEN of a remembrance of an air war fought in the skies of North Vietnam 50 years ago…
Thanks to GM 
The loser loses yet again.  McCainapalooza?
I suspect a lot of unspoken discontent and anger are out there over the psy-ops campaign that has been waged for over a week to tell us how noble it is to pick fights with President Trump.
Thanks To Admiral Cox
S.J. Cox
USS Forrestal Disaster – 29 July 1967
     On 29 July 1967, the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) experienced a severe fire while operating on Yankee Station off Vietnam which killed 134 Sailors and aviators, injured 161, and destroyed 21 aircraft.  This was (and remains) the second worst loss of life on a U.S. Navy ship since World War II.  The disaster resulted in a very long list of "lessons learned" (many of which were "lessons forgotten" from carrier conflagrations during WWII) which transformed the U.S. Navy's approach to fire-fighting, damage control, and ordnance handling in the decades since.  In recent years, articles have appeared on the internet that are extremely inaccurate, generally intended to attempt to unfairly tarnish the reputation of Senator John S. McCain III, who survived the fire.
     At 1050, Forrestal commenced early launch of two KA-3B tankers, an EA-1 and an E-2A in preparation for an 1100 launch of a 24-plane Alpha Strike, the second of the day.  At that time, the VF-11 F-4B (#110,) was spotted on the extreme starboard quarter of the flight deck.  As the pilot of F-4B 110 shifted from external to internal power, multiple electrical malfunctions ignited one of the four 5-inch Mk-32 Zuni unguided rockets in a pod on external stores station 2 (port inboard station) which fired across the flight deck and struck VF-46 A-4E #405, piloted by LCDR Fred White, rupturing its fuel tank, igniting the fuel and initiating the fire.  Although the Board of Investigation reached the opinion that the Zuni rocket hit #405, there is some ambiguity in eyewitness accounts as to whether the rocket hit #405 or the plane next to it, #416, piloted by LCDR John McCain.  The rocket itself actually impacted the ocean beyond both aircraft.  Regardless, shrapnel ripped into both aircraft, and both were immediately sprayed by fuel and a pool of fuel ignited between and under the two aircraft.  Both pilots initially escaped from the flames around their aircraft.
    The impact of the Zuni rocket dislodged at least one, probably two, 1,000-lb AN-M65A1 bombs, which fell into the flames.  The outdated AN-M65's were being used because of an acute shortage of Mk 83 general purpose 1,000-lb bombs resulting from the intense Navy bombing campaign in North Vietnam which expended bombs faster than they could be produced.  The AN-M65 bombs had been brought aboard the day before, were over a decade old, in very poor condition and considered an extreme safety hazard by the Commanding Officer of the Forrestal, Captain John Beling, and according to the ship's Ordnance Officer were an imminent danger to the ship and should be jettisoned overboard.  Doing so, however, would have necessitated scrubbing that day's combat mission over North Vietnam, so Captain Beling reluctantly accepted the risk.
    Damage Control Team Eight, led by Chief Aviation Boatswain's Mate Gerald Farrier, which had received specialized flight deck fire-fighting training, immediately reacted to fight the fire.  Based on their training with Mk-83 bombs, they expected to have approximately 10 minutes to extinguish the fire around the bomb before there was risk of the case melting or cook off  with a designed very low-order explosion.  Chief Farrier immediately smothered the bombs with a PKP ("Purple K") extinguisher in order to cool them.  However the AN-M65's were not only unstable, their age and chemical composition actually enhanced the power of the blast (exact opposite of a Mk-83).  A little more than one minute after the fire started, one of the bombs fractured open, and Chief Farrier immediately ordered his team to withdraw, fearing an imminent cook-off.  At one minute and 34 seconds, the bomb exploded, killing Chief Farrier and almost his entire team (only three survived severely injured,) and also killed LCDR White.  A second bomb exploded nine seconds later and a chain reaction followed.
   Both White's and McCain's A-4's, fully fueled and loaded with ordnance, were destroyed by the blast.  Per the initial Mishap Board ("Informal Board of Investigation") Report, "In  period of four minutes, seven major explosions shook the entire ship and some 40,000 gallons of jet fuel from aircraft spotted on the flight deck was ignited and contributed to the damage.  Fire-fighting teams, pilots, and squadron personnel on deck were knocked down, injured or killed by the series of explosions.  The fire spread with the first explosion to every aircraft across the entire after part of the flight deck.  Seven holes were ripped through the deck from explosions of 750 lb., 500 lb., and 1000 lb. bombs.  Rockets and 20mm shells shot across the deck, and ejection seats fired into the air."  Actually, later analysis indicates at least nine bombs exploded on the flight deck, eight of them AN-M65's with significantly enhanced blast over a normal 1,000 lb bomb.  Other bombs on the flight deck performed as designed and did not detonate due to the fire.
    Most of the pilots on the aft of the flight deck were able to escape, but two more (besides LCDR White,) LT Dennis Barton and LCDR Gerry Stark, were killed in the explosions.  LCDR McCain was helping another pilot who was on fire when the first explosion occurred and barely escaped by rolling into the port catwalk as other bombs exploded; he then proceeded to assist ordnancemen on the hangar deck in jettisoning bombs over the side, to prevent them from exploding as well.  (Three months later, on 26 Oct 67, flying from USS Oriskany (CVA-34,) LCDR McCain would be shot down over North Vietnam on his 23rd bombing mission.)
    The bomb blasts blew large holes in the flight deck, and flaming fuel oil poured down into the hangar bay and berthing compartments in the aft end of the ship, accounting for many of the casualties.  Some of the burning fuel was spread by untrained hose teams using water on a fuel (Class B) fire, in some cases washing away foam laid by other teams and reigniting the fire.  The death and incapacitation of the entire specialized fire-fighting team in the initial explosion had critical impact.  By the end of WWII, as a result of lessons learned during the war, most Sailors on ships had received training in fighting shipboard fires.  By 1967, the U.S. Navy had reverted to the Japanese model at Midway with specialized, highly-trained damage control and fire-fighting teams, but most of the crew was not trained.  Doing so probably saved some money, but the result in crisis was heroic, but uncoordinated, often ineffective and counter-productive efforts by untrained teams that resulted in needless additional deaths and injuries.  Nevertheless, the ad hoc firefighting teams of Sailors and Marines had the fire on the flight deck out by 1215.  However the fires below decks, spread by the burning fuel on water, were much more difficult to put out, with the last fire not extinguished until 0400 the next day.  The damage to Forrestal was so severe that she had to come off Yankee Station for repairs, commencing post-repair sea trials in April 1968.
     The Navy investigation absolved Captain Beling of responsibility for the fire.  Beling, who had been in has cabin at the time, and supervised the damage control effort in his t-shirt, displayed considerable leadership throughout the harrowing 11 hour ordeal.  Nevertheless, the initial Board of Investigation stated, "Poor and outdated doctrinal and technical documentation of ordnance and aircraft equipment and procedures, evident at all levels of command, was a contributing cause of the accidental rocket firing."  At that time, such a state was not unique to Forrestal.  The Commander in Chief of the Atlantic Fleet (to which Forrestal was assigned when not deployed) Admiral Ephraim P. Holmes did not concur with some of the results of the final investigation report, specifically the part that cleared Captain Beling.  ADM Holmes appended a Letter of Reprimand for CAPT Beling to the final report, which was removed by direct order of CNO ADM Thomas Moorer.  CAPT Beling made flag, but his orders to command of a carrier battle group were cancelled by new CNO ADM Elmo Zumwalt, and he was reassigned to command of the Iceland Defense Force, from which RADM Beling retired.
     The Forrestal was the second (and worst) of three serious U.S. Navy carrier fires in the 1960's.  In the first, the USS Oriskany (CVA-34) suffered a fire on 26 Oct 66 on Yankee Station that killed 44 and injured 138 when a magnesium parachute flare was accidentally ignited (human error) and a panicked Sailor threw it back into the magnesium storage locker instead of overboard; many of the dead were pilots killed by toxic smoke inhalation in their sleep.  The third disaster occurred on USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65) on 14 Jan 69 while she was en route to Vietnam which killed 28 and injured 314, and destroyed 15 aircraft when hot exhaust from an improperly placed aircraft starter ignited another Zuni rocket and started a series of explosions.  In the case of Enterprise, lessons learned from Forrestal (and not having dangerous old and unstable ordnance on board) resulted in the fire being contained more rapidly with fewer casualties.  Enterprise put in for repairs at Pearl Harbor and continued en route to Vietnam in March 69, although she was diverted to Korean waters due to the North Korean capture of the USS Pueblo (AGER-2.)
    The Forrestal disaster resulted in many lessons learned (and re-learned) and resulted in significant changes in the U.S. Navy in training for shipboard damage control, the biggest being (re)-institution of firefighting training for all crew-members.  Another was the installation of a flight-deck washdown system that could spread water or foam as needed, with the first being installed on USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) during her 1968-69 refit.   Another major change was establishment of the Weapon System Explosives Safety Review Board.  The training films "Learn or Burn" (which included film from the flight-deck PLATT camera that filmed the entire Forrestal event) and "Trial by Fire: A Carrier Fights for Life," have influenced countless firefighting, damage control, and recruit training classes.  Even I remember from my midshipman days, "the Chief with the Purple K" – Chief Farrier, who sacrificed his life trying to buy time for aviators to escape their jets before the flames spread.
Of note, the greatest loss of life on a U.S. Navy ship since WWII was 176 killed when USS Hobson (DMS-26) broke in half and sank after a collision with USS Wasp (CV-18) on 26 Apr 52.
(My thanks to Dr. Richard Hulver, NHHC historian, for sifting through mounds of official documentation, sometimes contradictory, so I didn't have to read it all myself.  Due to the extent of the damage, there are still details which remain unknown.)
Item Number:1 Date: 09/04/2018 AFGHANISTAN - TALIBAN ANNOUNCES DEATH OF LEADER OF HAQQANI NETWORK (SEP 04/TN)  TOLONEWS -- The Taliban says the leader of the Haqqani Network (HQN) has died, reports Tolo News (Afghanistan).   Mawalawi Jalaluddin Haqqani died after several years of illness, the Taliban said in a statement on Tuesday.   Afghan officials have maintained that Haqqani died in 2015 and that the Taliban was waiting to release the news at an opportune moment, reported the New York Times.   Haqqani voluntarily gave control of HQN to his son, Sirajuddin Haqqani, in 2001.   The elder Haqqani founded HQN, a Taliban ally since 1995, during the fight against the Soviets. It is considered by some analysts to be among the most extreme and effective factions within the Taliban. The Taliban denies the existence of HQN as a separate entity.   Separately, NATO Resolute Support announced on Monday the death of the leader of the Islamic State terrorist group (ISIS) in Afghanistan, reported the Stars and Stripes.   Abu Saad Orakzai was killed in a U.S. airstrike in the eastern Nangarhar province on Aug. 25, NATO said.   Orakzai was the third ISIS leader in Afghanistan killed since 2016.  
  Item Number:6 Date: 09/04/2018 LIBYA - AT LEAST 47 DIE IN CLASHES BETWEEN MILITIAS IN TRIPOLI (SEP 04/LIBHER)  LIBYA HERALD -- Ongoing fighting in Tripoli, the Libyan capital, has killed 47 people and injured 129, reports the Libya Herald.   The Libyan Ministry of Health released the figures on Monday. This is the latest casualty report after a week of fighting in the capital.   About 400 prisoners escaped from Ain Zara prison in Tripoli on Monday, reported the Guardian (U.K.). Prisoners pushed their way past guards amid the fighting.   Fighting between powerful militias in the capital and the 7th Brigade, based in Tarhuna south of Tripoli, erupted last week.   The 7th Brigade is sometimes called the Kaniyat after their leaders, who come from the Kani family.   Militias based south of the capital have reportedly grown uneasy with changes in the balance of power in the city, noted Al Jazeera (Qatar).   The internationally recognized Government of National Accord (GNA) in Tripoli says it ordered the 7th Brigade to disband in April. The militia claims it represents the true army and says it launched the "operation to liberate Tripoli" from militias, reported Agence France-Presse.   Observers expressed concern that the 7th Brigade would take control of Tripoli after advances on Sept. 2 and Sept. 3.   The offensive was in part stopped by the deployment of the elite Special Deterrence Force, which was previously protecting the airport.   Forces loyal to the government of Fayez Siraj and the GNA also mounted a more credible defense compared to last week.   The situation now likely favors forces loyal to the GNA, as the opposition is spread too thin to continue its advance, said analysts.  
  Item Number:9 Date: 09/04/2018 PHILIPPINES - FLAGSHIP RUNS AGROUND OFF DISPUTED SPRATLY ISLANDS (SEP 04/PHILNA)  PHILIPPINES NEWS AGENCY -- The Philippine navy's flagship has run aground on Half Moon Shoal, known locally as the Hasa-Hasa Shoal, in the South China Sea, reports the Philippine News Agency.   The Gregorio del Pilar ran aground on Wednesday about 65 miles (105 km) west of Balabac, Palawan province, Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana said on Friday.   The navy was assessing the damage to the frigate before beginning recovery efforts, the defense secretary said.   No injuries were reported in the incident.   The frigate was on a routine night-time patrol when it ran aground, said an unnamed military official cited by GMA News. The ship was well within the Philippines 200-mile (320 km) exclusive economic zone at the time, the official said.   The Gregorio del Pilar was successfully extricated from the shoal on Monday, reported the Manila Bulletin
Item Number:10 Date: 09/04/2018 SOUTH AFRICA - 8 KILLED IN BLAST AT MUNITIONS FACILITY (SEP 04/STAR)  THE STAR -- At least eight people have been killed in an explosion at an arms factory near Cape Town, South Africa, reports the Star (South Africa).   The blast ripped apart a building at the Rheinmetall Denel Munition facility near Somerset West on Monday afternoon.   The defense firm was not able to confirm casualty figures but rescue crews reported that eight people were killed. The building hit by the explosion had a maximum capacity of 10 employees, reported the Mail and Guardian (South Africa).   Two company officials confirmed the blast to Bloomberg News.   The cause of the explosion is not yet known. Employees were not allowed to use cell phones in the facility.   The plant produces propellants for civilian and military use, reported Business Day (Johannesburg).   The company has launched an investigation into the incident
  Item Number:12 Date: 09/04/2018 SYRIA - ISRAEL BELIEVED BEHIND EXPLOSIONS AT MEZZAH AIRBASE (SEP 04/TL)  TIMES OF LONDON -- Israel was likely behind weekend strikes on an airbase outside of the Syrian capital, Damascus, reports the Times of London.   The Assad government initially blamed the Sept. 1 explosion at the Mezzah airbase on an electrical problem near a weapons ammunition depot.   An official in the regional alliance backing Assad told the newspaper the Israeli jets targeted the base, which was also used by Syrian intelligence and Iran's elite Quds Force.   At least two military personnel were killed in the strike and 11 wounded, reported Haaretz (Israel).   Five missiles struck the base, reported the Lebanese al-Meyadeen news outlet, which is friendly to the government in Damascus.   Israel does not generally confirm or deny its involvement in such strikes. It has been suspected of launching numerous strikes inside Syria. In January 2017, Syrian media accused Israel of launching airstrikes on the Mezzah airbase, noted BBC News.  
 Item Number:13 Date: 09/04/2018 SYRIA - SATELLITE PHOTOS SHOW NEW IRANIAN MISSILE FACTORY IN NORTHWEST (SEP 04/JP)  JERUSALEM POST -- New satellite images of an area in northwestern Syria indicate that Iran may have built a new missile factory there, reports the Jerusalem Post.   The photos from ImageSat International show that some of the structures in Wadi Jahannam near Baniyas are visually similar to structures at surface-to-surface missile factories in Parchin and Khojir in Iran.   The new facility in Syria is in the final stages of construction and is likely to be completed in early 2019, said ImageSat.   The company said that the winding down of the Syrian civil war could indicate that the Iranian efforts are intended for future use by Hezbollah or its own use, potentially against Israel.   The factory is also being built within the operational range of Russia's S-400 air defense systems in Syria, demonstrating the Iran is "exploiting the defense abilities of Russia," said ImageSat.   Israel has expressed concern about Iran's growing presence in Syria and has conducted hundreds of strikes, many against Iranian forces and weapons facilities.  
Item Number:14 Date: 09/04/2018 USA - LONG-RUNNING MISSIONS WEARING DOWN AIR FORCE, SAYS REPORT (SEP 04/AFT)  AIR FORCE TIMES -- A new report from the Rand Corp. says that protracted missions have left the Air Force ill-equipped to fulfill future missions, reports the Air Force Times.   The Rand study -- "Is the USAF Flying Force Large Enough?" -- attempts to determine the depth of the problem and specific areas of concern.   The goal was to help the Air Force "develop planning tools to test the robustness of the flying force against a range of possible future demands," says the study.   The document outlines four potential scenarios that the service might face in the future: a Cold War-type conflict with a long regional war; a Cold War environment with a short regional conflict; a peacetime environment, possibly involving a no-fly zone; and counterterrorism or counterinsurgency operations.   In all four scenarios, the Air Force would face significant shortfalls in multiple capability areas, the report says.   In a long regional conflict, for example, the service would only be able to field about half of the command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and battle management (C3ISR/BM) and special operations aircraft required and less than two-thirds of the necessary airlift and strike aircraft.   None of the classes of aircraft would be able to meet at least 80 percent of demands, says the report.   The analysis indicates that prolonged operations, those lasting more than a year, are having a disproportionate effect on the Air Force and have grown longer since the end of the Cold War.   Rand called for the Air Force to do more historically based simulations as it considers its force requirements, including better accounting for the demands on a peacetime force. It should also better track data on the effects of long, overseas missions
  Item Number:16 Date: 09/04/2018 USA - PENTAGON SUSPENDS $300 MILLION IN AID TO PAKISTAN (SEP 04/WSJ)  WALL STREET JOURNAL -- The Pentagon says it has decided to suspend $300 million in military aid to Pakistan, accusing Islamabad of not doing enough to fight militants, reports the Wall Street Journal.   The U.S. will continue to press Pakistan to combat the Haqqani Network (HQN) and Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT), a Pentagon spokesman said on Saturday.   Congress must now approve the move, noted BBC News.   The announcement is part of a broader suspension in aid announced by the Trump administration in January due to Islamabad's support for militant activity in Afghanistan and India.   Defense Secretary James Mattis could have authorized the $300 million through the summer if he saw Pakistan taking concrete actions against terrorist, a U.S. official told Reuters.   The aid would have come from the Coalition Support Fund, which reimburses purchases of U.S. logistics and military equipment, noted NPR News.

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