Wednesday, August 8, 2018

TheList 4784


The List 4784
TGB


To All,
I hope that you all had a great weekend.
Regards,
Skip
This day in Naval History
Aug. 7
1782—The Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart, is established by Gen. George Washington. See below for more
1899—Five officers and 121 enlisted Marines commanded by Maj. Allen C. Kelton, USMC, land at Agana, Guam, from USS Yosemite, as a garrison for the naval station which is later established.
1918—Naval Weapons Station Yorktown is established as the Naval Mine Depot when President Woodrow Wilson signs proclamation.
1942—During the Guadalcanal Campaign, the armada led by Rear Adm. Richmond K. Turner lands Marines on Guadalcanal and seizes a nearly-complete airfield at Guadalcanal's Lunga Point in the first U.S. land offensive of World War II. To the north, Tulagi Island, and a few miles to the east, Tanambogo and Gavutu Islands, Marines also land and fight bitter battles, concluding a few days after. Nonetheless, the campaign's final outcome is in doubt for nearly four months and is not certain until the Japanese evacuate their surviving troops at Guadalcanal on Feb. 8, 1943.
1943—TBF and F4F (VC 1) from USS Card (CVE 11) sink the German submarine (U 117) west of the Azores.
1972—Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Elmo Zumwalt Jr. issues Z-Gram 116, which enables Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women in the US Navy.
1990—Operation Desert Shield is ordered by President George H.W. Bush. Desert Shield is the largest overseas deployment since Vietnam, to protect Saudi Arabia after Iraqi's invasion of Kuwait. 
 
RE: the Purple Heart – Thanks to Dutch-- it was the  it was originally the Badge of Military Merit and was not given for being wounded.  The original badge looked like this, given to Sergeant Elijah Churchill
 
 
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
Top national news includes continued coverage on the Paul Manafort trial, the wildfires in California being on track to become the largest in history, and a large number of shootings in Chicago last weekend. Following an interview with the Chief of Naval Operations, Voice of America reports that the U.S. Navy has held the same force structures and level of activity in the South China Sea for the last 70 years.   In an effort to promote joint service interoperability, two Air Force B-52H Stratofortresses and two Navy P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft conducted a training exercise over the East China Sea on August 1 reports the Diplomat. USNI News reports that during RIMPAC 2018 U.S. Marine Corps amphibious assault vehicles paired with the Australian amphibious assault ship HMAS Adelaide to perform a record setting AAV operation, successfully demonstrating the interoperability. Additionally, Vice Adm. Charles A. Richard relieved Vice Adm. Joseph Tofalo as commander of U.S. submarine forces in a ceremony on Saturday.
Today in History August 7
1782

General George Washington authorizes the award of the Purple Heart for soldiers wounded in combat.
1864

Union troops capture part of Confederate General Jubal Early's army at Moorefield, West Virginia.
1888

Theophilus Van Kannel of Philadelphia receives a patent for the revolving door.
1906

In North Carolina, a mob defies a court order and lynches three African Americans which becomes known as "The Lyerly Murders."
1916

Persia forms an alliance with Britain and Russia.
1922

The Irish Republican Army cuts the cable link between the United States and Europe at Waterville landing station.
1934

In Washington, the U.S. Court of Appeals rules that the government can neither confiscate nor ban James Joyce's novel Ulysses.
1936

The United States declares non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War.
1942

The U.S. 1st Marine Division under General A. A. Vandegrift lands on the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon islands. This is the first American amphibious landing of the war.
1944

German forces launch a major counter attack against U.S. forces near Mortain, France.
1964

Congress overwhelmingly passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, allowing the president to use unlimited military force to prevent attacks on U.S. forces.
1966

The United States loses seven planes over North Vietnam, the most in the war up to this point.
1971

Apollo 15 returns to Earth. The mission to the moon had marked the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle.
1973

A U.S. plane accidentally bombs a Cambodian village, killing 400 civilians.
1976

The US Viking 2 spacecraft goes into orbit around Mars.
1981

The Washington (D.C.) Star ceases publication after 128 years.
1984

Japan defeats the United States to win the Olympic Gold in baseball.
1987

Presidents of five Central American nations sign a peace accord in Guatemala.
1990

Operation Desert Shield begins as US troops deploy to Saudi Arabia to discourage Iraq's Saddam Hussein from invading that country as he had Kuwait.
2007

Barry Bonds of the San Francisco Giants breaks Hank Aaron's record with his 756th home run. Bonds' accomplishments were clouded by allegations of illegal steroid use and lying to a grand jury.
 
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
I have read this before and probably this one from Micro. worth the repeat.
Skip:
 
The article on CAFE triggered my memory on one of my favorite subjects, so I thought I'd pass some info along just to cause some dreamers to dream.
 
​It's the Modern Russian-Ukrainian Theory of Deep Abiotic Petroleum Origin.  It's a mouthful, but it means that there is no credible evidence that there is any such thing as "fossil fuels."  There is no science that can explain how biologic material in the minor heat and pressure of the crust of the earth can spontaneously convert into hydrocarbon molecules (with the minor exception of methane, as in swamp gas).  That process cannot be duplicated in any laboratory and runs afoul of numerous laws of nature.  However, creating petroleum-like molecules has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment using no biological material under extremes of pressure and temperature.
 
What might this mean?  That there is a virtually unlimited supply of petroleum being created constantly in the earth's core and being transported to pools near the surface through fissures.
 
Russia has applied the theory for the past 60 years and has gone from having virtually no "reserves" of petroleum to being a major exporter.  The Theory was published in 1951.
 
Why haven't we all heard of this issue?  Well, we're all familiar with Fake News nowadays, as well as Conspiracy Theories.  Imagine how many oxen would be gored if this Theory were published in mainstream scientific publications in the U.S.
 
However, I believe the Theory is true, and it is backed up by lots of science.  For those that want to read either summaries or entire publications, go to www.gasresources.net.  The site has always been rudimentary and filled with scientific publications, but they're redesigning it at present.  Much/most of the data and publications and explanations are there.  Spending some time reading the home page and the Introduction (http://www.gasresources.net/Introduction.htm) will get you started.
 
Imagine the consequences around the world if this is really true and were accepted as a proven fact.  Arabs would be left with a lot of sand.  There would be no such thing as an "energy shortage" or a need for conservation efforts.  We could all drive large, heavy, safe automobiles again.  All the algae farms would shut down, along with windmills, solar panels, and all the other "renewables."
 
Now, if we could just get the global warming frauds off the streets....
 
Micro
 
 
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6 August 1945
72 years ago the Atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. That decision by President Truman has been second guessed by many. But after you read this You will realize that it did save many American lives because our estimates of Japanese strength were badly under estimated.
A compelling read!


The Invasion of  Japan - Not Found in the History Books

For the history buffs: An Invasion Not Found in the History Books by James Martin Davis reprinted from the Omaha World Herald, November 1987

Deep in the recesses of the National Archives in  Washington ,  D.C. , hidden for nearly four decades lie thousands of pages of yellowing and dusty documents stamped "Top Secret". These documents, now declassified, are the plans for Operation Downfall, the invasion of  Japan during World War II. Only a few Americans in 1945 were aware of the elaborate plans that had been prepared for the Allied Invasion of the Japanese home islands. Even fewer today are aware of the defenses the Japanese had prepared to counter the invasion had it been launched. Operation Downfall was finalized during the spring and summer of 1945. It called for two massive military undertakings to be carried out in succession and aimed at the heart of the Japanese Empire.

In the first invasion code named Operation Olympic American combat troops would land on  Japan by amphibious assault during the early morning hours of November 1, 1945 50 years ago. Fourteen combat divisions of soldiers and Marines would land on heavily fortified and defended  Kyushu , the southernmost of the Japanese home islands, after an unprecedented naval and aerial bombardment.       

(Note - The 11th and13th Airborne Divisions based on  Okinawa would be used to fill in the gaps of those units destroyed in the amphibious assault. G L Wells)

The second invasion on March 1, 1946 code named Operation Coronet would send at least 22 divisions against 1 million Japanese defenders on the main island of Honshu and the Tokyo Plain. Its goal: the unconditional surrender of Japan . With the exception of a part of the British Pacific Fleet, Operation Downfall was to be a strictly American operation. It called for using the entire Marine Corps, the entire Pacific Navy, elements of the 7th Army Air Force, the 8th Air Force (recently redeployed from  Europe ), 10th Air Force and the American Far Eastern Air Force. More than 1.5 million combat soldiers, with 3 million more in support or more than 40% of all servicemen still in uniform in 1945 - would be directly involved in the two amphibious assaults. Casualties were expected to be extremely heavy.

Admiral William Leahy estimated that there would be more than 250,000 Americans killed or wounded on  Kyushu alone. General Charles Willoughby, chief of intelligence for General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Southwest Pacific, estimated American casualties would be one million men by the fall of 1946.  Willoughby 's own intelligence staff considered this to be a conservative estimate.

During the summer of 1945,  America had little time to prepare for such an endeavor, but top military leaders were in almost unanimous agreement that an invasion was necessary.

While naval blockade and strategic bombing of  Japan was considered to be useful, General MacArthur, for instance, did not believe a blockade would bring about an unconditional surrender. The advocates for invasion agreed that while a naval blockade chokes, it does not kill; and though strategic bombing might destroy cities, it leaves whole armies intact.

So on May 25, 1945, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, after extensive deliberation, issued to General MacArthur, Admiral Chester Nimitz, and Army Air Force General Henry Arnold, the top secret directive to proceed with the invasion of  Kyushu . The target date was after the typhoon season.

President Truman approved the plans for the invasions July 24, 1945. Two days later, the United Nations issued the Potsdam Proclamation, which called upon  Japan to surrender unconditionally or face total destruction. Three days later, the Japanese governmental news agency broadcast to the world that  Japan would ignore the proclamation and would refuse to surrender.  During this same period it was learned via monitoring Japanese radio broadcasts that  Japan had closed all schools and mobilized its school children, was arming its civilian population and was fortifying caves and building underground defenses.  Operation Olympic called for a four pronged assault on  Kyushu . Its purpose was to seize and control the southern one-third of that island and establish naval and air bases, to tighten the naval blockade of the home islands, to destroy units of the main Japanese army and to support the later invasion of the Tokyo Plain.

The preliminary invasion would begin October 27, 1945 when the 40th Infantry Division would land on a series of small islands west and southwest of  Kyushu . At the same time, the 158th Regimental Combat Team would invade and occupy a small island 28 miles south of  Kyushu . On these islands, seaplane bases would be established and radar would be set up to provide advance air warning for the invasion fleet, to serve as fighter direction centers for the carrier-based aircraft and to provide an emergency anchorage for the invasion fleet, should things not go well on the day of the invasion. As the invasion grew imminent, the massive firepower of the Navy the Third and Fifth Fleets would approach Japan . The Third Fleet, under Admiral William "Bull" Halsey, with its big guns and naval aircraft, would provide strategic support for the operation against Honshu and Hokkaido . Halsey's fleet would be composed of battleships, heavy cruisers, destroyers, dozens of support ships and three fast carrier task groups. From these carriers, hundreds of Navy fighters, dive bombers and torpedo planes would hit targets all over the  island of Honshu . The 3,000 ship Fifth Fleet, under Admiral Raymond Spruance, would carry the invasion troops.

Several days before the invasion, the battleships, heavy cruisers and destroyers would pour thousands of tons of high explosives into the target areas. They would not cease the bombardment until after the land forces had been launched. During the early morning hours of November 1,

1945 the invasion would begin. Thousands of soldiers and Marines would pour ashore on beaches all along the eastern, southeastern, southern and western coasts of  Kyushu . Waves of Helldivers, Dauntless dive bombers, Avengers, Corsairs, and Hellcats from 66 aircraft carriers would bomb, rocket and strafe enemy defenses, gun emplacements and troop concentrations along the beaches.

The Eastern Assault Force consisting of the 25th, 33rd and 41st Infantry Divisions would land near Miyaski, at beaches called Austin, Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, and Ford, and move inland to attempt to capture the city and its nearby airfield. The Southern Assault Force, consisting of the 1st Cavalry Division, the 43rd Division and Americal Division would land inside  Ariake  Bay at beaches labeled DeSoto, Dusenberg, Essex, Ford, and Franklin and attempt to capture Shibushi and the city of  Kanoya and its airfield.

On the western  shore of  Kyushu , at beaches  Pontiac , Reo, Rolls Royce, Saxon, Star, Studebaker, Stutz, Winston and Zephyr, the V Amphibious Corps would land the 2nd, 3rd and 5th Marine Divisions, sending half of its force inland to Sendai and the other half to the port city of  Kagoshima .

On November 4, 1945 the Reserve Force, consisting of the 81st and 98th Infantry Divisions and the 11th Airborne Division, after feigning an attack of the island of Shikoku, would be landed if not needed elsewhere near Kaimondake, near the southernmost tip of Kagoshima Bay, at the beaches designated Locomobile, Lincoln, LaSalle, Hupmobile, Moon, Mercedes, Maxwell, Overland, Oldsmobile, Packard and Plymouth.

Olympic was not just a plan for invasion, but for conquest and occupation as well. It was expected to take four months to achieve its objective, with the three fresh American divisions per month to be landed in support of that operation if needed.

If all went well with Olympic, Coronet would be launched March 1, 1946. Coronet would be twice the size of Olympic, with as many as 28 divisions landing on  Honshu .

All along the coast east of  Tokyo , the American 1st Army would land the 5th, 7th, 27th, 44th, 86th, and 96th Infantry Divisions along with the 4th and 6th Marine Divisions.

At  Sagami  Bay , just south of  Tokyo , the entire 8th and 10th Armies would strike north and east to clear the long western shore of  Tokyo  Bay and attempt to go as far as Yokohama . The assault troops landing south of  Tokyo would be the 4th, 6th, 8th, 24th, 31st, 37th, 38th and 8th Infantry Divisions, along with the 13th and 20th Armored Divisions.

Following the initial assault, eight more divisions the 2nd, 28th, 35th, 91st, 95th, 97th and 104th Infantry Divisions and the 11th Airborne Division would be landed. If additional troops were needed, as expected, other divisions redeployed from Europe and undergoing training in the  United States would be shipped to  Japan in what was hoped to be the final push.

Captured Japanese documents and post war interrogations of Japanese military leaders disclose that information concerning the number of Japanese planes available for the defense of the home islands was dangerously in error.


During the sea battle at  Okinawa alone, Japanese kamikaze aircraft sank


32 Allied ships and damaged more than 400 others. But during the summer of 1945, American top brass concluded that the Japanese had spent their air force since American bombers and fighters daily flew unmolested over  Japan .

What the military leaders did not know was that by the end of July the Japanese had been saving all aircraft, fuel, and pilots in reserve, and had been feverishly building new planes for the decisive battle for their homeland.

As part of Ketsu-Go, the name for the plan to defend  Japan the Japanese were building 20 suicide takeoff strips in southern  Kyushu with underground hangars. They also had 35 camouflaged airfields and nine seaplane bases. On the night before the expected invasion, 50 Japanese seaplane bombers, 100 former carrier aircraft and 50 land based army planes were to be launched in a suicide attack on the fleet.

The Japanese had 58 more airfields in  Korea , western Honshu and  Shikoku , which also were to be used for massive suicide attacks.  Allied intelligence had established that the Japanese had no more than 2,500 aircraft of which they guessed 300 would be deployed in suicide attacks.

In August 1945, however, unknown to Allied intelligence, the Japanese still had 5,651 army and 7,074 navy aircraft, for a total of 12,725 planes of all types. Every village had some type of aircraft manufacturing activity. Hidden in mines, railway tunnels, under viaducts and in basements of department stores, work was being done to construct new planes.

Additionally, the Japanese were building newer and more effective models of the Okka, a rocket-propelled bomb much like the German V-1, but flown by a suicide pilot. When the invasion became imminent, Ketsu-Go called for a fourfold aerial plan of attack to destroy up to 800 Allied ships.

While Allied ships were approaching  Japan , but still in the open seas, an initial force of 2,000 army and navy fighters were to fight to the death to control the skies over  Kyushu . A second force of 330 navy combat pilots was to attack the main body of the task force to keep it from using its fire support and air cover to protect the troop carrying transports. While these two forces were engaged, a third force of 825 suicide planes was to hit the American transports.

As the invasion convoys approached their anchorages, another 2,000 suicide planes were to be launched in waves of 200 to 300, to be used in hour by hour attacks.

By mid-morning of the first day of the invasion, most of the American land-based aircraft would be forced to return to their bases, leaving the defense against the suicide planes to the carrier pilots and the shipboard gunners.

Carrier pilots crippled by fatigue would have to land time and time again to rearm and refuel. Guns would malfunction from the heat of continuous firing and ammunition would become scarce. Gun crews would be exhausted by nightfall, but still the waves of kamikaze would continue. With the fleet hovering off the beaches, all remaining Japanese aircraft would be committed to nonstop suicide attacks, which the Japanese hoped could be sustained for 10 days. The Japanese planned to coordinate their air strikes with attacks from the 40 remaining submarines from the Imperial Navy some armed with Long Lance torpedoes with a range of 20 miles when the invasion fleet was 180 miles off  Kyushu .

The Imperial Navy had 23 destroyers and two cruisers which were operational. These ships were to be used to counterattack the American invasion. A number of the destroyers were to be beached at the last minute to be used as anti-invasion gun platforms.

Once offshore, the invasion fleet would be forced to defend not only against the attacks from the air, but would also be confronted with suicide attacks from sea.  Japan had established a suicide naval attack unit of midget submarines, human torpedoes and exploding motorboats

The goal of the Japanese was to shatter the invasion before the landing. The Japanese were convinced the Americans would back off or become so demoralized that they would then accept a less-than-unconditional surrender and a more honorable and face-saving end for the Japanese.

But as horrible as the battle of  Japan would be off the beaches, it would be on Japanese soil that the American forces would face the most rugged and fanatical defense encountered during the war.

Throughout the island-hopping Pacific campaign, Allied troops had always out numbered the Japanese by 2 to 1 and sometimes 3 to 1. In  Japan it would be different. By virtue of a combination of cunning, guesswork, and brilliant military reasoning, a number of  Japan 's top military leaders were able to deduce, not only when, but where, the  United States would land its first invasion forces.

Facing the 14 American divisions landing at  Kyushu would be 14 Japanese divisions, 7 independent mixed brigades, 3 tank brigades and thousands of naval troops. On Kyushu the odds would be 3 to 2 in favor of the Japanese, with 790,000 enemy defenders against 550,000 Americans. This time the bulk of the Japanese defenders would not be the poorly trained and ill-equipped labor battalions that the Americans had faced in the earlier campaigns.

The Japanese defenders would be the hard core of the home army. These troops were well-fed and well equipped. They were familiar with the terrain, had stockpiles of arms and ammunition, and had developed an effective system of transportation and supply almost invisible from the air. Many of these Japanese troops were the elite of the army, and they were swollen with a fanatical fighting spirit.

Japan 's network of beach defenses consisted of offshore mines, thousands of suicide scuba divers attacking landing craft, and mines planted on the beaches. Coming ashore, the American Eastern amphibious assault forces at  Miyazaki would face three Japanese divisions, and two others poised for counterattack. Awaiting the Southeastern attack force at  Ariake  Bay was an entire division and at least one mixed infantry brigade.

On the western shores of  Kyushu , the Marines would face the most brutal opposition. Along the invasion beaches would be the three Japanese divisions, a tank brigade, a mixed infantry brigade and an artillery command.

Components of two divisions would also be poised to launch counterattacks.

If not needed to reinforce the primary landing beaches, the American Reserve Force would be landed at the base of  Kagoshima  Bay November 4, 1945, where they would be confronted by two mixed infantry brigades, parts of two infantry divisions and thousands of naval troops.

All along the invasion beaches, American troops would face coastal batteries, anti-landing obstacles and a network of heavily fortified pillboxes, bunkers, and underground fortresses. As Americans waded ashore, they would face intense artillery and mortar fire as they worked their way through concrete rubble and barbed-wire entanglements arranged to funnel them into the muzzles of these Japanese guns.

On the beaches and beyond would be hundreds of Japanese machine gun positions, beach mines, booby traps, trip-wire mines and sniper units. Suicide units concealed in "spider holes" would engage the troops as they passed nearby. In the heat of battle, Japanese infiltration units would be sent to reap havoc in the American lines by cutting phone and communication lines. Some of the Japanese troops would be in American uniform; English-speaking Japanese officers were assigned to break in on American radio traffic to call off artillery fire, to order retreats and to further confuse troops. Other infiltration with demolition charges strapped on their chests or backs would attempt to blow up American tanks, artillery pieces and ammunition stores as they were unloaded ashore.

Beyond the beaches were large artillery pieces situated to bring down a curtain of fire on the beach. Some of these large guns were mounted on railroad tracks running in and out of caves protected by concrete and steel.

The battle for  Japan would be won by what Simon Bolivar Buckner, a lieutenant general in the Confederate army during the Civil War, had called "Prairie Dog Warfare." This type of fighting was almost unknown to the ground troops in Europe and the  Mediterranean . It was peculiar only to the soldiers and Marines who fought the Japanese on islands all over the Pacific at Tarawa, Saipan, Iwo Jima and  Okinawa .

Prairie Dog Warfare was a battle for yards, feet and sometimes inches. It was brutal, deadly and dangerous form of combat aimed at an underground, heavily fortified, non-retreating enemy.


In the mountains behind the Japanese beaches were underground networks of caves, bunkers, command posts and hospitals connected by miles of tunnels with dozens of entrances and exits. Some of these complexes


could hold up to 1,000 troops.  In addition to the use of poison gas and Bacteriological warfare (which the Japanese had experimented with),  Japan mobilized its citizenry.


Had Olympic come about, the Japanese civilian population, inflamed by a national slogan "One Hundred Million Will Die for the Emperor and Nation" were prepared to fight to the death. Twenty Eight Million Japanese had become a part of the National Volunteer Combat Force. They were armed with ancient rifles, lunge mines, satchel charges, Molotov cocktails and one-shot black powder mortars. Others were armed with swords, long bows, axes and bamboo spears. The civilian units were to be used in nighttime attacks, hit and run maneuvers, delaying actions and massive suicide charges at the weaker American positions.

At the early stage of the invasion, 1,000 Japanese and American soldiers would be dying every hour.  The invasion of  Japan never became a reality because on August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was exploded over  Hiroshima . Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on  Nagasaki . Within days the war with  Japan was at a close.

Had these bombs not been dropped and had the invasion been launched as scheduled, combat casualties in  Japan would                                  have been at a minimum of the tens of thousands. Every foot of Japanese soil would have been paid for by Japanese and American lives. One can only guess at how many civilians would have committed suicide in their homes or in futile mass military attacks.

In retrospect, the 1 million American men who were to be the casualties of the invasion were instead lucky enough to survive the war. Intelligence studies and military estimates made 50 years ago, and not latter-day speculation, clearly indicate that the battle for Japan might well have resulted in the biggest blood-bath in the history of modern warfare.

Far worse would be what might have happened to  Japan as a nation and as a culture. When the invasion came, it would have come after several months of fire bombing all of the remaining Japanese cities. The cost in human life that resulted from the two atomic blasts would be small in comparison to the total number of Japanese lives that would have been lost by this aerial devastation.

With American forces locked in combat in the south of  Japan , little could have prevented the  Soviet Union from marching into the northern half of the Japanese home islands. Japan today could be divided much like  Korea and  Germany .

The world was spared the cost of Operation Downfall, however, because  Japan formally surrendered to the United Nations September 2, 1945, and World War II was over.  The aircraft carriers, cruisers and transport ships scheduled to carry the invasion troops to Japan , ferried home American troops in a gigantic operation called Magic Carpet.

In the fall of 1945, in the aftermath of the war, few people concerned themselves with the invasion plans. Following the surrender, the classified documents, maps, diagrams and appendices for Operation Downfall were packed away in boxes and eventually stored at the National Archives. These plans that called for the invasion of  Japan paint a vivid description of what might have been one of the most horrible campaigns in the history of man. The fact that the story of the invasion of  Japan is locked up in the National Archives and is not told in our history books is something for which all Americans can be                                  thankful.
 
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
 
Item Number:1 Date: 08/07/2018 AFGHANISTAN - SURRENDERED ISIS FIGHTERS MAY BE ABSOLVED TO ENCOURAGE FURTHER CAPITULATION (AUG 07/REU)  REUTERS -- The Afghan government is considering granting amnesty to Islamic State militants who surrendered to armed forces, reports Reuters.   Around 150 ISIS militants, including two senior commanders, surrendered to the military last week following weeks of fighting in the Darzab district of the northern Jawzjan province.   It was the first time such a large number of fighters surrendered at once.   After their surrender, residents came forward detailing alleged atrocities including kidnapping, rape and murder, committed by ISIS fighters in Afghanistan.   The group will not face charges because they are taking part in the peace process, said a Jawzjan province spokesman. Granting amnesty could encourage other adversaries to reach an agreement with the government, he said.   Jawzjan security commander Gen. Faqir Mohammad Jawzjani expressed skepticism about any reconciliation.   It was not known if this was part of a larger attempt to negotiate with the Islamic State as a whole in Afghanistan
.  
  Item Number:2 Date: 08/07/2018 ALBANIA - PRIME MINISTER ANNOUNCES FIRST NATO AIR BASE IN WESTERN BALKANS (AUG 07/XIN)  XINHUA -- Albania is set to host the first NATO air base in the western Balkans, reports Xinhua, China's state-run news agency.   NATO's North Atlantic Council has announced plans to modernize Kucove air base in central Berat county, Prime Minister Edi Rama said in a statement on Aug. 4.   The air base will support both Albanian air force and NATO missions, including air transport, logistics, air policing and training.   In partnership with the Albanian government, the alliance will contribute to funding the 50 million euros (US$58 million) for the first phase of the project.   Work is expected to start within the year.   Talks with the U.S. aimed to further modernize air force capacities are currently underway, Rama said.  
 
Item Number:3 Date: 08/07/2018 CHINA - HYPERSONIC WAVERIDER PASSES FIRST TEST (AUG 07/SCMP)  SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST -- China says it has successfully tested its first hypersonic waverider aircraft, which rides on the shock waves generated by its flight, reports the South China Morning Post.   The Starry Sky-2 successfully completed its first test flight on Aug. 3 at an undisclosed location in northwest China, the China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA) said on Monday.   The aircraft was lifted into space by a multi-stage rocket before flying on its own.   The waverider vehicle was able to reach a top speed of Mach 6, equal to 4,563 miles per hour (7,344km per hour) and maintained speeds of Mach 5.5 for more than 400 seconds, said the company.   Calling the test a complete success, the CAAA said the Starry-Sky-2 was able to manage extreme turns during the trial before landing in a designated target zone.   The aircraft was recovered whole, noted the company.   Once fully developed, hypersonic waverider aircraft could prove capable of carrying missiles at speeds sufficient to penetrate current missile defense systems.   Testing for such aircraft is currently underway in China, Russia and the U.S. The platform is still many years away from being able to carry weapons, say analysts.  
 Item Number:4 Date: 08/07/2018 DEM REP OF CONGO - 33 DEAD IN LATEST EBOLA OUTBREAK (AUG 07/CNN)  CABLE NEWS NETWORK -- At least 33 have died in a new outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo, reports CNN.   At least 43 other cases have been confirmed since the D.R. Congo Health Ministry declared an Ebola outbreak on Aug. 1.   The outbreak affects five health zones in the North Kivu province and one health zone in Ituri province, both in the country's northeast.   The deadly disease's spread is facilitated by conflict, trade and human traffic, all present in the region which borders Uganda and Rwanda.   North Kivu province also hosts at least 1 million people displaced by fighting between militants and government forces, making it difficult to administer treatments against the virus.   D.R. Congo health officials said on Monday that they would began administering a vaccine against the disease in the eastern cities of Beni and Mangina, reported Deutsche Welle.   The country is also fighting another Ebola outbreak 1,553 miles (2,500 km) away.  
 Item Number:6 Date: 08/07/2018 IRAQ - ROADSIDE BOMB KILLS THREE SECURITY FORCES IN TIKRIT (AUG 07/ANADOLU)  ANADOLU NEWS AGENCY -- Three federal police officers have been killed by an improvised explosive device (IED) northern Iraq, reports Turkey's state-run Anadolu Agency.   Their police vehicle struck a roadside bomb while conducting a mop-up operation against remaining Islamic State (ISIS) fighters in Tikrit, Saladin province, on Aug. 4.   Many bombs remain in areas previously held by the group. More than 70 IEDs planted by Islamic State militants have been defused in the area in the past two days, said a police spokesman.   Baghdad declared victory over ISIS in December The terrorist group remains active in some areas of the country
 
Item Number:7 Date: 08/07/2018 JAPAN - FIRST FOOTAGE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RAILGUN RELEASED (AUG 07/DEFBLOG)  DEFENCE-BLOG -- Japan's Acquisition, Technology & Logistics Agency has released the first video footage of its electromagnetic railgun prototype, reports Defence-Blog.   The footage from July 31 represents the first official confirmation on the development of the weapon.   Further details were not released.,The Japanese Self Defense Force's new 27DD Destroyer has been suggested as the first platform to incorporate the new weapon.  
 
  Item Number:8 Date: 08/07/2018 NIGERIA - AIR STRIKE KILLS SEVERAL BOKO HARAM FIGHTERS (AUG 07/VANGUARD)  VANGUARD -- Several Boko Haram militants have been killed in an air strike in northern Nigeria, reports the Vanguard (Lagos).   On Aug. 3, Nigerian air force planes targeted a meeting of militants in two buildings near Lake Chad in Borno state, according to an air force statement.   Boko Haram has recently intensified its attacks, especially against military targets, noted Agence France-Presse.   In late July, militants attacked a military post in Borno state, killing 11 troops and seizing weapons, according to a military source.  
 
  Item Number:9 Date: 08/07/2018 RUSSIA - FOREIGN MINISTRY EXPELS 2 GREEK DIPLOMATS IN TIT-FOR-TAT MOVE (AUG 07/IBNA)  INDEPENDENT BALKAN NEWS AGENCY -- The Russian government has informed Greece's ambassador to Moscow of reciprocal measures following the expulsion of two Russian diplomats from Greece, reports the Independent Balkan News Ageny (Bulgaria).   On Monday, the Russian Foreign Ministry told Ambassador Andreas Friganas that two unnamed Greek diplomats serving in Russia would be asked to leave the country.   The Russian Foreign Ministry did not say when they would be asked to leave.   The move comes after the expulsion of two Russian diplomats from Greece in July. Two other Russian envoys were barred from entering Greece.   Greece accused Russia of funding protests against the settlement of naming dispute with their northern neighbor, commonly referred to as Macedonia.   The resolution of the dispute between Greece and Macedonia would pave the way for the latter's entrance to NATO.   Moscow denies fomenting protests.  
 
Item Number:11 Date: 08/07/2018 SYRIA - STRIKE IN DEIR EZZOR KILLS 28 (AUG 07/SOHR)  SYRIAN OBSERVATORY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS -- At least 28 fighters from the Islamic State terrorist group (ISIS) have been killed in an airstrike in northeastern Syria, reports the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (U.K.).   The fighters were killed on Monday in air- and artillery-strikes on militant positions in Deir Ezzor province, the watchdog group said.   The U.S.-led coalition and their local allies, the Syrian Democratic Forces, carried out the attack in the Bir Al Meleh region of the province, which sits near the Iraqi border, said the Observatory's head Rami Abdel Rahman.   An unknown number of ISIS fighters were injured in the attack he said.  
 
Item Number:13 Date: 08/07/2018 UNITED KINGDOM - EXTRADITION REQUEST READY IN SKRIPAL POISONING (AUG 07/GUARDIAN)  GUARDIAN -- The British government is expected to submit an extradition request for two Russians suspected in the poisoning of a Russian double agent, reports the Guardian (U.K.).   The Crown Prosecution Service has prepared the extradition request and is ready to forward it to Russian authorities, the newspaper reported on Monday.   The announcement follows months of investigation into the poisoning of Sergei Skripal in Salisbury, about 75 miles (125 km) southwest of London.   The attack in March 2018 left Skripal and his daughter hospitalized after they came into contact with what authorities believe was the Novichok nerve agent.   One woman was killed and her partner hospitalized after coming in contact with the same substance in June. Investigators believe that the woman was exposed when she found the dispersal device used by the attackers, reportedly a perfume bottle.   Officials in London have blamed Moscow for the attack, a charge that Russia denies.   The poisoning and diplomatic fallout arising from it have resulted in a series of tit-for-tat expulsions of diplomats
_______________________________________________

No comments:

Post a Comment