Wednesday, June 20, 2018

TheList 4750

The List 4750     TGB


To All,
A bit of history and some tidbits.
Regards,
Skip
This day in Naval History
June 20
1813 - Fifteen U.S. gunboats engage 3 British ships in Hampton Roads, VA
1815 - Trials of Fulton I, built by Robert Fulton, are completed in New York. This ship would become the Navy's first steam-driven warship.
1898 - U.S. forces occupied Guam, which became first colony of U.S. in the Pacific.
1913—While piloting the B-2 at 1,600 feet over the water near Annapolis, MD, Ensign William D. Billingsley is thrown from the plane and falls to his death. Billingsley is the first fatality of Naval Aviation.
1934—Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet, Rear Adm. Frank Upham reports to the Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. William H. Standley, that based on the analyses of Japanese radio traffic, "any attack by (Japan) would be made without previous declaration of war or intentional warning." 
1941—USS O-9 (SS 70) sinks off Portsmouth, NH, during a test dive. Salvage ships located her in more than 400 feet of water, but she had suffered crushing damage from the water pressure at that depth and all 33 men on board had been killed.
1943 - PBY patrol aircraft from (VP 84) sinks German submarine U 388 south-southwest of Iceland, in the first use of homing torpedo (FIDO) and damages U 420.
1944 - Battle of Philippine Sea ends with Japanese losing 2 aircraft carriers and hundreds of aircraft.
1945—The coordinated submarine attack group, commanded by Cmdr. Earl T. Hydeman, continues operations against Japanese shipping in the Sea of Japan. USS Tinosa (SS 283) sinks army cargo ship Taito Maru and freighter Kaisei Maru. Also on this date, USS Kraken (SS 370) sinks Japanese auxiliary sailing vessel No.58 Tachibana Maru in Sunda Strait, off Merak.
1976—USS Spiegel Grove (LSD 32) and LCU 1654 (a Landing Craft Utility vessel) evacuate 276 American and foreign national refugees from war-torn Beirut, Lebanon and transport them to Athens, Greece. 
 
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
Today's national headlines include continued coverage of the separation of family migrants at the US southern border, and US Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley announcing the US is withdrawing from the UN Human Rights Council, accusing the body of bias against Israel and a failure to hold human rights abusers accountable.  Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition James Geurts announced that the Navy will release a 30-year ship repair and modernization plan alongside its 30-year shipbuilding plan next spring, reports USNI News. The plan will help the maintenance industry plan workforce and infrastructure investments in the future. The Diplomat reported on the Malabar naval exercise between the U.S. Navy, Indian Navy, and Japan Maritime Self Defense Force which officially came to an end June 16. According to AP, Julius Heinrich Otto "Henry" Pieper, whose identity was recovered in 2017, was laid to rest beside his twin brother in Normandy, 74 years after the two Sailors died together when their ship shattered while trying to reach the D-Day beaches.

Today in History June 20
451
Roman and barbarian warriors halt Attila's army at the Catalaunian Plains in eastern France.
1397
The Union of Kalmar unites Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch.
1756
Nearly 150 British soldiers are imprisoned in the 'Black Hole' cell of Calcutta. Most die.
1793
Eli Whitney applies for a cotton gin patent.
1819
The paddle-wheel steamship Savannah arrives in Liverpool, England, after a voyage of 27 days and 11 hours--the first steamship to successfully cross the Atlantic.
1837
18-year-old Victoria is crowned Queen of England.
1863
President Abraham Lincoln admits West Virginia into the Union as the 35th state.
1898
On the way to the Philippines to fight the Spanish, the U.S. Navy seizes the island of Guam.
1901
Charlotte M. Manye of South Africa becomes the first native African to graduate from an American University.
1910
Mexican President Porfirio Diaz proclaims martial law and arrests hundreds.
1920
Race riots in Chicago, Illinois leave two dead and many wounded.
1923
France announces it will seize the Rhineland to assist Germany in paying her war debts.
1941
The U.S. Army Air Force is established, replacing the Army Air Corps.
1955
The AFL and CIO agree to combine names for a merged group.
1963
The United States and the Soviet Union agree to establish a hot line between Washington and Moscow.
1964
General William Westmoreland succeeds General Paul Harkins as head of the U.S. forces in Vietnam.
1967
Boxing champion Muhammad Ali is convicted of refusing induction into the American armed services.
1972
President Richard Nixon names General Creighton Abrams as Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
1999
NATO declares an official end to its bombing campaign of Yugoslavia.
 
 
I was on the USS Hancock at the time and we liked the phrase "We got to get a bigger boat" We thought so also.
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From the Little Big Horn to the '03 Springfield by  W. Thomas Smith Jr.
06/22/2010
 
This Week in American Military History:
 
June 20, 1941: The U.S. Army Air Corps is reorganized as the U.S. Army Air Forces (the predecessor to the U.S. Air Force).
 
June 22, 1944: Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 – commonly known as the "G.I. Bill of Rights" – into law.
The law will literally change the socio-economic landscape of the country:
putting teeth in the U.S. Veterans Administration, and providing education and work-training opportunities, home loans, farm and business startup capital, and other benefits for millions of soon-to-be-returning World War II veterans who otherwise would never receive such.
According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, "Before the war, college and homeownership were, for the most part, unreachable dreams for the average American."
The G.I. Bill changed that.
"Millions who would have flooded the job market instead opted for education. In the peak year of 1947, veterans accounted for 49 percent of college admissions. By the time the original G.I. Bill ended on July 25, 1956, 7.8 million of 16 million World War II veterans had participated in an education or training program."
 
June 23, 1903: The U.S. Army adopts the now-famous Springfield rifle
(M1903) as the standard infantry weapon.
The bolt-action M1903 Springfield will be the primary American rifle carried by soldiers and Marines during America's year (1918) in World War I. And in 1942, U.S. Marines fighting Japanese diehards on Guadalcanal are still armed with the '03 Springfield as their primary weapon (though the semi-automatic M1 Garand had begun to replace the Springfield a few years earlier).
Coincidentally among the American combat units on "the Canal" is the fighting 5th Marine Regiment, which – 25 years earlier during the bloody battle of Belleau Wood – won for the entire Corps a reputation as some of the world's best marksmen. And they did so of course with the '03 Springfield.
U.S. Army Gen. John J. "Black Jack" Pershing, commanding general of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, will say, "The deadliest weapon in the world is a Marine and his rifle [meaning his '03 Springfield]."
In his book, Guadalcanal Marine, author Kerry L. Lane will write: "The enemy on Guadalcanal would soon learn that a Marine marksman armed with a Springfield '03 rifle is a dangerous man at a great distance."
 
June 25, 1876: The battle of the Little Big Horn opens between a few hundred U.S. Army cavalry troopers under the command of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and thousands of allied Lakota and Cheyenne Indian warriors under the command of Crazy Horse and Chief Gall.
Also known as "Custer's last stand," the battle will result in the encirclement and total annihilation of Custer and his vastly outnumbered command.
Though a dark day for the American Army, the battle of the Little Big Horn represents multiple inescapable elements of American military tradition:
The dashing, adventurous cavalry trooper riding off into the unknown, mistakes made, mistakes corrected, courage, sacrifice, our American Indian heritage, and the growing pains of America's westward expansion.
 
June 26, 1948: The Berlin Airlift – a series of some 300,000 air-transport flights into West Berlin delivering an average of 5,000 tons of life necessities every day for nearly a year – begins.
Led by the U.S. Air Force, the airlift – codenamed "Operation Vittles" and unofficially known as "LeMay's Feed and Coal Company" – is launched in response to a Soviet blockade of West Berlin; cutting off all highway and rail routes into the Western zones.
 
(Gen. Curtis LeMay – affectionately known as "Old Iron Ass" – was the Air Force's brash, cigar-chewing master of strategic bombing.) U.S. Army Gen. Lucius Clay, the military governor of the American zone of occupied Germany, writes: "When the order of the Soviet Military Administration to close all rail traffic from the western zones went into effect …, the three western sectors of Berlin, with a civilian population of about 2,500,000 people, became dependent on reserve stocks and airlift replacements. It was one of the most ruthless efforts in modern times to use mass starvation for political coercion... ."
The blockade and subsequent airlift was the first serious confrontational crisis between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union following World War II. But the airlift, which gained wide public support around the world, was an enormous success. In May 1949, the Soviets conceded and reopened the land routes, though strict – in fact, harsh – control continued for the remainder of the Cold War.
 
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Thanks to  Carl
This is the complete article below
 
Friday, June 15, 2018

Do you know who Bill Slim is? You should. Maybe this will help.
Lieutenant-General Sir William Slim, KCB, CB, DSO, MC ("Bill") is 53, burly, grey and going a bit bald. His mug is large and weatherbeaten, with a broad nose, jutting jaw, and twinkling hazel eyes. He looks like a well-to-do West Country farmer, and could be one: For he has energy and patience and, above all, the man has common sense. However, so far Slim has not farmed. He started life as a junior clerk, once he was a school teacher, and then he became the foreman of a testing gang in a Midland engineering works. For the next 30 years Slim was a soldier.
A reader sent along a recommendation of Slim's book, Defeat Into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942-1945, and reading up on the man - someone who I only read about in passing - all I could think of is, "More Slim."

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Thanks to THE Bear at RollingThumderRemembered.com 
ROLLING THUNDER REMEMBERED… 20 JUNE 1968… A COUPLE OF LETTERS TO THE NYT and "TWO EYES FOR AN EYE"……
June 19, 2018Bear Taylor
RIPPLE SALVO… #837… A short letter to the Editor of the New York Times dated 11 June 1968 from a guy named Don Luck on his return to his home in Ithaca after a tour in Vietnam with the International Voluntary Services program… "To the Editor: General Westmoreland's optimism about the progress of the Vietnam war reminds me of a dinner conversation I once had with Bernard Fall. Fall had just been to a cocktail party where an American officer had gone-on several minutes about all the allied victories. One of the Vietnamese officers present sadly smiled and replied, 'Yes, and our victories keep getting closer and closer to Saigon.' "… Another letter below as a Salvo…
GOOD MORNING… Day EIGHT HUNDRED THIRTY-SEVEN of pondering the past and the air campaign called Rolling Thunder…
HEAD LINES from The New York Times on Thursday, 20 June 1968…
THE WAR: Page 3: "OBJECTS OVER DMZ STILL UNDER STUDY–Detailed Report on Sightings Assured By U.S. Command"… "…investigations into the operation of unidentified aircraft over the demilitarized one are pressed as radar sightings were reported for the fourth day. A report on the aircraft, suspected of being North Vietnamese helicopters, would be made 'when the facts are reconciled an the differences done away with….Meanwhile, sporadic fighting was reported on the fringes of Saigon… At Tansonnhut airfield on the edge of Saigon, two persons were killed and five wounded when an ambulance going to the scene of an ammunition explosion collided with a small passenger plane taxiing for takeoff…One person was killed and four wounded when the ammunition, which had just been moved from an aircraft to a truck, exploded…In scattered fighting three miles from downtown, three enemy soldiers were killed and an another 28 others either captured or surrendered…American troops searching for enemy troops three to six miles east of the city center killed five enemy soldiers…"
PEACE TALKS: "SOME GAIN HINTED IN VIETNAM TALKS–Indication of Move Toward Private Sessions Is Seen At Paris Negotiations"… "American and North Vietnamese negotiators stepped up their mutual public recriminations today, but at the same time prospects improved for moving to secret bargaining. Spokesmen for both delegations said that the ninth negotiation session since May 13 on the Vietnam war and produced no break in the deadlock over American bombing of North Vietnam and the substantive issues….The formal talks produced one procedural agreement, to hold meetings every Wednesday and special sessions at the request of either side."… Page 3: "RABBIS ASK END OF ALL BOMBING IN NORTH VIETNAM–Group Asserts Administration Has Redistributed The Targets Instead of Deescalation"… "The Central Conference of American Rabbis, a major reform Jewish group, charged today that the Johnson Administration had failed to de-escalate the war in Vietnam an was pursuing a policy of redistributing the bombing targets…. Resolution calls for an immediate bombing halt of North Vietnam and especially attacks upon civilian populations wherever they may be."…
Page 1: "OVER 50,000 MARCH IN CAPITAL IN SUPPORT OF THE POOR–PROTESTERS CALL FOR SHARING OF NATION'S AFFLUENCE–Ralph Abernathy Gives Militant Speech"… "More than 50,000 orderly Americans marched here today to emphasize their demand for a just share of affluence and dignity for Negroes, Spanish-speaking minorities, American Indians and poor whites. 'The Solidarity Day' march of the Poor People's Campaign–a leisurely one-mile stroll on a hot, humid afternoon from the Washington Monument to a prolonged formal program of harshly worded speeches at the Lincoln Memorial–was a numerical success."… Page 1: "FOR DEMONSTRATORS, A CHANCE TO DO THEIR THING–Many Pass Up The Speeches to Walk, Talk, Carry Signs or Simply To Be There"… Page 1: "PRESIDENT SIGNS BROAD CRIME BILL–With One Objection–Asserts It Contains More Good Than Bad and Will Lift Shadow of Fear–Assails Wide Wiretaps–But He Praises Massive Federal Help To Improve Local Law Enforcement"... Page 3: "PROPOSALS ON PUEBLO ARE DISCLOSED BY U.S."… "The State Department disclosed today that the United States had made 'certain proposals' to North Kore to gain the release of the captured intelligence ship Pueblo and her 82 crewmen. … proposals offered at the last United States-North Korean session May 28 at Panmunjom."…
20 JUNE 1968… THE PRESIDENT'S DAILY BRIEF (CIA TS/SI)… SOUTH VIETNAM: National Liberation Front: The Front, in a statement summarized in English on 19 June over Hanoi's international service, claimed that 1,200 South Vietnamese troops, militiamen, and other members of the "puppet army" have gone over to the Viet Cong. The mass desertion allegedly took place in the delta after "thousands" of local civilians visited government forces to paint a rosy picture of life on the communist side. The Front's accounting may be intended to counter the surrender of about 120 Communist troops north of Saigon on Tuesday… NORTH VIETNAM: There is no confirmation of press speculation that the North Vietnamese have been ferrying Styx coastal defense missiles into the DMZ by helicopter. Hard evidence is lacking, but there are several reasons to doubt that this analysis is correct. It is a fact that Styx missiles are in North Vietnam, they could be fired from less vulnerable positions farther north along the coast. In addition, the North Vietnamese in the past have been known to have brought heavy artillery and equipment into the DMZ by land; moving Styx missiles this way would be considerably less risky than by helicopter. We also doubt that the North Vietnamese would want to expose their big helicopters (they only have four large enough for this kind of operation) in an area where the US has air and naval superiority….
20 JUNE 1968… OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER… New York Times (21 June reporting 20 June ops) Page 5: "In North Vietnam American pilots flew 125 missions against lines of transportation and supply depots… VIETNAM: AIR LOSSES (Chris Hobson) There were no fixed wing aircraft lost in Southeast Asia on 20 June 1968… There was, however, a downed F-4C Phantom of the 45th TFS and 15th TFW on Temporary duty at Ubon on 20 June 1965, 53 years ago this day, that was shot down by a MIG-17 not previously recognized in this RTR journal…
During a raid on the Son La NVA barracks one of the newly arrived Ubon Phantoms was shot down by a MiG-17 near Ta Chan in Northwest North Vietnam. The Crew: CAPTAIN PAUL ANTHONY KARI and CAPTAIN CARL H. BRIGGS. It was CAPTAIN KARI's 64th combat flight in 70 days and first combat flight in the new F-4C. He and CAPTAIN BRIGGS were the first to lose one in combat. CAPTAIN BRIGGS luck got better– after ejecting he was rescued to fly and fight again. CAPTAIN KARI's luck remained bad–after ejecting, he was immediately captured and was a POW from Father's Day 20 June 1965 until released on 12 February 1973… He was imprisoned for 2,795 days and nights…
AMONG THE BRAVE… GALLANTRY AND INTREPIDITY… MAJOR PAUL ANTHONY KARI… NORTH VIETNAM… 21 JUNE 1965…
"The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the SILVER STAR to MAJOR PAUL ANTHONY KARI, United States Air Force, for gallantry and intrepidity in action in connection with military operations against opposing armed forces on 21 June 1965, while a Prisoner of War in North Vietnam. Ignoring international agreements on treatment of prisoners of war, the enemy resorted to mental and physical cruelties to obtain information, confessions and propaganda materials. MAJOR KARI resisted their demands by calling upon his deepest inner strengths in a manner which reflected his devotion to duty and great credit upon himself and the United States Air Force."…
"The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS to CAPTAIN PAUL ANTHONY KARI, United States Air Force, for heroism while participating in aerial flight as Aircraft Commander of an F-4 fighter-bomber over North Vietnam on 4 June 1965. on that date, CAPTAIN KARI's flight was assigned the mission of destroying a vital thermal power plant a nearby irrigation pumping stations. Displaying tenacious combat instinct coupled with utter disregard for his own safety, CAPTAIN KARI courageously pressed his attack in the face of withering anti-aircraft fire to score direct hits and destroy the power plant almost single-handedly. The outstanding heroism and selfless devotion of duty displayed by CAPTAIN KAIR reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Air Force."…
Among LCOL KARI's other combat awards are a second SILVER STAR, the LEGION OF MERIT with Combat V, and several Air Metals…
Quote from the Medina Post, 5 December 2014: KARI: "Inhumane. Rats ran rampant. We had a leaky bucket in the corner…They put concrete blocks in the barred windows during the summer so it would get hot, about 130-degrees. In the winter, they knocked the blocks out and it would get down to 30-degrees. One pair of pajamas, sleeping on concrete or a piece of wood. Food was served sparse, ice cold…anything to demoralize you…Most of us had our faith in God and faith in our country that they would not let us down and they would come get us eventually. We thought, if we can make it through today, great. We can do it again tomorrow…. We were interrogated four times a day sometimes…I wouldn't give them anything. Nothing other than name, rank, serial number and date of birth… We were tortured severely. I was afraid I might spill my guts. They starved to near death. (He lost 70 pounds over the seven-year, eight month tour of POW duty)." In 2010 KARI was inducted into the Ohio Military Hall of Fame for Valor…. oohrah…
SUMMARY OF ROLLING THUNDER LOSSES (KIA/MIA/POW) ON 20 JUNE FOR THE FOUR YEARS OF THE OPERATION OVER NORTH VIETNAM…
1965… CAPTAIN PAUL ANTHONY KARI, USAF… (POW)…
1966… LCDR JOHN WALLACE TUNNELL, USN… (KIA)… and … LT JOHN RICHARD McDONOUGH, USN… (KIA)…
1967… MAJOR CHARLES LIGON CRONKITE, USMC… (KIA)…
1968… NONE…
Humble Host flew #193 and #194. Up in the dark to take a wingman on an armed recce of my favorite beat–Ha Tinh down Highway 15 toward Mu Gia Pass looking for trucks. Bingo. Jumped a group of five showing headlights and put out the lights with 6 Mk-82s X2. Left with three on fire and called for a follow-on flight to finish off the fun. No tracers. Flew 1.7 VFR night-time and trap for third night in a row… Wrote on my kneeboard card "Three nite OK-2s in a row"… They definitely get easier when you do it regularly. #194 was a day section lead with 3 Mk-83s and two LAU-10 PODs (eight Zunis). Cruised Highway 1 south of Vinh and parallel to the beach looking for anything that moved. The truckers were hiding in the villages. Put the bombs into what I thought looked like a possible truck park– dirt road leading into a clump of trees with no exit on the other side…Blew the trees up but no secondaries… Expended the rockets on a waterborne logistic craft.. With MiGs north of Vinh two days before and SAMs west of Vinh on the 19th and early on the 20th, Vinh became a new game–the bad guys are moving the defenses south…
RIPPLE SALVO… #867… "TURN THE OTHER CHEEK","AN EYE FOR AN EYE",  OR "TWO EYES FOR AN EYE"??? …
A gentleman named Frank Masland wrote to The New York Times from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on 5 June 1968:
"To the Editor: If peace, insuring the elimination from South Vietnam of Communism–which means North Vietnam, Red China and the Vietcong–doesn't result from the Paris peace talks, these will prove to the most bloody and disastrous negotiations in history. North Vietnam, Red China and Russia are using this period to reinforce their capacity to wage offensive warfare in greater depth and on a wider front.
"North Vietnamese prisoners say that it now takes only eleven days to travel from Hanoi to Saigon. American units have captured North Vietnamese troops who have been in the south only a few days. They reported they rode from Hanoi to Saigon without being bombed. Prior to the cessation of bombing the same trip required thirty to forty days.
"In the latter part of 1967 infiltration was reckoned at six thousand a month. it is now thought to be four times that number. It is estimated 150,000 additional Northern troops have become available since January. Recently, Secretary Rusk advised the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that Chinese antiaircraft units are now operating in North Vietnam. Cessation of our bombing of North Vietnamese air fields may well result in the successful bombing of U.S. bases in South Vietnam by vastly increased North Vietnamese air power. A substantial increase of MiG-21s and medium range Soviet jet bombers has been observed on airfields in North Vietnam. These are fields that have been rebuilt since the President brought to a halt bombing of fields north of the nineteenth parallel.
"In World War II when Germany bombed London we bombed Berlin. Hanoi has frequently mortar bombed and largely destroyed Saigon. Why should Hanoi enjoy sanctuary? Why not pursue with Hanoi the policy that worked with Berlin? Such an action would speak louder and have greater impact upon the Hanoi negotiators at Paris than any words our representatives can utter.
"I suspect that if peace does not result from the Paris negotiations, the Communist build-up will leave us with two alternatives–to capitulate or to use the full force of our technological capacity–which, among other activities, means treating Hanoi and Haiphong as we treated Berlin and Hamburg."  End letter to Editor…
Mr. Masland, the III of the Masland carpet family, was a World War II tanker under General George S. Patton, III …    oohrah…
Humble Host joins Mr. Masland as a supporter of the "law of retaliation" or "an eye for an eye"… and try as I might I have difficulty following the urging of Jesus "to turn the other cheek." In truth–for better or worse– I believe in two eyes for an eye.
Matthew 5:38-39 : "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.' But I say to you, Do not resist the one who is evil. But if anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also." 
Lest we forget…   Bear
 
 
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Thanks to Robert
 MRobertODEL T FORD (SOUND ON AND FULL SCREEN)
These workers 109 years ago did not have to worry about losing their jobs because FORD Co. stayed in AMERICA👍🏻....GLOBALIZATION & TRADE AGREEMENTS were not an issue. Oh yes and no trade deficits to boot👍🏻....Made in America & Buy in America👍🏻....American Jobs 1st.👍🏻
Just PASS'n on this video sent from a friend👍🏻
 
MODEL T FORD (SOUND ON AND FULL SCREEN)
REALLY GOOD!  DO TURN ON SOUND.
History lesson for today:

The workers shown in this video would never have imagined that people in 2017 would be able to watch them at work and driving.

Hope you enjoy this one; I did!
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Item Number:1 Date: 06/20/2018 AFGHANISTAN - TALIBAN BREAKS GOVERNMENT CEASE-FIRE WITH BLOODY ASSAULT IN BAGHDIS (JUN 20/TN)  TOLONEWS -- Several Afghan soldiers and Taliban fighters have been killed in fighting in Afghanistan's western Baghdis province, reports Tolo News (Afghanistan).   Early Wednesday, Taliban forces attacked two checkpoints in the province, one in the Bala Morghab district and the other in Ab Kamari, said local officials.   Casualty counts varied. Tolo News said that 24 Taliban fighters and four Afghan soldiers were killed. Another six were wounded, sources said.   Government sources painted a much grimmer picture to Reuters, estimating that as many as 30 government soldiers and 15 Taliban fighters were killed.   A military base in the Bakmeghab district was captured, provincial officials said.   In the Ab Kamari district, security forces said they seized 20 motorcycles used by the attackers.   Two Afghan army Humvees were destroyed during the clashes in Bala Morghab, said police. Security forces killed nine Taliban fighters and injured eight, police officials said.   The attack was the first major Taliban assault since a unilateral cease-fire ended on Sunday at midnight. A unilateral government cease-fire was due to end on Wednesday, but was extended 10 days by President Ashraf Ghani.  
Item Number:7 Date: 06/20/2018 MALI - DEFENSE MINISTRY ORDERS INVESTIGATION AFTER 25 BODIES FOUND IN MASS GRAVES (JUN 20/AFP)  AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE -- Defense Minister Tiena Coulibaly has acknowledged that soldiers were involved in extrajudicial killings in central Mali, reports Agence France Presse.   Twenty-five bodies were discovered in three mass graves near Mopti, Malian non-governmental organization Kisal said on Monday.   Kisal, which campaigns for the rights of pastoral communities, identified 18 of the bodies.   The discovery came less than a week after security forces detained 25 members of the Fulani community in the nearby towns of Kobaka and Nantaka, said the NGO.   On Tuesday, Coulibaly said that initial investigations implicated some members of the armed forces in the illegal killings. The defense minister ordered military prosecutors to begin a criminal investigation.   The Fulani are a predominately pastoral community. Tensions have grown between pastoralists and sedentary communities across the region.   The government has limited control over Central Mali and jihadists have aggravated tensions between the sides.   One group claiming to fight for the interests of the Fulani community, the Macina Liberation Front, merged with several jihadist groups in Mali in March 2017 to form the Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims (JNIM).   In their efforts to fight the terrorist group, some residents allege that the army has engaged in racial profiling of Fulani as well as arbitrary arrests and executions
  Item Number:9 Date: 06/20/2018 NICARAGUA - AT LEAST 6 DIE IN CLASHES WITH SECURITY FORCES (JUN 20/REU)  REUTERS -- At least six people have been killed and 34 injured in the latest fighting between authorities and protestors in Nicaragua, reports Reuters.   On Tuesday, protesters clashed with security forces and pro-government militias clearing barricades erected in the city of Masaya.   Protestors in Masaya have besieged a police station for more than two weeks.   Police were looking for the man who the government had dispatched to quell the violence in the city, reported the New York Times. He had been held hostage for weeks.   Residents accused some members of the security forces of using excessive force, reported the BBC. Protesters launched slingshots and homemade mortars at police and militiamen.   The clashes came after negotiations between the government, opposition and mediators from the Catholic Church collapsed.   Members of the opposition walked out of negotiations on Monday, accusing the government of reneging on a promise to invite representatives from international organizations.   More than 180 people have died since protests against proposed austerity measures erupted in April.  
  Item Number:10 Date: 06/20/2018 NORTH KOREA - KIM CONTINUES TO PRESS FOR STEP-BY-STEP DENUCLEARIZATION PROCESS (JUN 20/BLOOMBERG)  BLOOMBERG NEWS -- North Korea's dictator has repeated his call for a "step-by-step" denuclearization process during a visit to China, reports Bloomberg News.   After meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping on Tuesday, Kim Jong Un repeated statements that suggested that any denuclearization of the Korean peninsula would be a gradual process, reported Chinese state media.   President Donald Trump and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo have suggested that an agreement reached in Singapore on June 12 could lead to denuclearization within a few years.   Kim's statement also challenges the U.S. position on sanctions relief. Trump has maintained that sanctions against North Korea could only be relaxed in the event of North Korea's complete denuclearization. By pursuing a step-by-step process, Kim might be angling for gradual relief as the process develops.   China supports a step-by-step process of sanctions relief in exchange for progress on denuclearization, a Chinese official told the Yonhap news agency (Seoul) on Wednesday. China has also called for the U.N. Security Council to review sanctions imposed on North Korea.   On Wednesday, South Korean Foreign Minister Kang Kyung Wha emphasized that sanctions would remain until North Korea competed its denuclearization
  Item Number:12 Date: 06/20/2018 SYRIA - REBELS PREPARE FOR GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE IN DARAA, QUNEITRA PROVINCES (JUN 20/SYROBSERV)  THE SYRIAN OBSERVER -- Rebels in southern Syria are on alert for a possible push by government troops and allied militias to retake the area, reports the Syrian Observer.   Members of the armed opposition to the government of Bashar Assad in Daraa and Quneitra provinces are expecting a major offensive at any moment, local sources told Zaman Al-Wasal, an opposition website.   A large convoy, including T-72 and T-90 tanks, was filmed heading south on Tuesday, reported Al-Masdar News, which is sympathetic to the government. Brig. Gen. Suheil Hassan, a leader feared by the opposition for his ferocity, is leading the convoy, the website reported.   The regime aims to regain the strategic hilltop of al-Harra in northwest Daraa and isolate pockets of rebels in al-Lajat, according to sources in the area.   Early Wednesday, Syrian army troops captured an air defense base near Busra Al-Harir in northwestern Daraa, reported Al-Masdar News. The attack was described as a reconnaissance movement ahead of an assault on the city.   Hezbollah fighters have been battling rebels in Quneitra since Monday, despite U.S. warnings and Israeli diplomatic efforts.   Despite advances across the country, southwest Syria remains out of government control. Fighting has been mostly contained in the region in part because of a de-escalation agreement brokered by Jordan, Russia and the U.S
Item Number:15 Date: 06/20/2018 USA - DARPA CONTINUES TO FUND NEW ROTARY ENGINE DESIGN FOR DRONES (JUN 20/MILTIMES)  MILITARY TIMES -- The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has awarded a contract for a prototype rotary diesel engine for unmanned aerial vehicles, reports Military Times.   DARPA is looking to develop a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight heavy-fuel engine, said program officials.   The agency awarded LiquidPiston, Bloomfield, Conn., a $2.4 million contract to develop and refine its 40-hp (30-kW) X4 rotary diesel engine prototype.   DARPA awarded a similar contract to LiquidPiston in 2016. Combined funding for the prototype totals nearly $6 million.   The engine is said to be an inverted model of the Wankel rotary engine originally produced in the 1960s. The new design uses an oval rotor in a triangular chamber. This allows combustion to occur at fixed point within the chamber, making it easier to lubricate without burning oil.   The prototype can be five to 10 times smaller than a normal piston engine. The new design has decreased engine vibrations and resulting noise, reduced engine heat, better fuel efficiency and provides a 50-percent increase in flight endurance, according to LiquidPiston. The company says that the engine can be scaled up or down in size to match a desired power output or to fit within specific dimensions.   The engine is in the midst of its second phase of testing with the goal of demonstrating 30-kW of power and 45 percent fuel efficiency. Those trials are scheduled to conclude in October.  
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