Monday, November 20, 2017

November 20th...This Day in History

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Nuremberg trials begin 1945

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Twenty-four high-ranking Nazis go on trial in Nuremberg, Germany, for atrocities committed during World War II.
The Nuremberg Trials were conducted by an international tribunal made up of representatives from the United States, the Soviet Union, France, and Great Britain. It was the first trial of its kind in history, and the defendants faced charges ranging from crimes against peace, to crimes of war, to crimes against humanity. Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence, the British member, presided over the proceedings, which lasted 10 months and consisted of 216 court sessions.
On October 1, 1946, 12 architects of Nazi policy were sentenced to death. Seven others were sentenced to prison terms ranging from 10 years to life, and three were acquitted. Of the original 24 defendants, one, Robert Ley, committed suicide while in prison, and another, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, was deemed mentally and physically incompetent to stand trial. Among those condemned to death by hanging were Joachim von Ribbentrop, Nazi minister of foreign affairs; Hermann Goering, leader of the Gestapo and the Luftwaffe; Alfred Jodl, head of the German armed forces staff; and Wilhelm Frick, minister of the interior.
On October 16, 10 of the architects of Nazi policy were hanged. Goering, who at sentencing was called the “leading war aggressor and creator of the oppressive program against the Jews,” committed suicide by poison on the eve of his scheduled execution. Nazi Party leader Martin Bormann was condemned to death in absentia (but is now believed to have died in May 1945). Trials of lesser German and Axis war criminals continued in Germany into the 1950s and resulted in the conviction of 5,025 other defendants and the execution of 806.

 (More Events on This Day in History)

  • American Revolution

  • 1789 New Jersey ratifies the Bill of Rights
  • Automotive

  • 1923 Garrett Morgan patents three-position traffic signal
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Sherman on the move
  • Cold War

  • 1948 American consul in China held “hostage” by communists
  • Crime

  • 1945 Trials open at Nuremberg
  • Disaster

  • 1968 Explosions rock West Virginia coal mine
  • General Interest

  • 1820 American vessel sunk by sperm whale
  • 1947 Princess Elizabeth marries Philip Mountbatten
  • Hollywood

  • 2003 Music producer Phil Spector indicted for murder of actress
  • Literary

  • 1875 Henry James’ first novel is published
  • Music

  • 1955 Bo Diddley makes his national television debut on The Ed Sullivan Show
  • Old West

  • 1843 Blacksnake Hills trading post is renamed St. Joseph
  • Presidential

  • 1962 Kennedy announces fair housing legislation
  • Sports

  • 1982 Cal beats Stanford as band blocks field
  • Vietnam War

  • 1967 Students Demonstrate Against Dow Chemical Company
  • 1969 Seymour Hersh files follow-up to My Lai story
  • World War I

  • 1917 British launch surprise tank attack at Cambrai
  • World War II

  • 1945 Nuremberg war-crimes trials begin

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