Monday, November 13, 2017

November 12th...This Day in History

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Ellis Island closes 1954

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On this day in 1954, Ellis Island, the gateway to America, shuts it doors after processing more than 12 million immigrants since opening in 1892. Today, an estimated 40 percent of all Americans can trace their roots through Ellis Island, located in New York Harbor off the New Jersey coast and named for merchant Samuel Ellis, who owned the land in the 1770s.
On January 2, 1892, 15-year-old Annie Moore, from Ireland, became the first person to pass through the newly opened Ellis Island, which President Benjamin Harrison designated as America’s first federal immigration center in 1890. Before that time, the processing of immigrants had been handled by individual states.
Not all immigrants who sailed into New York had to go through Ellis Island. First- and second-class passengers submitted to a brief shipboard inspection and then disembarked at the piers in New York or New Jersey, where they passed through customs. People in third class, though, were transported to Ellis Island, where they underwent medical and legal inspections to ensure they didn’t have a contagious disease or some condition that would make them a burden to the government. Only two percent of all immigrants were denied entrance into the U.S.
Immigration to Ellis Island peaked between 1892 and 1924, during which time the 3.3-acre island was enlarged with landfill (by the 1930s it reached its current 27.5-acre size) and additional buildings were constructed to handle the massive influx of immigrants. During the busiest year of operation, 1907, over 1 million people were processed at Ellis Island.
With America’s entrance into World War I, immigration declined and Ellis Island was used as a detention center for suspected enemies. Following the war, Congress passed quota laws and the Immigration Act of 1924, which sharply reduced the number of newcomers allowed into the country and also enabled immigrants to be processed at U.S. consulates abroad. After 1924, Ellis Island switched from a processing center to serving other purposes, such as a detention and deportation center for illegal immigrants, a hospital for wounded soldiers during World War II and a Coast Guard training center. In November 1954, the last detainee, a Norwegian merchant seaman, was released and Ellis Island officially closed.
Beginning in 1984, Ellis Island underwent a $160 million renovation, the largest historic restoration project in U.S. history. In September 1990, the Ellis Island Immigration Museum opened to the public and today is visited by almost 2 million people each year.

 (More Events on This Day in History)

  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Abigail Adams leads rhetorical charge against Britain
  • Automotive

  • 1965 Goldenrod sets the land-speed record
  • Civil War

  • 1864 The destruction of Atlanta begins
  • Cold War

  • 1982 Yuri Andropov assumes power in the Soviet Union
  • Crime

  • 1996 High school sweethearts murder their newborn child
  • 2004 Scott Peterson convicted
  • Disaster

  • 2001 Plane crashes in Rockaway, New York
  • General Interest

  • 1799 First meteor shower on record
  • 1948 Japanese war criminals sentenced
  • 1980 Voyager I flies near Saturn
  • 1990 Akihito enthroned as emperor of Japan
  • Hollywood

  • 1981 William Holden, star of Sunset Boulevard and Network, dies
  • Literary

  • 1889 DeWitt Wallace, founder of Reader’s Digest, is born
  • Music

  • 2003 Toby Keith has his third straight #1 country album with Shock’n Y’all
  • Old West

  • 1867 U.S. reconsiders war with Plains Indians
  • Presidential

  • 1979 Carter shuts down oil imports from Iran
  • Sports

  • 1892 Pudge Heffelfinger becomes first pro football player
  • Vietnam War

  • 1969 Seymour Hersh breaks My Lai story
  • 1971 Nixon sets new deadline for next troop withdrawal
  • World War I

  • 1918 Allied fleet enters Dardanelles
  • World War II

  • 1944 Brits sink the battleship Tirpit

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