Thursday, November 16, 2017

Fw: TheList 4590

The List 4590

To All
A lot of history and some tidbits.
This Day In Naval History - November 15
1882 - LCDR French Chadwick reports to American Legation in London as first Naval Attache.
1863 - Fort Moultrie opens a heavy evening bombardment on Union Army positions at Cummings Point, S.C., which also results in the Union monitor Lehigh running aground. Still under Confederate fire in the morning, the monitor Nahant is able to release her. Five sailors from Lehigh receive Medals of Honor for their heroic line work that frees their ship.
1942 - Although U.S. lost several ships in Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Naval Force under Rear Admiral Willlis Lee, USS Washington (BB-56), turns back Japanese transports trying to reinforce Guadalcanal. The Japanese never again try to send large naval forces to Guadalcanal.
1943: USS Crevalle (SS 291) sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kyokko Maru off San Antonio, Zambales province, Philippines.
1960 - First Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine, USS George Washington (SSBN-598), leaves Charleston, SC, on initial fleet ballistic missile patrol.
This Day in History: Nov. 16
Wednesday, November 16th 2016, 8:30 am PSTWednesday, November 16th 2016, 8:30 am PST
By Mike Cihla, Anchor
Today is Wednesday, Nov. 16, the 321st day of 2016. Here's a look at some of the events that took place on this day in history. 
1776: British troops captured Fort Washington in New York during the American Revolution.
1907: Oklahoma became the 46th state of the union.
1914: The newly created Federal Reserve Banks opened in 12 cities.
1915: Coca-Cola had its prototype for a countoured bottle patented. The bottle made its commercial debut the next year. 
1938: LSD is first synthesized by Albert Hofmann
1939: Mob boss Al Capone was released from prison after serving 7 1/2 years for tax evasion and failure to file tax returns.
1952: In the "Peanuts" comic strip, Lucy first held a football for Charlie Brown. 
1959: The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical "The Sound of Music" opened on Broadway, starring Mary Martin as Maria von Trapp.
1966: Dr. Samuel H. Sheppard was acquitted in his second trial of murdering his pregnant wife, Marilyn, in 1954.
1969: The U.S. Army announced that several had been charged with massacre and the subsequent cover-up in the My Lai massacre in Vietnam on March 16, 1968. 
1973: Skylab 4, carrying a crew of three astronauts, was launched from Cape Canaveral on an 84-day mission.
1973: U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law, authorizing the construction of the Alaska Pipeline.
1982: An agreement was announced on the 57th day of a strike by National Football League (NFL) players. 
1990: Pop group Milli Vanilli are stripped of their Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It's True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals.
1999: Chrica Adams, the pregnant girlfriend of Rae Carruth, was shot four times in her car. She died a month later from her wounds. The baby survived. Carruth was sentenced to a minimum of 18 years and 11 months in prison for his role in the murder. 
2001: The movie "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" opened in the U.S. and U.K. 
Copyright 2016 WTOC. All rights reserved
Today in History
November 15
Swiss soldiers ambush and slaughter invading Austrians in the battle of Morgarten.
The explorer Francisco Pizarro enters Cuzco, Peru.
The Pilgrim Fathers, who have settled in New Plymouth, buy out their London investors.
The Articles of Confederation, instituting perpetual union of the United States of America, are adopted by Congress.
Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and their party reach the mouth of the Columbia River, completing their trek to the Pacific.
Explorer Zebulon Pike discovers the Colorado Peak that bears his name, despite the fact that he didn't climb it.
Union Major General William T. Sherman's troops set fires that destroy much of Atlanta's industrial district prior to beginning Sherman's March to the Sea.
The American Federation of Labor is founded.
R. Metrot takes off in a Voisin biplane from Algiers, making the first manned flight in Africa.
Kerensky flees and Bolsheviks take command in Moscow.
Forty-one nations open the first League of Nations session in Geneva..
It is announced that Dr. Alexis Carrel has discovered white corpuscles.
General strikes and riots paralyze Madrid, Spain.
Eighteen lawsuits are brought against the Tennessee Valley Authority, calling for its dissolution.
An American fleet defeats a Japanese naval force in a clash off Guadalcanal.
The 17th Paris Air Show opens at the Grand Palais des Champs-Elysees. It is the first show of this kind since World War II.
Newark Airport in New Jersey reopens after closing earlier in the year because of an increase in accidents.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev asserts Soviet superiority in missiles, challenging the United States to a rocket-range shooting match.
The first submarine with nuclear missiles, the USS George Washington, takes to sea from Charleston, South Carolina.
Cuba threatens to down U.S. planes on reconnaissance flights over its territory.
Argentina voids all foreign oil contracts.
In the second day of combat, regiments of the 1st Cavalry Division battle on Landing Zones X-Ray against North Vietnamese forces in the Ia Drang Valley.
A quarter of a million anti-Vietnam War demonstrators march in Washington, D.C.
A Syrian peace force takes control of Beirut, Lebanon.
Baby Fae dies 20 days after receiving a baboon heart transplant in Loma Linda, California.
An Anglo-Irish Agreement is signed by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garret Fitzgerald.
The Palestinian National Council proclaims an independent State of Palestine.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria is replaced by a new republican government.
Cyclone Sidr strikes Bangladesh, killing an estimated 5,000 people.
More history on the battles off Guadalcanal in October 1942
H011.2 Guadalcanal: All Hell's Eve 13/14 Oct 1942
S.J. Cox
22 Oct 17
Forgotten Valor:  The Sacrifice of USS Meredith (DD-434)
   Aviation Fuel at Henderson Field on Guadalcanal was perpetually in short supply.  Even before the Japanese battleship bombardment of Henderson field that killed 41 Marines and destroyed or damaged most of the aircraft at the airfield, a U.S. Navy convoy was en route to Guadalcanal with aviation fuel.  The cargo ships USS Alchiba (AKA-6) and USS Bellatrix (AKA-3) along with the PT-boat tender USS Jamestown (PG-55) were each towing a fuel barge.  The small convoy was escorted by the destroyers USS Nicholas (DD-449) and USS Meredith (DD-432), and the fleet tug USS Vireo (AT-144.)  The convoy was a desperate gamble to get critical fuel to Guadalcanal.  The Japanese Carrier Division 1 (fleet carriers Shokaku, Zuikaku, and light carrier Zuiho,) was operating north of Guadalcanal seeking U.S. carriers.  However, with USS Enterprise (CV-6) still repairing battle damage at Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had only one operational carrier in the Pacific, the USS Hornet (CV-8,) operating well south of Guadalcanal.  With only one carrier, VADM Robert Ghormley, commander of U.S. forces in the South Pacific sought to avoid engagements with the Japanese.  As a result, the convoy would have no air cover.  The strategy was based on the slim hope that the convoy would not be sighted by Japanese aircraft.
    Early on the morning of 15 Oct 42, Ghormley received solid intelligence that Japanese ships, including aircraft carriers, were operating in the vicinity of the convoy's intended track.  At 0608 Ghormley ordered the convoy to turn back because threat was too high.  However, with the fuel situation on Guadalcanal extremely critical following the Japanese bombardment, the Vireo was ordered to take one of the fuel barges in tow, and Meredith would provide escort, and hope the smaller group would slip through Japanese reconnaissance.
    The Meredith, Vireo and the barge got to within 75 miles of Guadalcanal before their luck ran out.  Sighted by a search plane, and then attacked by two planes at 1050 which were out on an unsuccessful scouting mission looking for American carriers, the convoy was in serious trouble.  Recognizing that the planes were carrier-based, and no other U.S. ships were in the vicinity, the skipper of Meredith, Lieutenant Commander Harry Hubbard correctly deduced that Meredith would shortly come under a massive carrier air attack.  Initially, Hubbard ordered the Vireo to cut loose the barge, and reverse course in an attempt to escape.  It quickly became apparent that with Vireo's slow speed, that course of action was futile.  Indeed, at 1137, Zuikaku launched a 38-plane strike (21 Val dive-bombers, nine Kate torpedo bombers, and eight Zero fighters for escort,) to attack Meredith and any other ships they might find.  Knowing that Vireo was a defenseless sitting duck, Hubbard ordered the Vireo abandoned, and Vireo's crew was brought aboard the Meredith, to give them the best chance of surviving.  Hubbard then planned to sink Vireo with a torpedo so it would not fall in Japanese hands.
    It was too late.  At 1225 the Zuikaku strike rolled in on the Meredith.  She put up a gallant fight, knocking down three of her attackers (one Val and two Kates,) but the strike was overwhelming and extremely well-executed.  In a matter of minutes Meredith was hit by 14 bombs, and at least three torpedoes and was repeatedly strafed, and sank within a matter of minutes.  Despite serious burns about his face, LCDR Hubbard continued to fight the ship until the end, abandoning ship only after the rest of the surviving bridge crew got off.  Japanese aircraft strafed survivors in the water.
     Perversely, the abandoned Vireo was not hit (and the barge survived too.)  However, Vireo was drifting away, and only one raft-load of Meredith and Vireo survivors reached the tug, where they were later rescued.  The other rafts, filled with burned and mangled Sailors, became a preview of what would happen to Sailors on the USS Juneau (CL-52) and USS Indianapolis (CA-35) later in the war.  As the rafts and wreckage drifted for three days and three nights, numerous Sailors died from wounds, exposure, salt-water ingestion (and resulting mental incapacity and hallucinations) and from particularly aggressive shark attacks.  One shark even jumped into a raft and ripped a chuck from an already mortally wounded Sailor.  There was not enough room on the rafts, so the less-injured Sailors tread water, hanging on to the rafts, had to fight off the sharks as best they could.  Most of the injured, including burned and blinded LCDR Hubbard, perished in the rafts.
   Finally, the destroyers USS Grayson (DD-435) and USS Gwin (DD-433,) found 88 survivors of Meredith and Vireo adrift.  (About another dozen had earlier been found on the Vireo.)  However 187 from Meredith and 50 from Vireo died in a desperation attempt to get fuel to the Marines on Guadalcanal.
  (I haven't been able to find a record of a medal for valor for LCDR Harry Hubbard, however the Sumner-class destroyer DD-748 was named in his honor and served with distinction in WWII, Korea, and Vietnam.)
H011.3 Guadalcanal: Santa Cruz (Japanese Pyrrhic Victory) – 26 Oct 1942
S.J. Cox
22 Oct 17
    As the Japanese Army maneuvered on Guadalcanal for a division-sized assault on the Marine lines with the intent to capture Henderson Field, the Japanese Navy planned for a concurrent major push to be timed with the capture of Henderson Field.  The U.S. Marines (and by now a number of U.S. Army troops) were challenged and spread thin to defend their perimeter, which included Henderson Field and a new fighter strip.  The Japanese only had to concentrate their forces at a single point along the perimeter to have a good chance of breaking through.  However, in order to do so required the under-supplied Japanese troops to hack their way through miles of virtually impenetrable jungle and swamps.  In a previous major attempt (the Battle of Bloody Ridge in mid-September,) Japanese units had become separated in the jungle, resulting in uncoordinated piecemeal attacks which were repulsed with extremely high Japanese casualties.  The same would be true for the next push in late October, except on an even larger scale of carnage for the Japanese.  The Japanese Army kept delaying the onset of the attack, resulting in the Japanese Navy burning up massive quantities of scarce fuel, waiting for the Army mount their attack, and one medium carrier, the Hiyo, had to withdraw to the Japanese stronghold at Truk, due to an engine room fire.  The Japanese ground commander was so confident of success, that he reported that Henderson Field had fallen, which triggered the naval operation, before he had even launched his attack.  By the time the Japanese Navy learned Henderson had not fallen, it was too late, and the Battle of Santa Cruz was on.
    U.S. Naval Intelligence and code-breakers had significantly recovered from Japanese operational security counter-measures that had adversely affected U.S. ability to accurately predict Japanese intentions in the early part of the Guadalcanal campaign.  The new commander of the South Pacific Area, Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, was well aware that a major Japanese naval offensive was imminent, and also had an accurate assessment of Japanese naval forces that would be involved, including the carriers and aircraft.  What Intelligence was unable to provide was precise timing, mostly because even that Japanese Navy didn't know, dependent as they were on the actions of the Japanese Army.  Not being one to sit around and wait for the Japanese to get their act together, Halsey issued orders to RADM Thomas C. Kinkaid, commander of the U.S. carrier task force, to seek out the Japanese in the waters north of the Solomon Islands chain.  Kinkaid didn't exactly move as fast as Halsey would have liked, but he was already on the move looking for the Japanese when the Japanese navy commenced their operation.
    The U.S. forces were significantly outnumbered by the Japanese in almost all categories.  The Japanese force, under the overall command of Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondo, embarked in a battleship, was organized into a typically complex Japanese formation of multiple task groups.  The primary offensive capability was Carrier Division One, under the command of Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, consisting of the fleet carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku and the light carrier Zuiho.  A fourth carrier, the medium carrier Junyo provided cover for the Advanced Force.  The Japanese carriers embarked about 200 operational aircraft, consisting of Zero fighters, Val dive-bombers, and Kate torpedo-bombers.  All told, the Japanese task groups included a total of four battleships, eight heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, 25 destroyers, and 16 submarines.  An additional 158 land-based aircraft could reach Guadalcanal, but except for long range reconnaissance seaplanes could not reach the battle area.
     The Japanese still retained an overall qualitative edge in pilots, despite losses at Midway, and virtually all of them were combat veterans.  The attrition of experienced U.S. aviators in the opening months of WWII was also very high.  Enterprise's new air group in particular (and Hornet's torpedo squadron) consisted of very many "green" pilots, led by a few (and relatively junior) experienced pilots.  Although Hornet's lack of combat experience showed clearly at Midway that experience in combat showed in greatly improved performance at Santa Cruz.
     On the U.S. side, RADM Thomas C. Kinkaid was dual-hatted in command of Task Force 61, the combined carrier task force, and Task Force 16, the task force centered on the recently repaired USS Enterprise (CV-6.)  RADM George D. Murray was in command of Task Force 17, centered on the carrier USS Hornet (CV-8.)  The American carriers embarked 136 operational aircraft (63 Wildcat fighters, 47 SDB Dauntless dive-bombers, and 26 new TBF Avenger torpedo-bombers (still carrying the unreliable Mk 13 torpedo though.)  Additional U.S. Forces included one battleship, the USS South Dakota (BB-57.)  The new South Dakota and the repaired/refitted Enterprise each carried 16 (4 quad mounts) of the new Bofors 40mm anti-aircraft guns, which would prove very effective in the battle.  Three heavy cruisers (Portland, Northampton, and Pensacola,) three anti-aircraft cruisers (San Juan, San Diego, and Juneau,) and 14 destroyers rounded out TF-61.  A separate surface action force (TF 64) under the command of RADM Willis A. Lee, centered on the new battleship USS Washington (BB-56,) operated south of Guadalcanal but was not a factor in the Battle of Santa Cruz, although a couple Japanese submarines tried to torpedo the Washington after the battle.
   The U.S. started with an advantage when radar-equipped PBY Catalina flying boats located Japanese forces beginning shortly after midnight on 26 October.  At 0033, one of the PBY's dropped a torpedo at the Japanese destroyer Isokaze in the Vanguard force, which was avoided.  At 0250 another PBY surprised the carrier Zuikaku, dropping four bombs which missed by several hundred yards.  Nevertheless, communications challenges prevented Kinkaid from receiving several PBY contact reports, including one at 0310 that provided accurate data on the Japanese carrier force location, composition, course and speed.  Other U.S. ships received the message, and incorrectly assumed that Kinkaid had as well.  The Japanese navy commanders, however, were in even more of the dark, only learning that the attack by the Sendai Division on Henderson Field had failed (they did not know just how badly it had failed.)
    At 0415, well-before dawn, Japanese float planes were launched from the Vanguard Force to search for the American carriers that Kondo and Nagumo suspected were in the area, followed by several Kate torpedo-bombers from the carriers acting as scouts.  At 0450, USS Enterprise launched 16 SBD dive-bombers (in pairs) on search missions.
   At 0512, Kinkaid finally received the 0310 PBY contact report.  One pair of Enterprise SBD's sighted a Japanese Kate, which confirmed the presence of Japanese carriers in the vicinity.  At 0650, the skipper of Enterprise's Scout Bomber Squadron (VS-10,) LCDR James R. Lee, sighted Nagumo's carriers.  Lee and his wingman immediately climbed to attack (two planes against the entire Carrier Division One,) issuing a contact report received by both U.S. carriers as well as other U.S. scout bombers, which quickly converged on the area.  Japanese fighters drove Lee's section into the clouds, and did the same to a second pair of SBD scout bombers, but this cat-and-mouse game enabled a third pair to get through the Japanese 20-plane fighter combat air patrol.  Lieutenant Stockton B. Strong and Ensign C.B. Irvine each dived on the Japanese light carrier Zuiho at 0740, hitting her with one 500 lb bomb aft, which blew a 50 ft. hole in the flight deck, preventing her from recovering aircraft.  Zuiho's damage control teams responded effectively to keep fires under control, but Zuiho was out of the battle.
    At 0612, a Shokaku Kate sighted one of the American carriers, but in keeping with Japanese doctrine to avoid revealing the direction of the Japanese carriers, circled around the U.S. force before issuing a contact report at 0658.  Nagumo, mindful of the lessons of Midway, immediately commenced launching a strike, and by 0725 a 62-plane multi-carrier strike pushed toward the U.S. carriers.  The strike consisted of 20 Shokaku Kate torpedo-bombers, 21 Zuikaku Val dive-bombers and Zero fighters from all three carriers.
   At 0732, Hornet began launching a strike of 15 SBD dive-bombers, six TBF torpedo-bombers, escorted by eight Wildcat fighters, which pushed at 0750.  At 0747 Enterprise began launching a 20-plane strike of three SBD dive-bombers and nine TBF torpedo-bombers (one armed only with a camera,) escorted by eight Wildcat fighters.  The Hornet strike did not wait for the Enterprise strike to join up.  By 0810 Hornet was launching her second strike of nine SBD's, nine TBF's (armed with bombs rather than torpedoes,) escorted by seven fighters.
   Meanwhile, at 0810, Shokaku was launching a second strike of 19 Val dive-bombers, escorted by five Zeros.  At 0840, Zuikaku launched 16 Kate torpedo bombers, escorted by four Zeroes.  During the night, under threat of PBY bomb attack, and mindful of Midway lessons, all aircraft in the hangar bays were disarmed.  The Vals on Shokaku were re-armed and spotted on the flight deck thirty minutes before the Kates on Zuikaku completed re-arming with torpedoes.  This time, Nagumo did not hesitate; he launched the Vals as soon as they were ready, followed later by the Kates, choosing speed over a combined strike.
    By shortly after 0900, 110 Japanese aircraft in three groups were heading toward the U.S. carriers, while 75 American aircraft in three somewhat less organized groups were heading toward the Japanese carriers.  The two groups collided when nine Zuiho Zeros escorting the Japanese strike peeled off and jumped Enterprise's torpedo-bomber group 80 miles from Enterprise, shooting down two of the TBF's, including VT-10 Squadron commander LCDR John A. Collett, who was killed, and forcing two others to ditch due to damage (the torpedo from one of these ditched aircraft accidentally hit the destroyer USS Porter as she was rescuing the aircrew, knocking out all propulsion, and forcing the Porter to be scuttled.)  The Zeros also shot down three of the four escorting Wildcats, and forced the fourth to return with serious battle damage.  Four of the surviving U.S. aircrewmen would be captured by the Japanese (unlike at Midway, they were not weighted and thrown overboard.)  The Japanese lost four Zeroes in the engagement and the remaining five expended all their ammunition, leaving the first Japanese strike with only 12 Zeroes for escort.  Wildcat pilot Lieutenant John Leppla, who had performed heroically at the Battle of the Coral Sea (Navy Cross,) accepted battle with the Zeroes from a disadvantageous position in a valiant attempt to protect the TBF's, but he was shot down and killed (2nd Navy Cross, posthumous.)
    Hornet's radar detected the inbound Japanese strike at 60 miles out, and launched eight Wildcats to join eight Hornet Wildcats and 21 Enterprise Wildcats already on combat air patrol.  At 0855, the Japanese strike group sighted the Hornet, but Enterprise was hidden in a rain squall, so Hornet bore the full brunt of the attack.  Once again, as at Eastern Solomons, U.S. radar fighter direction failed, and most of the U.S. fighters wound up too low to engage the Vals before they commenced their dives, while the Kates made effective use of cloud cover to conceal their low altitude approach.
   Hornet and her escorts put up an intense barrage of fire, and parts of destroyed aircraft rained down around Hornet, but the attack by 20 Vals was overwhelming.  The first bomb hit Hornet at 0912, penetrating the flight deck near the bridge.  A minute later, two bombs hit and penetrated the flight deck between the amidships and aft elevators.  At 0914, a damaged Val deliberately crashed into the island, before hitting the flight deck, starting a serious fire.  Meanwhile, the Kates divided into two groups, trapping the Hornet in a near-perfect hammer and anvil attack, so no matter which way she turned she could not avoid presenting her beam to one of the groups of Kates.  At 0915, Hornet was hit by two torpedoes on her starboard side.  Another damaged Val dive bomber crashed into the Hornet forward.  By the time the attack ended at 0925, Hornet was listing eight degrees to starboard, dead in the water, with multiple serious fires, and with no power, communications, or fire main pressure.  The Japanese paid dearly for their success, losing 38 of 53 aircraft in the strike, including 17 of 21 Vals and 16 of 20 Kates.
   As Hornet was being pounded, her first air strike found and attacked the Japanese carrier Shokaku.  After several Hornet SBD dive bombers were shot down by fighters or forced to turn back due to damage, 11 Hornet SBD's led by Lieutenant James Vose rolled in on Shokaku at 0927, hitting her at least four and possibly five times and with numerous near-misses.  This time, Shokaku's damage control teams rapidly put out the fires, but with her flight deck completely mangled, Shokaku withdrew from the battle (with Nagumo still embarked) under her own power, although Skokaku's skipper begged to stay so the Shokaku could draw bombs and torpedoes away from Zuikaku.  Unfortunately, Hornet's torpedo-bombers did not sight the Japanese carriers and attacked, and missed, the heavy cruiser Tone instead, which was leading a charmed life having avoided bombs from two of the Enterprise SBD scouts earlier that morning.
   Enterprise's strike group also failed to find the Japanese carriers, unsuccessfully bombing an unidentified Japanese "heavy cruiser" and unsuccessfully attempting to torpedo the heavy cruiser Suzuya.  Hornet's second strike may have fallen for Japanese radio deception when it received a message that no Japanese carriers were present.  For whatever reason, the entire 20 plane strike rolled in on the heavy cruiser Chikuma (Tone's much less lucky sister.)  At least three bombs were direct hits, including one in a torpedo bank, and several near misses, which caused very high casualties, almost 200 killed.  Had Chikuma not jettisoned her Type 93 Long Lance oxygen torpedoes as the airstrike commenced, she almost certainly would have suffered the same fate as Mikuma at Midway, when a bomb initiated mortal damage from her own torpedoes.
   At around 1000, the second Japanese strike (Shokaku's 19 Vals) found the U.S. carriers, bypassing the clearly damaged Hornet and going for Enterprise.  Yet again, radar fighter direction flopped, and the 21 Wildcats airborne succeeded in shooting down only two Vals, before they dove on Enterprise.  The first bomb hit Enterprise at 1017.  A minute later another bomb hit, which split in two, one part penetrating the flight deck and destroying five aircraft in the hangar bay, while another part penetrated deep into the ship, killing 40 men.  This was followed by a damaging near miss that blew a dive-bomber over the side.  Ten of the 19 Vals were shot down.
   Around 1030, Zuikaku's second strike (16 Kate torpedo bombers) commenced an attack on Enterprise, and evaded detection until they were only about five miles out.  As the Kates split to attack Enterprise from both port and starboard, an Enterprise Wildcat, flown by Lieutenant Stanley W. Vejtasa, downed four of the Kates; he had to fly into U.S. anti-aircraft fire to knock down the last one, which was also the one that crashed into the destroyer USS Smith (see introduction.)   The group of Kates approaching from starboard dropped five torpedoes, which the skipper of Enterprise, Captain Osborne Hardison, skillfully avoided.  Unfortunately (for the Japanese,) the attack by five Kates from port was not perfectly timed with those from starboard, and Enterprise gunners shot down several Kates, and Hardison dodged the two torpedoes that were dropped at her.  At 1053, the heavy cruiser USS Portland, which was out of control due to a steering casualty was hit by three torpedoes that missed Enterprise, but all failed to explode (rare for Japanese torpedoes.)  Ten of the 16 Kates were lost.
     Shortly after 1100, the carrier Junyo's first strike (17 Val dive-bombers and 12 Zero fighters,) launched at 0914, found the U.S. carriers.  Skipping the obviously damaged Hornet, they went after Enterprise, commencing their dives at 1121.  While Enterprise was heeled over in a hard turn, one bomb bounced off her exposed below-the-waterline hull and then exploded, which among other damage jammed the forward elevator in the up position.  (The amidships elevator was jammed in the down position due to the earlier strike.)  Another Val hit the anti-aircraft cruiser San Juan (CL-54) with a bomb on her stern, jamming her rudder hard right and causing her to steam in circles before steering control could be regained.  At 1129, several Junyo Vals attacked the battleship South Dakota, achieving several near-misses and one direct hit on the number one 16" turret.  No one in the turret was injured (or even knew they had been hit) but fragments sprayed topside, killing two and seriously wounding the skipper, Captain Thomas Gatch, who had refused to dive for cover.  A communications breakdown shifting control from the bridge to after control resulted in South Dakota being out-of-control for a short period, narrowly avoiding a collision with Enterprise.  After this attack, Enterprise began recovering her aircraft and those of Hornet, a difficult feat with two of three elevators jammed, completing at 1335.  Eleven of Junyos 17 Vals were shot down or ditched returning to their carrier following the attack on Enterprise.
    While these attacks were going on, VADM Kondo sent his battleships and other surface ships racing toward the American positions, leaving Junyo behind to join up with Nagumo's carriers, of which Zuikaku was the only one still operational. With both U.S. carriers damaged, Hornet critically, Kinkaid gave the order for Enterprise to set a course to disengage, an action which deprived Hornet of air cover, but by then Enterprise was not in much condition to be of help.  One of Hornet's escorts, the anti-aircraft cruiser USS Juneau (CL-52,) misunderstood the order and followed the Enterprise, leaving the Hornet with less anti-aircraft fire power.
   As the crippled Hornet drifted without power, three destroyers came alongside to help fight the fires, with some success.   The first attempt by the heavy cruiser Northampton (CA-26) to take the Hornet under tow was interrupted by a lone Val from Shokaku that came out of nowhere and barely missed the destroyer Morris (DD-417,) that was alongside Hornet.  Nevertheless, by 1130, Northampton was towing the Hornet at 3 knots out of the battle area until 1450 when yet another inbound Japanese strike was detected.
   At 1520, seven Junyo Kate torpedo-bombers, escorted by eight Zeros, commenced their attack on Hornet.  Northampton cut the tow line when two of the Kates made for her, and Northampton narrowly avoided the torpedoes.  Hornet's anti-aircraft gunners still downed at least two Kates, but one torpedo, dropped from very close range, struck the Hornet at 1523, and prevented any possibility of regaining power.  At 1550, VADM Halsey issued an order to Kinkaid to withdraw as radio intelligence relayed from Admiral Nimitz indicated the Japanese battleships were converging on Hornet's position.
   Beginning at 1540, Zuikaku's third strike of the day (two Vals, six Kates and five Zeros…the best Carrier Division One could muster after the morning's losses and damage) attacked the Hornet.  The two Vals achieved a near miss on the Hornet and another near miss on the anti-aircraft cruiser San Diego (CL-53.)  The six Kates followed a few minutes later, executing a horizontal bombing attack (apparently Zuikaku was out of torpedoes) one of which hit the Hornet with minor damage.  By this time, Hornet's list had reached 18 degrees, and Captain Charles P. Mason gave the order to abandon ship.  Mason was the last off at 1627.
   At 1703, Junyo's third strike arrived (four Vals and six Zeroes.) Hornet's escorts still put up a barrage of fire, but one of the Vals hit the now-abandoned Hornet with yet another bomb, which exploded in the hanger bay.  Hornet's escorts rescued the great majority of Hornet's crew, but 118 were killed or would die from wounds.
   At 1810, as the entire American force commenced a high speed withdrawal, RADM Murray (CTF-17,) having shifted his flag from Hornet to the heavy cruiser Pensacola (CA-24,) ordered Hornet scuttled.  The destroyer Mustin (DD-413) fired eight carefully aimed torpedoes at Hornet, and provided a demonstration of just how unreliable U.S. torpedoes were; five hit the Hornet but only three detonated.  One other exploded prematurely, while the other two ran erratically and completely missed.  The destroyer Anderson (DD-411) was then ordered to sink the Hornet.  Around 1915, Anderson hit Hornet with six of eight torpedoes fired, and still she refused to sink.  Mustin and Anderson then fired hundreds of 5" rounds into the Hornet, with little apparent affect, an action observed by Japanese float planes from the cruisers Suzuya and Isuzu.
      At 1920, Admiral Ugaki (ADM Yamamoto's chief of staff) sent an order to try and capture and tow the Hornet; the message was intercepted, broken, and passed to ADM Nimitz.  By 1945, Kondo's battleships were steaming at high speed toward the Hornet, and RADM Tanaka's destroyers even faster.  At 2040, Mustin and Anderson, dogged by Japanese float planes, gave up trying to sink the Hornet when radar detected inbound Japanese ships.  By 2100 two Japanese destroyers arrived close to Hornet and determined that it would not be possible to tow her.  After milling about for a while, each Japanese destroyer fired two Long Lance torpedoes (which all worked) and even then it took until 0135 before Hornet finally went down.
    By 2400, Kondo was convinced that the Americans were in high-speed retreat, an assessment confirmed by several Japanese submarines in the pre-dawn hours.  With his fuel already at a critical state, Kondo determined there was no need for further pursuit, and he commenced a return to Truk.  During the night, the radar-equipped PBY Catalinas dogged the Japanese.  At 0055 one of the PBY's bombed, hit, and damaged the destroyer Teruzuki, while at 0130 another attempted unsuccessfully to torpedo the carrier Junyo.
   After the battle, the Japanese initially claimed to have sunk three carriers, a battleship, a cruiser, a destroyer and a submarine.  Imperial General Headquarters inflated the claim further, to four U.S. carriers sunk and more than 200 aircraft downed.  The real tally of Hornet sunk, the Enterprise badly damaged, and destroyer Porter sunk by a U.S. torpedo, was bad enough.  The U.S. lost 81 aircraft (including 28 aboard ship and 28 ditched, and 25 shot down by fighters or anti-aircraft fire.) Twenty-four U.S. pilots and aircrew were lost, including one squadron commander and four POW's.  U.S. ships lost 240 killed or missing.
    The U.S. did not claim to have sunk any Japanese ships at Santa Cruz, nor did they.  The U.S. did claim to shoot down 115 Japanese aircraft.  The real total was 97, including 65 shot down, 29 ditched due to damage, and three lost aboard ship.  Only 86 aircraft remained flyable of the 102 that survived the battle (out of 199 operational aircraft at the start.)  Most critically, the Japanese lost 148 pilots and aircrewmen, including two of three dive-bomber leaders, three torpedo squadron leaders, and almost all section leaders.  Over half the Japanese aircrew who attacked Pearl Harbor were now dead, including an even higher percentage of squadron and senior leaders.  Japanese naval aviation would never recover.  Vice Admiral Nagumo's reward for his victory was to be consigned to shore duty.
   On the American side, the new 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns proved their worth, accounting for the majority of lost and damaged Japanese aircraft; the lesson as written by Kinkaid was there there cannot be too many 40mm and 20mm guns on any type of ship.  In the following months and years, U.S. ships would be carpeted with such guns.  The failure of fighter radar direction resulted in intensive study of how to better integrate radar, sensors, and communications into a coherent battle picture; within a few months the result would be something close to a modern Combat Information Center (CIC.)
H011.4 USS Hornet CV-8 Under Attack at Santa Cruz
    This photo shows USS Hornet (CV-8) at the peak of the Japanese air attack on the morning of 26 Oct 1942.  She has already been hit by three bombs (one is exploding forward of the island,) she is about to be hit by two torpedoes (a Kate torpedo bomber can be seen crossing over her) and the damaged Val dive bomber that can be seen above the ship is about to deliberately crash into the island, bounce off and crash through the flight deck, all within the space of a few minutes.
Item Number:1 Date: 11/15/2017 AFGHANISTAN - HAVING MORE COALITION BACKERS SEEN GIVING AFGHANS BETTER FIGHTING CHANCES, SAYS GENERAL (NOV 15/DODNEWS)  DOD NEWS -- The U.S. general atop the NATO-led Resolute Support mission in Afghanistan says the coming increase of U.S. and coalition troops in the country should help local security forces to do more, reports DoD News.   Afghan forces have proven their ability to take on militants during the time of the greatest risk to the government in Kabul, said Army Gen. John Nicholson during a news conference in Brussels last week.   For most of this year, the Afghans have been fighting with the lowest level of coalition capability since 2001, noted Nicholson.   Meanwhile, the NATO train-and-assist mission had only 80 percent of its pledged capabilities, the general said.   The new NATO strategy builds on President Ashraf Ghani's four-year plan, which calls for increasing the offensive capability of the Afghan military, with a focus on commandos and air assets.   The additional coalition trainers will allow Afghan units to go on the offensive and provide security over more of the country, said Nicholson.   Earlier this month, NATO announced that it would send another 3,000 troops for the training mission, with about half of that coming from the U.S., noted Reuters at the time.  
  Item Number:2 Date: 11/15/2017 BRUNEI - EXERCISE PELICAN CONCLUDES; BRUNEI, SINGAPORE NAVIES TRAIN IN S. CHINA SEA, GULF OF THAILAND (NOV 15/DIPLOMAT)  DIPLOMAT -- Brunei and Singapore have just wrapped up the latest iteration of their flagship naval exercise, reports the Diplomat (Tokyo).   Exercise Pelican stresses strengthening cooperation and interoperability between the two navies.   This year's exercise, from Nov. 10 to Nov. 13, involved the Bruneian patrol vessel Daruttaqwa and the Singapore frigate Steadfast.   The drills covered gunnery live-firing, communications and maneuvering in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand, according to a release from the Singapore Ministry of Defense.   The navies also conducted a sea-rider exchange, with personnel visiting and sailing on the ships of their counterparts
Item Number:3 Date: 11/15/2017 CHINA - BEIJING DISPATCHES SPECIAL ENVOY TO PYONGYANG (NOV 15/XIN)  XINHUA -- The Chinese government says it will send an envoy to North Korea to restart dialogue with Pyongyang, reports China's state-run Xinhua news agency.   A Communist Party official will leave for Pyongyang Friday, noted the New York Times.   Foreign ministry officials said on Wednesday that the agenda will include China's recent Communist Party Congress and issues common to the two countries, according to the Washington Post.   Beijing denied that there was any connection to recent requests from President Trump for China to exert greater pressure on Pyongyang's nuclear tests, which have raised tensions in the region.   The New York Times cited Chinese specialists who speculated that the topic of denuclearization was likely to be included in the message from Beijing.   China already has an envoy to North Korea, but he is not believed to have visited Pyongyang since assuming his post in August, noted the Washington Post.  
  Item Number:4 Date: 11/15/2017 FRANCE - SUSPECT IN BELGIAN ATTACK NOW UNDER INVESTIGATION IN FRANCE (NOV 15/ANADOLU)  ANADOLU NEWS AGENCY -- The main suspect in a fatal 2014 attack on a Jewish museum in Belgium is now being investigated by French authorities, who accuse him of kidnapping French journalists in Syria, reports Anadolu Agency (Turkey).   Mehdi Nemmouche, a French citizen, was transferred to French custody Wednesday from Belgium, where he was waiting to stand trial for killing four in the 2014 attack, noted Reuters.   Four French journalists were held hostage by Islamic State from 2013 and April 2014. Upon their release, they accused Nemmouche of being their captor from July to December 2013.   Nemmouche was arrested in Marseille days after the museum attack in Brussels. He was extradited to Belgium in July 2014, noted Reuters
Item Number:5 Date: 11/15/2017 GERMANY - OPPOSITION BLASTS BERLIN'S FIVEFOLD INCREASE IN ARMS SALES TO SAUDI ARABIA, EGYPT (NOV 15/DEWELLE)  DEUTSCHE WELLE -- The German government approved the sale of nearly US$526 million worth of weapons to Saudi Arabia and Egypt in the third quarter of 2017, reports Deutsche Welle.   The figures were revealed by the opposition Left party which called the sales to the crisis area "reprehensible," as quoted by the Irish Times. The Irish paper and Chinese state media also noted Berlin had considerable arms exports to Israel over that period (about US$399 million).   Egypt bought almost US$355 million worth of weapons. Saudi Arabia's purchases were worth over US$177 million, according to government figures.   The exports to those two countries are more than five times the US$101 million in the same quarter of 2016.   The Saudi sales apparently include four patrol boats and 110 military trucks whose sale was disclosed in July.  Sales to non-E.U. and non-NATO countries constitute more than a half of German total arms sales, according the officials statistics cited by Russia's RT.  
  Item Number:6 Date: 11/15/2017 JAPAN - CONSTRUCTION OF NEW U.S. BASE IN OKINAWA STILL CONTROVERSIAL (NOV 15/KNA)  KYODO NEWS AGENCY -- The Japanese government wants to speed the construction of seawalls at the site of a planned U.S. air base in Okinawa, say sources, as cited by the Kyodo News Agency.   To help with the project, the central government ordered the delivery of rocks to the construction site on Tuesday, said unnamed government sources.   The move is expected to annoy the prefectural government, residents and protesters opposed to the relocation of the U.S. base in Futenma near Ginowan to the coastal area near Henoko.   The delivery ships were scheduled to dock alongside the existing seawalls that are serving as a pier on the northern side of the area to be filled, said the sources.   The material will be used to build a seawall on the southwestern side of the site, where work began earlier this month.   The objective of the relocation is to transfer military aircraft activity from the crowded residential area of Ginowan to the less populated Henoko area in the northern part of Okinawa's main island.   The Okinawa government is in a court battle with Tokyo, trying to halt construction at the airbase relocation site.  
  Item Number:7 Date: 11/15/2017 LITHUANIA - ALGIRDAS BATTALION GEARS UP TO JOIN BRITISH-LED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE WITHIN WEEKS (NOV 15/LIMOD)  LITHUANIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE -- Lithuania's Grand Duke Algirdas Mechanized Infantry Battalion is preparing to join the U.K.-led Joint Expeditionary Force (JEF) in January 2018, reports the Lithuanian Ministry of Defense.   Lithuanian troops have been deployed to Denmark to participate in the Brave Lion certification exercises later this month together with the Danish army's Dragoon Battalion in preparation for the new standby assignment.   The JEF, established in 2015, is supposed to be able to respond to crises around the world. The high-readiness force is intended to be available for a variety of military operations and support NATO, U.N. or partner-led multinational operations.   JEF participants are Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden.   A Lithuanian staff officer has been assigned to the JEF operational headquarters in Northwood outside London since early 2016.   The JEF is expected to reach full operational capability next year, noted the ministry release.  
  Item Number:8 Date: 11/15/2017 MONTENEGRO - MODERNIZATION EFFORT INCLUDES PURCHASE OF BELL 412EPI FOR 1ST NON-SOVIET HELICOPTER (NOV 15/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- The Montenegrin Ministry of Defense has decided to acquire Bell 412EPI utility helicopters as part of a military modernization effort, reports Defense News.   A contract for three aircraft is anticipated in early 2018, according to Montenegrin Vijesti daily. The deal is estimated to be worth about 29.9 million euros (US$34.9 million).   The Bell 412EPI will be the first non-Soviet-designed helicopter to be purchased by Montenegro.   The military is also looking to buy new armored vehicles and radars among other equipment. The modernization program is said to be worth around 110 million euros (US$128 million).   The procurements are slated to be completed by 2025
Item Number:9 Date: 11/15/2017 PAKISTAN - FATAL CROSS-BORDER TERRORIST ATTACK PROMPTS GOVERNMENT TO SUMMON AFGHAN ENVOY (NOV 15/DAWN)  DAWN -- Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Ministry has summoned the Afghan charge d'affaires after a cross-border attack in the northwest tribal area killed two Pakistani soldiers, reports Dawn (Pakistan).   In addition to the two killed, four other Pakistani four soldiers were injured Monday's attack on a checkpoint near the Afghan-Pakistani border in the Bajaur Agency.   On Tuesday, the Foreign Ministry urged Kabul to take stronger action against terrorists in Afghanistan. Authorities also noted the death of a Pakistani consular official in October in the Afghan city of Jalalabad.   Following the checkpoint attack from the Afghan side, Pakistani forces said they responded and "killed 8-10 fleeing terrorists" according to military media cited by Asian News International (ANI).  
  Item Number:10 Date: 11/15/2017 PHILIPPINES - LOCAL FORCES MAKE IT THROUGH AUSTRALIAN-LED COURSE IN URBAN WARFARE (NOV 15/ADOD)  AUSTRALIAN DEPT. OF DEFENSE -- Australian military trainers in the Philippines have graduated their first class of Philippine troops from an urban close combat course, reports the Australian Dept. of Defense.   Australia's Joint Task Force 629 is part of Canberra's effort to work with the Philippines to fight terrorism.   The task force is focused on helping Philippine soldiers and marines to become more capable at fighting enemies in urban environments.   The initial course was run by 80 Australian soldiers from the army's 3rd Brigade, noted the Defense Dept. release on Tuesday.   About 170 Philippine soldiers from the army's 2nd Infantry Division and Philippine airmen took part.   The next Australian-led urban warfare course is slated to begin in December.   Australia has a status-of-forces agreement that allows its forces to train in the Philippines, noted the Philippine Daily Inquirer last month.  
  Item Number:11 Date: 11/15/2017 SERBIA - IN RETRIAL OVER U.S. EMBASSY FIRE IN 2008, COURT GIVES SUSPENDED SENTENCES (NOV 15/RFE/RL)  RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY -- A Serbian court has handed down suspended prison sentences to four men for their roles in a 2008 arson attack on the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade, reports Radio Liberty/Radio Free Europe.   The sentences, ranging from five to six months, were imparted on Tuesday.   The accused were found guilty of throwing stones during the protest. but acquitted of throwing incendiary objects that lit the embassy on fire, reports Reuters. Three other men were acquitted.   The verdict came in a retrial.   In 2015, the accused were sentenced to five to 10 months in prison, but an appeals court ordered another trial because of regularities, noted AFP.   The U.S., German and Croatian embassies were attacked during a February 2008 protest against Kosovo's independence. One man died in the attack, noted Balkan Insight.  
 Item Number:12 Date: 11/15/2017 SINGAPORE - NAVY COMMISSIONS UNITY, SOVEREIGNTY LMVS AT CHANGI NAVAL BASE (NOV 15/SIMOD)  SINGAPORE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE -- Two new littoral ships have officially joined Singapore's navy.   Singapore Defense Minister Ng Eng Han presided over Tuesday's commissioning ceremony for two littoral mission vessels (LMVs), reports the Singapore Ministry of Defense.   The Sovereignty and Unity, the second and third ships in the Independence class, formally entered service during a ceremony at the Changi Naval base.   The first in the class, RSS Independence, was commissioned six months earlier, noted Channel News Asia.   The warships are replacing Singapore's aging Fearless-class patrol vessels.   The class is optimized for a variety of maritime security missions
Item Number:13 Date: 11/15/2017 SOMALIA - KENYAN PEACEKEEPERS LOOK OTHER WAY WHILE AL-SHABAAB EXPORTS CHARCOAL, SAYS U.N. REPORT (NOV 15/NATION)  THE NATION -- A new report by United Nations monitors says Kenyan military units assigned to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) are not enforcing a ban on charcoal exports by the Al-Shabaab militant group, reports the Nation (Nairobi).   The Somalia-based terrorists earn at least US$10 million annually by shipping charcoal from ports in southern Somalia, where Kenyan units are stationed, the U.N. panel said this week.   Kenyan contingents stationed at the ports of Kismayo and Buur Gaabo have not assisted Somali authorities in implementing the ban nor facilitated monitoring group access, says the report.   Poor implementation of the five-year-old ban "enables Al-Shabaab financing and undermines counterterrorism and counterinsurgency efforts in Somalia," states the report.   Last year, the U.N.'s Somalia and Eritrea monitoring group alleged that colluding Kenyan troops assigned to AMISOM were receiving US$2 per bag of charcoal illegally shipped from Kismayo
Item Number:14 Date: 11/15/2017 SOUTH KOREA - NEW FORUM EYES MORE SECURITY COOPERATION IN NORTHEAST ASIA (NOV 15/YON)  YONHAP -- South Korea is about to host a multilateral forum promoting security cooperation in Northeast Asia, reports the Yonhap news agency (Seoul).   The forum, scheduled for Nov. 16 and Nov. 17 in Seoul, will bring together about 200 government officials and private experts, the Foreign Ministry said on Tuesday.   Planned participants include regional states China, Japan, Mongolia, Russia and the U.S., as well as interested partners such as Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, the U.N., Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).   The "1.5-track forum" is part of the Moon Jae In government's effort to create a platform to facilitate regional security cooperation.   The Foreign Ministry would like to make the forum an annual event in an effort to reduce regional tension and rivalry and strengthen cooperation.   North Korea has not been invited this year due to current tensions, but a ministry official said Seoul hopes to eventually invite Pyongyang to join
Item Number:15 Date: 11/15/2017 SYRIA - ISIS SNIPERS SEEN WITH SOPHISTICATED U.S. THERMAL DEVICES IN PROPAGANDA VIDEO (NOV 15/MILTIMES)  MILITARY TIMES -- Propaganda videos posted by Islamic State show what appears to be its snipers using thermal devices made in the U.S., reports Military Times.   A video uploaded on Nov. 10 titled "Snipers of the South – Wilayat al-Janub," apparently shows ISIS fighters carrying a FLIR BHM thermal camera and a U.S. M4.   FLIR night-vision and thermal devices are export-restricted and require license from the U.S. State Dept.'s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, noted the newspaper.   The FLIR BHM was originally designed as a maritime thermal camera to help vessels see navigate in pitch-black conditions. However, ISIS fighters seem to be using it to track targets.   ISIS fighters have previously been seen operating U.S.-made weaponry, including M4 rifles, EOTech holographic sights and advanced combat optical gunsights
Item Number:16 Date: 11/15/2017 UNITED KINGDOM - 17-YEAR-OLD PLANNED ISIS-INSPIRED TERROR ATTACK AT CONCERT IN WHALES, SAY PROSECUTORS (NOV 15/GUARDIAN)  GUARDIAN -- U.K. prosecutors say the 17-year-old defendant planned an Islamic State-inspired attack on a Justin Bieber concert in June, reports the Guardian (U.K.).   The accused searched the internet for security measures at a concert he planned to attack and wrote a letter expressing his intent to "run down the non-believers with a car," according to the BBC.   Prosecutors said the young man from Cardiff, Wales, was arrested with claw hammer, a kitchen knife and a "martyrdom letter" that pledged allegiance to the Islamic State, noted the Sun (U.K.).   A note in the youth's bedroom allegedly read "I am a soldier of the Islamic State,' noted Wales Online.   Police say that a search of the accused's computer after his arrest revealed a large amount of Islamic State material, including magazines that showed how to conduct "lone-wolf" attacks.   The trial is ongoing. Because the unnamed accused is a minor, many of the details of the trial have not been released
Item Number:17 Date: 11/15/2017 UNITED KINGDOM - TURKEY JOINS BRAZIL AS POTENTIAL BUYER OF ROYAL NAVY'S HELICOPTER CARRIER (NOV 15/NAVTOD)  NAVAL TODAY -- The Turkish government has expressed interest in buying a soon-to-be-decommissioned British Royal Navy helicopter carrier, reports Naval Today.   Tobias Ellwood, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Ministry of Defense, said on Monday that Turkey is interested in buying the HMS Ocean if she is not sold to Brazil.   Brazil's interest in the British flagship was noted earlier this year by the Royal navy's website.   The Ocean was the largest naval ship constructed for the Royal Navy since the last of the Invincible-class aircraft carriers were commissioned in the early 1980s. She is on its final deployment as a Royal Nay ship, serving as Standing Maritime Group 2 flagship in the Mediterranean.   Turkey is currently building a landing helicopter dock based on the Spanish Navy's Juan Carlos I. Construction began in May 2016. Delivery is scheduled for 2021.   The prospect of brazil's purchase was viewed with "cautious optimism," reported the Sun (U.K.) in April
  Item Number:18 Date: 11/15/2017 USA - MQ-9 REAPER UAV SHOWCASES ITS SUBMARINE-TRACKING FEATURES (NOV 15/GAASI)  GENERAL ATOMICS AERONAUTICAL SYSTEMS -- California-based General Atomics recently demonstrated the ability of its MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aircraft to support anti-submarine warfare operations.   The MQ-9 showed off its ability to detect submarines and persistently track submerged targets during a U.S. Navy exercise on Oct. 12 over the Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE), the company said in a Monday release.   During the drill, Navy helicopters deployed sonobuoys to track underwater targets, said company officials. The data were transmitted to the Reaper, processed onboard and relayed to the MQ-9 ground control station several hundred miles away from the target area, said General Atomics.   The event paired an Ultra Electronics sonobuoy receiver and General Dynamics Mission Systems-Canada data-processing technology with the MQ-9 air vehicle.   A track solution was calculated and transmitted from the aircraft to the ground station via satellite communications, said the release.   The technology enables the Reaper to perform long-range patrol and relay missions in maritime environments, said the company.   The UAV was also equipped with the Lynx multi-mode radar with a maritime wide-area search mode
Item Number:19 Date: 11/15/2017 YEMEN - AIR RAID BY SAUDI-LED COALITION CLOSES SANAA AIRPORT SAYS HOUTHI-CONTROLLED AGENCY (NOV 15/AFP)  AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE -- A Saudi-led coalition airstrike has shut down the airport in Sanaa, the Yemeni capital, say Houthi rebels cited by Agence France-Presse.   A Houthi-controlled branch of the state-run SABA news agency cited a statement from the Shi'ite rebels released on Tuesday, saying a strike destroyed the airport's navigation station, rendering it inoperable.   The Houthis have occupied the capital city since 2015.   On Monday, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the U.N. said the international coalition it leads will begin lifting a blockade it imposed on Yemen.   That action came after a missile, allegedly launched by the Houthis, was intercepted on Nov. 4 over the Saudi capital, Riyadh. Ports and airports controlled by the Houthis would not be included in the move, said the ambassador.  
 Item Number:20 Date: 11/15/2017 ZIMBABWE - ARMY TAKES CONTROL, SECURES MUGABE; APPARENT COUP TERMED 'BLOODLESS CORRECTION' (NOV 15/CBS)  CBS NEWS -- The army in Zimbabwe has taken control of the country and taken President Mugabe and his wife into custody, reports CBS News.   The army first took control of the national broadcaster's headquarters.   An army general stated on Wednesday that the action was directed against people close to Mugabe. Gen. Sibusiso Moyo assured Zimbabweans that the president and his family "are safe and sound and their security is guaranteed," reports the BBC.   Officials denied that these developments constituted a coup. Supporters of the military called this a "bloodless correction."   Troops in armored vehicles were first seen in the streets on Tuesday. Heavy gun and artillery fire were reportedly heard in the area north of the capital, Harare, where Mugabe and many of his supporters live, reports AFP.   In a statement, South African President Jacob Zuma said that he had spoken to Mugabe. Mugabe is as fine and under house arrest, Zuma said.   On Monday, Gen. Constantino Chiwenga demanded an end to a growing string of firings within Mugabe's party, which has ruled the country since independence. Chiwenga said the army might be forced to intervene if the political tensions gripping the country were not addressed.

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