Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Fw: TheList 4589

The List 4589

To All
I hope your week has started well.
This Day In Naval History - November 14
1846 - Naval forces capture Tampico, Mexico.
1910 - Civilian Eugene Ely pilots first aircraft to take-off from a ship, USS Birmingham (CL-2) at Hampton Roads, VA. He lands safely on Willoughby Spit, Norfolk, VA.
1941 - Order to withdraw Marines at Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China.
1943 - USS Narwhal (SS 167) delivers 46 tons of ammunition and stores, disembarks a Navy officer at Nasipit, Mindanao and embarks 32 evacuees, which include eight women, two children, and a baby, who are transported to Darwin, Australia.
1944 - Carrier aircraft attack Japanese shipping in Philippines sinking five ships and damaging one.
·         Today in History November 14
Arthur Tudor of England marries Katherine of Aragon.
As Napoleon Bonaparte's army retreats form Moscow, temperatures drop to 20 degrees below zero.
Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick is published in New York.
Billy Clairborne, a survivor of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, loses his life in a shoot-out with Buckskin Frank Leslie.
Albert Einstein presents his quantum theory of light.
Lieutenant Eugene Ely, U.S. Navy, becomes the first man to take off in an airplane from the deck of a ship. He flew from the ship Birmingham at Hampton Roads to Norfolk.
The Cherokee Indians ask the U.S. Supreme Court to review their claim to 1 million acres of land in Texas.
The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) begins the first daily radio broadcasts from Marconi House.
Right-wing militarists in Japan attempt to assassinate Premier Hamagushi.
Manuel Luis Quezon is sworn in as the first Filipino president, as the Commonwealth of the Philippines is inaugurated.
German bombers devastate Coventry in Great Britain, killing 1,000 in the worst air raid of the war.
The United States and Yugoslavia sign a military aid pact.
French paratroopers capture Hoa Binh, Vietnam.
New Orleans integrates two all-white schools.
President Dwight Eisenhower orders U.S. naval units into the Caribbean after Guatemala and Nicaragua charge Castro with starting uprisings.
President Kennedy increases the number of American advisors in Vietnam from 1,000 to 16,000.
Iceland gets a new island when a volcano pushes its way up out of the sea five miles off the southern coast.
Greece frees hundreds who were jailed in the Communist uprising of 1944-1950.
The U.S. First Cavalry Division battles with the North Vietnamese Army in the Ia Drang Valley, the first ground combat for American troops.
Yale University announces its plan to go co-ed.
The United States launches Apollo 12, the second mission to the Moon, from Cape Kennedy.
US President Jimmy Carter freezes all Iranian assets in the United States in response to Iranian militants holding more than 50 Americans hostage.
Lech Walesa, leader of Poland's outlawed Solidarity movement, is released by communist authorities after 11 months confinement; he would win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 and be elected Poland's president in 1990.
The Space Shuttle Discovery's crew rescues a second satellite.
Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany sign a treaty officially making the Oder-Neisse line the border between their countries.
Budget standoff between Democrats and Republicans in the US Congress forces temporary closure of national parks and museums; federal agencies forced to operate with skeleton staff.
Northern Alliance fighters take control of Afghanistan's capital, Kabul.
First G-20 economic summit convenes, in Washington, DC.
Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defense against the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip.
Thanks to Rick Burgess, Navy League -
Thomas J. Hudner Jr., 93, War Hero And Veterans' Affairs Commissioner
A Native Of Fall River, Thomas J. Hudner Jr. Received The Medal Of Honor In 1951 For His Efforts To Save A Fellow Pilot During The Korean War.
(BOSTON GLOBE 13 NOV 17) ... Joseph P. Kahn
One was the son of a Mississippi sharecropper, the other a privileged New England prep school graduate. One died young, a casualty of wartime. The other lived a long life celebrated for its service to country and to championing racial equality.
Navy Ensign Jesse L. Brown and Lieutenant Thomas J. Hudner Jr., who died Monday at age 93, will forever be linked in history by who they were and what they did. On Dec. 4, 1950, the two pilots were near North Korea's Chosin Reservoir when Brown's plane was shot down, crash-landing on a snow-packed mountainside. Spotting Brown waving from the cockpit, Mr. Hudner ditched his own plane near Brown's and attempted to free his friend from the smoking wreckage. He could not and was evacuated by helicopter as darkness descended.
"We'll be back for you," he told a dying Brown, who had a wife and 2-year-old daughter back home.
Navy officers, however, believed a return trip to the crash site would be futile and rejected the mission.
In 2013, Mr. Hudner returned to North Korea in hopes of retrieving the remains of Brown. Although he failed to, his wartime heroics had long ago become the stuff of legend.
As a profile in courage, his rescue attempt was stirring enough, earning him worldwide publicity and a Medal of Honor. As a lesson in brotherhood, coming just two years after the US military had been desegregated, it resonated much deeper. Until then, many Americans had doubted whether a white soldier would risk his life to save a black soldier's. A brave young Navy flier had proved them wrong.
"Not a day goes by that I don't think of that day, and Jesse," Mr. Hudner reflected decades later, flanked by Brown's widow, Daisy Brown Thorne, during a ship-christening ceremony in 1973.
A relative confirmed the death of Mr. Hudner, a career Navy officer and former commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Veterans' Services.
"Few possess the bravery, determination, and character that Captain Hudner displayed throughout his lifetime,'' Governor Charlie Baker said in a statement. "The people of Massachusetts can be proud that a hero such as Captain Hudner called the Commonwealth home."
"Hudner was a hero in the true meaning of the word,'' Navy Secretary Richard V. Spencer wrote.
Mr. Hudner lived long enough to see his words and deeds honored many times over. Along with Brown and others who served alongside him, he was the subject of a 2015 book by Adam Makos, titled "Devotion: An Epic Story of Heroism, Friendship, and Sacrifice." That same year, Mr. Hudner was saluted at Maine's Bath Iron Works during a keel-laying on a Navy guided missile destroyer that bears his name. It was christened in April.
True to his spirit, Mr. Hudner tried to persuade authorities to name the ship after Brown, not himself. In 1973, the Navy had christened one of its frigates the USS Jesse L. Brown. It had been decommissioned 22 years later, however, and sold to the Egyptian government, which changed its name.
Mr. Hudner's loyalty to his fallen wingmate never wavered and neither did his resolve to keep Brown's memory alive. He paid for Daisy Brown's postwar college education and remained close to her and her daughter throughout Daisy's life (she died in 2014).
Fletcher Brown expressed awe in April — nearly 67 years after his brother's death — when he recalled Mr. Hudner's audacious feat.
"For him to have crash-landed his plane deliberately, that took a lot of guts and a lot of determination," said Brown, 85, of Los Angeles. "Tom is a very close friend."
In a 2015 letter to Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, Mr. Hudner explained — once again — why he felt Brown deserved to have his name on an operational ship. "As our nation once again struggles with racial division," Mr. Hudner wrote, "we could send a strong message by remembering Jesse in this manner. It would show that in our Navy, men and women of all colors are accepted as equal . . . [and] ensure that Jesse's legacy lives on, long after we, his friends, have left this earth."
Thomas Jerome Hudner Jr. was born on Aug. 31, 1924. The oldest of four brothers, he grew up in Fall River, where his father, Thomas, owned a chain of grocery stores. In 1939, young Tom (nicknamed Lou) entered Phillips Academy in Andover, where he excelled as an athlete and student.
After war broke out, Mr. Hudner enrolled in the Naval Academy. He graduated in 1946 — his Annapolis schoolmates included Jimmy Carter — and worked in naval communications before undertaking flight training. He qualified as an aviator in 1949 and was assigned to Fighter Squadron 32, where he and Brown flew single-propeller Corsairs off the aircraft carrier USS Leyte, part of the Seventh Fleet's Task Force 77 supporting US ground troops.
By then, Brown was already becoming a celebrated member of America's combat forces. As the Navy's first black pilot, he was the subject of a Life magazine feature scheduled to appear in late 1950. Owing to his death, it never did.
Mr. Hudner initially believed his own actions might be punished, not celebrated, and blamed himself for not having done more to save his friend. Aboard the Leyte, his commanding officer had explicitly warned pilots against taking such risks. Yet that edict "was based on the concept of a nameless, faceless downed pilot," Makos wrote. "But when that pilot was Jesse, everything changed.''
Captain T.U. Sisson, the Leyte commander, chose not to subject Mr. Hudner to a court-martial, summarizing his feat this way: "There's been no finer act of unselfish heroism in military history."
At the White House on April 13, 1951, President Harry Truman awarded Mr. Hudner the Medal of Honor for "exceptionally valiant action and selfless devotion to a shipmate [that] sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the US Naval Service." Mr. Hudner was the Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient since World War II.
"My family were rabid Republicans," he noted with a smile, "but they were charmed by the president, who claimed he'd rather have the medal than be president."
Mr. Hudner went on to serve as a naval flight instructor, test pilot, training squadron commander, and aide to the chief of the Bureau of Naval Operations. During the Vietnam War, he briefly served as executive officer aboard the USS Kitty Hawk, an aircraft carrier.
After retiring from the Navy in 1973 with the rank of captain, Mr. Hudner worked as a management consultant. From 1991 to 1993 he oversaw the state's Department of Veterans' Services. He also served as president of the regional USO and as Medal of Honor Society treasurer.
In 1968, he married Georgea Smith, a widow with three children. In addition to his wife, of Concord, Mr. Hudner leaves a son, Thomas III of Concord, two stepdaughters, Kelly Fernandez of La Jolla, Calif., and Shannon Gustafson of Sherborn, a stepson, Stan Smith of Weston, a sister, Mary Hammer of Concord, a brother, Philip of Westport, 12 grandchildren, and one great-grandchild.
A funeral Mass will be said at 10 a.m. Thursday in Holy Family Parish in Concord. A memorial service will be announced.
Mr. Hudner will be buried Arlington National Cemetery.
At the christening of the Thomas Hudner at the General Dynamics Bath Iron Works in Maine, members of Brown's family came from Mississippi, Texas, and California to honor Mr. Hudner.
Mr. Hudner, in turn, honored his wingmate.
"He was loyal to Daisy, loyal to the squadron, loyal to the naval service. . . . In return, people were very loyal to him," Hudner said in an interview. "When I was a boy, my father gave me some advice that he'd learned running his grocery stores with employees from all walks of life: 'A person's actions will reveal his character, not his skin color.'
"I took this to heart.''
In addition to the Medal of Honor, Mr. Hudner was awarded a Bronze Star and Legion of Merit, among other honors. Throughout his life, though, he continued to downplay the glory that had come his way.
The men he'd served with "would do anything for one another," he said in one interview. Many more likely deserved medals, too, he added, even though the public had never heard of them. "All these guys have stories. The music may be different, but it's all the same story."
Emily Sweeney of Globe staff contributed to this obituary.
Another piece of history on the battles around Guadalcanal in October 1942 thanks to Admiral Cox
H011.1 Guadalcanal: Victory at Cape Esperance (sort of) – 11/12 Oct 1942
S.J. Cox
22 Oct 17
19 Aug
   Although Admiral Chester Nimitz, Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, was rightly known for his even-tempered, gentlemanly leadership style, it is less well remembered that he had nerves of steel and ice-water in his veins when the situation required, and he was single-minded in his drive to engage with and defeat the enemy.  Not long after the debacle at the Battle of Savo Island, as U.S. navy forces were licking their wounds and had essentially ceded the night waters around Guadalcanal to the Japanese, Nimitz issued the following directive on 19 Aug 1942;
    "Suitable targets present themselves only rarely to our guns, bombs and torpedoes.  On those rare occasions our tactics must be such that our objective will be gunned, bombed or torpedoed to destruction.  Surely we will have losses – but we will also destroy ships and be that much nearer to the successful conclusion of the war.  We cannot expect to inflict heavy losses on the enemy without ourselves accepting the risk of punishment. To win this war we must come to grips with the enemy.  Courage, determination and action, will see us through."
   Since Sailors on ships don't get to decide when to fight, Nimitz' message was clearly directed at the commander of U.S. forces in the South Pacific Area, Vice Admiral Robert Ghormley, the commander of the U.S. carrier task force (CTF-61,) Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, and the commander of the U.S. Amphibious Force (CTF-62,) RADM Richmond Kelly Turner, none of whom appeared to "get" Nimitz' intent.  Although Kelly sent multiple risky supply runs in to Guadalcanal, Fletcher spent most of his time out of range of Japanese land-based aviation (and too far to provide regular close support to Guadalcanal) while steaming around in submarine-infested waters.  To be fair to both commanders, a severe shortage of fuel oil adversely affected their operations, but after the Battle of Savo Island (and a couple subsequent smaller night battles that went badly for the U.S.) Ghormley considered it too dangerous to risk U.S. surface ships in night action around Guadalcanal to interdict the frequent runs by the Japanese "Tokyo Express" bringing reinforcements and supplies by destroyer to the Japanese army forces on Guadalcanal that were attempting to dislodge the U.S. Marines. Although the Japanese Army repeatedly underestimated the force levels required to eject the Marines, nevertheless the increasing numbers and supplies made it increasingly more difficult for the Marines to hold the island in the face of repeated Japanese attacks.
    After what both Nimitz and CNO King viewed as a lackluster performance at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, and after he was slightly wounded when his flagship USS Saratoga (CV-3) was torpedoed and put out of action on 31 Aug, Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher was promoted to Vice Admiral and then sent back to the states where he never held combat command again.  His successor as commander of the carrier task force, RADM Leigh Noyes, didn't last much longer, being relieved after the USS Wasp (CV-7) was torpedoed and sunk on 15 Sep.  Ghormley's days were numbered too.  After a major command conference held on Ghormley's flagship, the USS Argonne (AG-31) at Noumea, French New Caledonia on 28 Sep 42, Nimitz' concern increased that Ghormley (a close friend) lacked the fortitude and aggressiveness needed for the job, as well as the physical stamina.  Nimitz then flew to Guadalcanal (where Ghormley had not yet been) to see for himself the conditions on the ground.  Nimitz clearly recognized the extreme challenges in getting sufficient supplies to the island, but also identified a long list of things that could be done, that weren't being done, to improve the situation, which Nimitz then handed to Ghormley on his way back to Hawaii.  In response to pressure from Nimitz, Ghormley issued an order on 5 Oct to Rear Admiral Norman Scott to take a task group of cruisers and destroyers into the approaches to Guadalcanal and interdict the next Tokyo Express run.
     Fortuitously, RADM Scott, an aggressive commander in the mold Nimitz was looking for, had spent the previous several weeks in intensive night training, trying to make up for two previous decades where the U.S. Navy mostly avoided realistic night training.  In fact, U.S. doctrine specifically called for cruisers to avoid night fighting, and destroyers were to engage only when necessary (and withhold using their torpedoes for "high value" units.)  Scott's efforts would get their test on the night of 11-12 Oct 1942.
   The Japanese had quickly realized that any supply ships, even fast destroyer-transports, were at serious risk if they were caught during daylight by U.S. Marine and Navy aircraft flying from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal.  After a couple night attacks by U.S. aircraft, the Japanese also determined that running the missions when the moon was full was a bad idea (reaching this conclusion at the same time that Brigadier General Roy Geiger, USMC, commander of U.S. aircraft on Guadalcanal, banned further night time attacks as too dangerous due to several operational losses.)  As a result, Tokyo Express runs were timed to go about every three days during the dark phase of the moon.
   The Japanese planned for a major coordinated Army and Navy offensive to retake Guadalcanal timed for mid-October. To do so, the Japanese needed to get more reinforcements and at least some heavy artillery onto the island, and to suppress air operations from Henderson Field.  So, the Japanese operation on 11-12 October, was much more than the typical 5-6 destroyer "Tokyo Express" run.  The Japanese sent two task groups; a reinforcement group and a bombardment group.  For reasons that made sense only to the Japanese, the reinforcement group went first and the bombardment followed several hours later.  The reinforcement group, consisting of the seaplane tenders Nisshin and Chitose (serving as transports, with cranes to get heavy artillery off) and six destroyers carrying hundreds of troops, was sighted by U.S. scout aircraft, although the seaplane tenders were misidentified as cruisers (so RADM Scott knew he was facing more than a normal Tokyo Express) and their speed was miscalculated so that they arrived off Guadalcanal faster than Scott expected, and before Scott arrived to interdict.  So important did the Japanese consider this group, that the last six Zero's providing air cover were ordered to stay on station until after nightfall and ditch when they ran out of gas; five of the pilots perished.
    The Japanese bombardment group, under the command of RADM Aritomo Goto and consisting of three heavy cruisers (flagship Aoba, Furutaka, and Kinugasa, all among the victors at the Battle of Savo Island,) and two destroyers remained undetected by U.S. scout aircraft as they passed through a gauntlet of rain showers. When the reinforcement group arrived off Guadalcanal, they reported that there were no American ships present, which reinforced Goto's false sense of security.
  In the meantime, RADM Scott's cruiser-destroyer force transited up the west coast of Guadalcanal, where it was sighted by the surprised Japanese submarine I-26, which submerged rapidly before issuing a contact report; when it surfaced to do so it was too late.  Scott's force consisted of nine ships in single line-ahead formation, with destroyers USS Farenholt (DD-491,) USS Duncan (DD-485,) and USS Laffey (DD-459) in the lead, followed by four cruisers, the flagship heavy cruiser USS San Francisco (CA-38,) light cruiser USS Boise (CL-47,) heavy cruiser USS Salt Lake City (CA-25,) and light cruiser USS Helena (CL-50).  Two destroyers, USS Buchanan (DD-484) and USS McCalla (DD-488) followed behind the cruisers.
  The Boise and Helena were each equipped with the newer SG radar (centimetric wave,) which was much more accurate and less prone to false alarms than the older SC radars (metric-wave) on the San Francisco and Salt Lake City (although the "older" SC radars were only a year old.)  RADM Scott had also been mistakenly informed that the Japanese had receivers that could detect the SC radar (they didn't,) which would give the Japanese the edge on warning.  As a result, Scott ordered the SC radars turned off so as not to give away his presence, an order that Salt Lake City either didn't get or ignored.  Regardless, Scott did not have a radar picture on board the San Francisco until after the battle started.  Scott also previously ordered all four cruisers to off-load all but one each of their catapult-launched scout float-planes, to avoid what happened at Savo Island where burning float planes essentially divided the ships in two and served as beacons for additional Japanese fire.  Scott ordered the remaining float planes to launch after dark to search for the Japanese.  The plane from Salt Lake City caught fire and crashed immediately after launch, but fortunately the Japanese reinforcement group was already around the corner on the north side of Guadalcanal, so did not see the flames, nor did the approaching bombardment group, which was in a rain squall.  Helena didn't get the word to launch, and jettisoned her plane over the side.  Boise's plane developed engine trouble and set down north of Guadalcanal, where it observed the rest of the battle from the water.  At 2250, San Francisco's plane sighted the reinforcement group north of Guadalcanal and her report caused confusion because the Japanese were not expected to be there yet.  The reinforcement group failed to report the presence of a scout plane to RADM Goto.
    As Scott transited northward just west of the strait between Guadalcanal and Savo Island, the Japanese reinforcement group was already past him unseen to the east, while the Japanese bombardment group was approaching from the west, the direction from which Scott was expecting a Japanese force of some kind to come.  The Japanese cruisers were in a line-ahead formation with Aoba in the lead, followed by Furutaka and Kinugasa, while the two destroyers screened slightly ahead on each flank.  Right before Scott gave the order for his formation to conduct a column turn and reverse course to stay within the strait, and unbeknownst to him, radar on Helena and then Boise began detecting the Japanese ships approaching from the northwest.  As related in the introduction, Scott's order immediately went wrong.  Instead of following the lead destroyers into the column turn, flagship San Francisco immediately turned to port.  Captain Edward J. "Mike" Moran on Boise, following behind San Francisco had to make a quick decision, either do what the admiral ordered and follow the destroyers into the column turn, or do what the flagship was doing and stay behind the San Francisco into her turn.  He chose the latter, as did the rest of the ships in the formation.  Captain Robert Tobin, the destroyer squadron leader on Farenholt then had to guess what he was supposed to do, so he led the three destroyers in a port turn to reverse course coming up alongside the U.S. cruisers, between them and the approaching Japanese, although Duncan spun out alone into the darkness.
   The San Francisco's mistake actually resulted in Scott being in position to cross Goto's "T."  Had the U.S. ships correctly executed the column turn, which would have taken longer, the two forces would have approached each other on a perpendicular collision course, and Goto might even have crossed Scott's "T."  Scott delayed opening fire while he tried to determine exactly where his lead destroyers were.  The picture was further clouded as U.S. ships reported relative and true bearings of Japanese ships interchangeably.  Goto remained convinced that the ships his lookouts were reporting ahead (initially at 11,000 yards) had to be the Japanese reinforcement group since American ships had not operated in force off Guadalcanal at night since their thrashing at Savo Island two months earlier.  Goto was still not convinced even after his lookouts at 7,000 yards reported that the ships were enemy, and he ordered his flagship Aoba to flash her recognition lights and signal her identity via flashing light.  (For whatever reason, the U.S. ships did not seem to have seen this, apparently while staring at their radar scopes.) 
   As the two forces closed to within 4,500 yards, CAPT Gilbert C. Hoover on Helena, convinced that the ships he was seeing to west were Japanese and not U.S. destroyers, requested permission to open fire. Hoover misinterpreted Scott's acknowledgment of the transmission as permission, and opened fire at 2345.  Other U.S. ships followed suit.  Scott then spent the next several minutes trying, unsuccessfully, to order a cease-fire.  Farenholt, caught in the line of fire, received some damage from rounds impacting her masts and one in her hull which were intended for the Japanese cruisers beyond, while Laffey went to an emergency backing bell to get out of the line of fire.
    Although Goto had ordered his ships to go to general quarters as a precaution, he was still caught by surprise and unprepared.  His guns were still trained fore and aft, still loaded with anti-personnel bombardment rounds, when his flagship was savaged by repeated hits from the Americans.  The Furutaka turned to parallel in the same direction as the American course, valiantly interposing herself between the Americans and the Japanese flagship, and paid the price.  Aoba would ultimately survive (with over 40 hits and 79 dead,) but Furutaka would not.  The Japanese destroyer on the starboard side of the Japanese formation, the Fubuki, took a severe pounding and would sink too (Fubuki had been instrumental in sinking the heavy cruiser USS Houston (CA-30) during the Battle of Sunda Strait on 1 Mar 42.)  In a rare event by that time of the war, 111 of Fubuki's crew would be rescued by the Americans the next day and become prisoners of war.
     As the Aoba limped away under cover of a smoke screen, and the Furutaka was smothered in U.S. shellfire (hit over 90 times, with 258 dead,) the third cruiser in the Japanese line, the Kinugasa, opted to turn parallel but in the opposite direction as the American line, quickly taking her out of the close range fight.  Kinugasa then proceeded to give a demonstration of accurate Japanese nighttime shooting, and fired several torpedoes at Helena and Boise, which successfully maneuvered to avoid.   Kinugasa received only a few hits, much less than she inflicted.   Kinugasa repeatedly straddled the Boise forward, stressing her hull.  Then she hit and jammed Boise's number one turret and ignited a fire; as the crew of burning turret one attempted abandoned it, they were cut down by another hit.  Yet another shell hit Boise below the waterline.  This was a special Type 91 shell, which was specifically designed to do exactly what it did, hit short and hole the target below the waterline.  In a freak combination, the hits were both devastating and saved the ship.  The first hits resulted in a flash fire that incinerated the entire crews of turrets one and two, over a hundred men, and threatened a magazine explosion.  Only the discipline and training of Boise's crew in how they handled powder prevented an instant explosion.  Captain Moran ordered the forward magazines flooded, but the men who would carry out that order were dead.  But the hole and cracks below the waterline flooded the magazine before it could detonate.  Nevertheless, the fire was so great, that observers on other ships assumed Boise was lost.  Like the Furutaka, the Salt Lake City placed herself between the burning Boise and the Japanese, and took a couple hits from Kinugasa as a result.
     As the battle was starting, the destroyer Duncan (second in line) had become separated from the other two leading destroyers, at which point she sighted Japanese ships, probably the Kinugasa and a destroyer.  Alone and lacking any orders, the skipper of Duncan, LCDR Edmund B. Taylor, decided to conduct a solo torpedo attack.  Just as Duncan was in position to launch her torpedoes she took a devastating series of hits from both Japanese and American shells, which knocked out the gun director among other things, and one of her torpedoes actually launched into her own forward stack.  With the flames forward out of control, the only means of escape from the advancing flames for the bridge crew was to jump directly into the water from the bridge.  Meanwhile the crew aft of the blaze continued to try to fight the fire, and fight the ship at the same time, guns still blazing.  Eventually, however, the flames forced all the survivors into the water.  The next day, the destroyer USS McCalla found the burned out hull of Duncan still afloat, without her crew, and sent a boat with a damage control party aboard to try to save the ship; they were driven off when it became apparent that the forward magazine was in danger of exploding.  195 of Duncan's valiant crew were ultimately rescued, but 48 were lost.  LCDR Taylor would be awarded a Navy Cross.  (Taylor's son, Captain Edmund R. Taylor, Jr. would be killed in the same helicopter crash that took the life of RADM Rembrandt Robinson in the Gulf of Tonkin in May 1972.)
    As the remains of Goto's force withdrew to the northwest, Scott initially turned to follow, but believing that they had sunk more Japanese ships then were actually involved, and concerned over the fate of the Boise and Duncan, he opted to withdraw to the south.  (Japanese sinking claims were just as inflated.)  The Japanese force received orders to turn around and attack, which they were in no condition to do, and after a brief period of advance to save face, Kinugasa turned about to retreat.  The Japanese did send two destroyers to search for survivors of Furutaka, which were caught and bombed by U.S. aircraft at dawn, and one (Murakumo) was immobilized.  Two more Japanese destroyers came to the rescue, and they too were bombed, sinking Natsugumo before Murakumo finally sank too, bringing total Japanese losses in the battle to one heavy cruiser and three destroyers, and 565 men, for the loss of one U.S. destroyer, and 163 American dead.  The loss of a heavy cruiser in a night surface action was a profound shock to the Japanese, who had come to believe themselves to be nearly invincible at night.  It was also a huge morale boost to the U.S. Navy, who had finally proved that the Japanese were not invincible at night.
    Nevertheless, the American's took away some bad lessons.  Most importantly, because of the surprise, the Japanese were not able to mount an effective torpedo attack, so the U.S. remained oblivious to the real power and range of the Japanese Long Lance torpedo; and a line of nine American ships all in a column would have made a great target (especially with Boise and Helena's near-continuous gunfire flashes acting as a beacon) had the Japanese not been thrown into total chaos in the opening moments of the battle.  The U.S. would use that formation again, and suffer for it several times.  (To be fair though, Japanese RADM Mikawa had used a single column formation to great effect at Savo Island, because it was the most simple to control, and even he lost control of it.)  Scott's choice of the San Francisco as flagship (the "traditional" choice since she was the largest ship in the force) which did not have the most modern radar, would also be repeated in future battles.  Nevertheless, numerous practical lessons were learned about communications, gunnery and ship-handling necessary to fight at night.  Despite the chaotic aspects of the battle, Scott was the first U.S. commander who could claim to have engaged a major Japanese surface force in battle (night or day) and won.
    Meanwhile, however, the Japanese reinforcement group successfully completed its mission unmolested, putting ashore hundreds of Japanese troops, and four 15cm (approx 6") artillery pieces, which were the first that could reach the western end of Henderson field from Japanese lines; and they opened fire the next night, presaging a far more devastating bombardment to follow.       
Item Number:1 Date: 11/14/2017 AFGHANISTAN - TALIBAN ATTACKS IN KANDAHAR WOUND AMERICANS, KILL AFGHAN POLICE (NOV 14/MILTIMES)  MILITARY TIMES -- The NATO-led mission in Afghanistan says four U.S. soldiers have been wounded in Kandahar province, Afghanistan, reports Military Timess.   "We can confirm reports that a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device detonated in Kandahar province at approximately 2 p.m. [Monday]," said a spokesman for the Resolute Support mission.   A suicide vehicle hit a military convoy near the air base in Kandahar, said a provincial official cited by Stars and Stripes.   The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack.   Police in Kandhar also reported that a series of Taliban attacks in the province on Monday killed 22 officers and wounded 15 at various checkpoints, reported the Daily Excelsior (Kashmir).  
  Item Number:2 Date: 11/14/2017 BURMA - ARMY REPLACES RAKHINE GENERAL, DENIES ATROCITY ALLEGATIONS (NOV 14/SKY)  SKY NEWS -- The Burmese army has transferred the general responsible for the western Rakhine state, where hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims have been fleeing to neighboring Bangladesh, reports Sky News (U.K.).   The army provided no justification for its decision announced Monday to replace Maj. Gen. Maung Maung Soe as head of the Western Command.   The general was placed into a reserve position and replaced by Brig. Gen. Soe Ting Naing, a Defense Ministry spokesman told Reuters.   In a report released on Monday, the army denied the allegations of rape and killings by security forces, noted Reuters.   Around 600,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled the region due to a military crackdown that human-rights groups have likened to "ethnic cleansing."   The army launched a major operation in late August after Rohingya militants attacked more than 20 police posts, killing 12 officers.   The army has since carried out a "targeted campaign of widespread and systematic murder, rape and burning," according to Amnesty International
Item Number:3 Date: 11/14/2017 DENMARK - PARLIAMENT'S WATCHDOG QUESTIONS COSTS OF F-35 AS WELL AS ITS EFFICIENCY (NOV 14/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- Denmark's national audit agency has raised questions regarding the decision-making process that led to the government's selection of the F-35A Lightning II as the Royal Danish Air Force's next-generation fighter, reports Defense News.   The Rigsrevisionen agency wants the government to explain if the Ministry of Defense fully accounted for defense and accounting risks inherent in a purchase of such size.   The agency is the Parliament's watchdog.   The Danish government reached a decision in June 2016 to acquire 27 F-35As at a cost of $3.1 billion. The F-35As will replace the current 29 or 30 F-16s.   A key question raised is whether the 27 new aircraft can address all of the nation's defense needs and obligations. The watchdog also cited maintenance costs over the life of the purchase, estimated by the Ministry of Defense at roughly US$10 billion over 30 years.   The government remains fully committed to proceeding with plans to acquire the F-35A, but will look into these conclusions, said Defense Minister Claus Hjort Frederiksen.  
Item Number:4 Date: 11/14/2017 ERITREA - U.N. REPORT CITES AID BY EMIRATIS, OTHERS TO ERITREAN MILITARY; SUCH HELP IS BANNED BY ARMS EMBARGO (NOV 14/BLOOMBERG)  BLOOMBERG NEWS -- U.N. investigators say that the Eritrean military has received foreign assistance from the United Arab Emirates, and possibly Czech, Italian and Russian companies despite prohibitions by the world body, reports Bloomberg News.   Thirteen Eritrean air force and navy cadets received training at Emirati military colleges and seven at Emirati engineering institutions between 2012 and 2015, the investigators said in a Nov. 8 report to the U.N. Security Council.   The report cites testimony from five cadets who defected.   The U.A.E. has been building a military base in Eritrea, points out the report. The port facilities appeared to be nearly complete based on satellite photos in September.   Emirati tanks and artillery have also been seen between the port facilities and an airport that is under development, says the report.   Eritrea has been under U.N. sanctions since 2009, following allegations that the government of President Isaias Afwerki supported Al-Qaida-linked militants in Somalia.   U.N. monitors said two years ago that the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen might have been offering Eritrea financial compensation for the use of its land, airspace and territorial waters.   A government spokesman replied to Bloomberg queries criticizing the "unwarranted sanctions based on false allegations" that it supported Al-Shabaab.  
  Item Number:5 Date: 11/14/2017 EUROPEAN UNION - 23 STATES SIGN DEFENSE COOPERATION ACCORD; 5 MEMBERS DECLINE TO DO SO (NOV 14/RFE/RL)  RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY -- The foreign and defense ministers of 23 European Union member countries have signed an agreement aimed at strengthening defense cooperation within the international organization, reports Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.   The accord was signed on Monday during a meeting in Brussels. The Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) on security and defense project seeks to deepen cooperation and improve coordination on military technology development.   The initiative is expected to be officially launched when E.U. leaders meet in Brussels on Dec. 14 and 15.   The agreement, which has been in development for more than a year, is part of an effort led by France and Germany to strengthen defense ties as the U.K. prepares to leave the bloc.   The Brexit move and President Trump's pressure on European allies to spend more on defense prompted the E.U. member states to act, said unnamed E.U. diplomats.   Monday's notification letter describes the accord as "an ambitious, binding, and inclusive European legal framework for investment in the security and defense of the E.U.'s territory and its citizens."   The agreement also provides a key "political framework" for member states to enhance their military assets and defense capabilities through coordinated initiatives.   The Wall Street Journal cited previous collaborative efforts with mixed results and a number of dubious observers about this plan. Paris leans toward deeper cooperation; Berlin wants a less integrated effort, noted the paper.   Participation in PESCO is voluntary and those countries that do not choose to join now will be able to take part later, officials said.   Ireland, Malta and Portugal have yet to join. Denmark and Britain, which have long had an opt-out on defense matters, are also not expected to participate.   Non-E.U. members may be able to participate in specific activities, but would have no role in decision-making.   Anticipated projects under the PESCO aegis include a European medical command; network of logistics hubs around the continent; a European crisis response center; and joint officer training. It could also lead to joint operations and consolidation in European defense industry, said officials
Item Number:6 Date: 11/14/2017 GERMANY - PIRATES FREE 6 KIDNAPPED CREWMEN OF CONTAINER SHIP AFTER 2.5 WEEKS (NOV 14/DEWELLE)  DEUTSCHE WELLE -- A German shipping company says pirates have released six crewmembers of a commercial ship who were kidnapped off the coast of Nigeria in October, reports Deutsche Welle.   The pirates attacked the container ship Demeter on Oct. 21 and released the six captives after 2.5 weeks, according to Peter Doehler Schiffahrts-KG, which owns the ship, as reported by the Maritime Executive on Monday.   All six were in good condition and returned to their families, a company spokesman said. No information on when and why the men were released was provided.   The Demeter was sailing near Port Harcourt when it was attacked. The six taken were the captain, second officer, chief mate, second engineer, bosun and cook; the other 12 were left onboard.   The Liberian-registered ship was sailing from Equatorial Guinea to Liberia when it was attacked, noted Agence France-Presse
  Item Number:7 Date: 11/14/2017 IRAQ - KURDISH GOVERNMENT SEES IRAQI COURT DECISION SERVING AS BASIS FOR DIALOGUE (NOV 14/RUDAW)  RUDAW -- The Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) in northern Iraq says it respects a recent Iraqi federal court ruling barring secession and looks forward to a new round of negotiations on the region's future in the country, reports Rudaw (Iraqi Kurdistan).   The KRG said Tuesday that the Nov. 6 ruling, which stated that no Iraqi province can secede, could form the basis for a new round of negotiations "in a way that guarantees all rights, authorities and status mentioned in the constitution."   The KRG statement added that such a focus of minority rights under the constitution "is the only way to secure the unity of Iraq."   Iraqi Kurds voted overwhelmingly for independence in September, but forces from Baghdad quickly reasserted control of many of the territories under Kurdish control.  
  Item Number:8 Date: 11/14/2017 ISRAEL - SAUDIS DIDN'T PRESSURE ABBAS, INSIST PALESTINIAN OFFICIALS (NOV 14/ALJAZ)  AL JAZEERA -- Palestinian leaders have rejected Israeli media accounts suggesting that Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas was pressured by Saudi Arabia to accept a peace deal, reports Al Jazeera.   Israel's Channel 10 reported on Sunday that Saudi officials had pushed Abbas to accept a Saudi-U.S. peace deal during his recent visit to the kingdom.   A spokesman for Fatah, Abbas' party, said that the report was false, adding that the Saudis stood united in support of a future Palestinian state
Item Number:9 Date: 11/14/2017 JAPAN - TOKYO CHAIRS MEETING OF SENIOR AUSTRALIAN, INDIAN, JAPANESE, U.S. OFFICIALS (NOV 14/DIPLOMAT)  DIPLOMAT -- For the first time since 2007, top officials from Australia, India, Japan and the U.S. have met in a quadrilateral format, reports the Diplomat (Tokyo).   The senior officials discussed regional and global cooperation on Nov. 11 on the sidelines of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and East Asia Summits in Manila, the capital of the Philippines.   The 2007 meeting, also in Manila, was unable to sustain momentum after China expressed concerns about what Beijing saw as an attempt at containment.   Last week's meeting was primarily the result of renewed interest by Japan and reciprocal interest in the other three countries. The Japanese delegation chaired the meeting.   The talks covered seven themes: rules-based order in Asia; freedom of navigation and overflight in the maritime commons; respect for international law; enhancing connectivity; maritime security; the North Korean threat and nonproliferation; and terrorism.   The meeting kept an eye on China, noted the Press Trust of India.   A spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry complained that regional cooperation should not be politicized or exclusionary, reported the South China Morning Post.  
  Item Number:10 Date: 11/14/2017 RUSSIA - NAVY STEPS UP 'AQUANAUT' TRAINING FOR DEEPWATER DIVING (NOV 14/INT-AVN)  INTERFAX-MILITARY NEWS AGENCY -- The Russian navy has started to train its divers for operations at depths of more than 1,300 feet (400 meters), reports Interfax-AVN.   The training is based around the experience of divers operating at depths of at least 1,000 feet (300 meters) from the rescue vessel Igor Belousov earlier this year, said Capt. 1st Rank Damir Shaikhutdinov, the head of the navy's central command, on Nov. 10.   Divers who complete the deepwater training will receive the "aquanaut" qualification, he said.   Next year, drivers could begin making dives deeper than 400 meters, which is needed to operate the GVK-450 deepwater diver system, which is carried by the Igor Belousev, the captain said
Item Number:11 Date: 11/14/2017 SYRIA - DOZENS DIE AS REBEL-HELD TOWN REPEATEDLY HIT BY AIRSTRIKES (NOV 14/ABCRAN)  ABC RADIO AUSTRALIA NEWS -- Dozens of people have been killed in an attack on a rebel-held town in northern Syria, reports ABC News (Australia).   Eyewitnesses said there were three separate attacks in the town on Monday. The town in Aleppo province is largely held by opposition forces and a group formerly affiliated with Al-Qaida, noted the BBC.   The strikes hit the market of Atareb, about 16 miles west of the provincial capital, also named Aleppo. At least 53 people were killed according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.   The area is located within Damascus' sphere of operations. It was not immediately clear who carried out the attack. The area is supposed to be part of a de-escalation zone set up earlier this year by Russia, Iran and Turkey.  
  Item Number:12 Date: 11/14/2017 TURKEY - COVERING ITS BASES, ANKARA OPTS FOR BOTH RUSSIAN, EUROPEAN AIR DEFENSES (NOV 14/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- After long consideration and maneuvering, Turkey has decided to purchase both a Russian-made air defense system and one from Europe, reports DefenseNews.com.   Defense Minister Nurettin Canikli said on Nov. 11 that Ankara had finalized a deal to purchase the S-400 from Russia. The deal is expected to be worth between US$2 and 2.5 billion, say procurement officials.   Meanwhile, Turkey, Italy and France have agreed to work jointly to create a Turkish LORAMIDS system based on based on the Eurosam SAMP/T, according to a Nov. 9 statement from the company.   Turkish companies Aselsan and Roketsan will cooperate in that effort
Item Number:13 Date: 11/14/2017 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES - 80 AIR FORCE F-16S IN LINE FOR US$1.6 BILLION UPGRADE, SAYS DEFENSE MINISTRY (NOV 14/NATIONAL)  THE NATIONAL -- The United Arab Emirates has finalized a contract with Lockheed Martin to modernize its F-16 fighters, reports the National (Abu Dhabi).   On Sunday, the U.A.E. military said it signed a US$1.6 billion contract to upgrade 80 F-16 Block 60 fighters.   The announcement was made at a news conference at the Dubai air show.   The upgrade will focus on obsolescence issues with the aircraft, said Maj. Gen. Abdullah Al-Hashimi, the executive director of the Emirati military committee, as quoted by Aviation Week & Space Technology.  
Item Number:14 Date: 11/14/2017 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES - AIR FORCE POTENTIAL RESTRUCTURING LINKED TO BUYING F-35S (NOV 14/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- The United Arab Emirates air force is considering a modernization plan in response to potential threats, reports Defense News.   "We are currently forming a specialized committee to assess the risks, threats and needs of the U.A.E. air force," and then evaluate available platforms, an unnamed Emirati military source told the paper.   The service needs to strengthen its air capacity, including "connected, multi-role platforms with the ability to share data, enhanced intelligence collection and distribution of the capabilities, a responsive and persistent C4ISR [command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance] and a timely and reactive dynamic targeting process," Brig. Gen. Rashed Al Shamsi, the deputy air force commander, said at this week's Dubai air show.   Some of the planning is linked to a potential purchase of F-35 Joint Strike Fighters. The U.A.E. is seeking authorization to buy the advanced F-35 from the United States. Such a deal would initially be limited to two squadrons or 24 aircraft, said sources.   The Emirati air force reportedly plans to upgrade its pilot training schools with a field training program focused on air encounters similar to those employed by countries in Europe and the U.S
Item Number:15 Date: 11/14/2017 USA - AMERICAN MILITARY WILL BATTLE ISIS IN SYRIA AS LONG AS THE TERRORISTS WANT TO FIGHT, SAYS MATTIS (NOV 14/XIN)  XINHUA -- The U.S. will keep battling Islamic State in Syria as long as the terrorists want to fight, says U.S. Defense Secretary James Mattis, as reported by Xinhua, China's state news agency.   "The enemy hasn't declared that they're done with the area yet, so we'll keep fighting as long as they want to fight," Mattis told reporters at the Pentagon on Monday.   While ISIS has lost much of its territory in the region, it continues to fight for control of Abu Kamal, a town on the Iraqi border. Mattis emphasized that even after the terror group's defeat, comprehensive efforts would be needed to prevent the rise of a similar group.   He praised efforts to demilitarize the conflict in Syria's southwest, saying that such approaches could be broadened in the future.  
Item Number:16 Date: 11/14/2017 USA - ARMY PROGRAM AIMS FOR MORE POTENT 155-MM ARTILLERY ROUNDS WITH BETTER ACCURACY (NOV 14/ARMY)  ARMY TIMES -- Army researchers say they are increasing the range and lethality of 155-mm artillery rounds, reports the Army Times.   The Cannon-Delivered Area Effects Munition program was kicked off last year by Program Executive Office-Ammunition.   Production of the new munitions is expected to begin in 2020, but upgrades and off-the-shelf substitutes could start as soon as 2018, officials said.   Program officials say the upgrading seeks to use the latest technology to improve artillery accuracy, especially in areas with degraded or nonexistent GPS targeting; adding range with advanced rocket-assisted projectiles; and increasing lethality while remaining in compliance with unexploded ordnance requirements.   The researchers say they are currently building a new rocket-assisted projectile that could hit targets at a range of 24 miles (39 km), at least 6 miles (10 km) further than current rounds.   The Army is accelerating development of the XM1128 extended-range high-explosive projectile and procuring certain advanced rounds and grenade-carrying rounds produced by companies in Sweden and Israel.   Researchers are also working on cluster munition replacement technologies.  
  Item Number:17 Date: 11/14/2017 USA - USCG ACCEPTS 26TH SENTINEL-CLASS CUTTER, JOSEPH GERCZAK (NOV 14/USCG)  U.S. COAST GUARD -- The U.S. Coast Guard has taken delivery of its 26th Sentinel-class fast response cutter.   The Joseph Gerczak was handed over on Nov. 9 in Key West, Fla. She was delivered with no production discrepancies, indicating improved stability and efficiency in the production process, said a Coast Guard release.   The cutter was delivered by the Bollinger Shipyards, Lockport, La., which connoted commissioning is scheduled for March 9, 2018, in Honolulu, Hawaii.   The cutter will be the second in the class to be stationed in Honolulu.   The vessel is named after Joseph Gerczak, who was killed while defending the LST-66 amphibious ship from Japanese bombers during an assault on Borgen Bay in New Britain in Papua New Guinea on Dec. 26, 1943.   He shot down two of the attackers before being fatally wounded by shrapnel from an explosion, noted the service release. Gerczak was posthumously awarded the Purple Heart and Silver Star.   The Coast Guard plans to buy 58 Sentinel-class cutters, with 44 already ordered and 24 in service
Item Number:18 Date: 11/14/2017 YEMEN - ISIS SUICIDE ATTACK IN ADEN KILLS 6 (NOV 14/REU)  REUTERS -- At least six people are dead and dozens wounded after a suicide car bomb attack in the southern Yemeni city of Aden, reports Reuters.   Tuesday's attack ripped through a building used by local security forces in the al-Mansoura district in northern Aden, said local officials. The forces are cooperating with Saudi-led coalition forces fighting to restore the internationally-recognized government of Abed Rabbou Hadi Mansour.   Witnesses said two bombers were involved. Islamic State, in a statement taking responsibility for the attack, said there was one suicide bomber
Item Number:19 Date: 11/14/2017 YEMEN - SAUDI-LED COALITION TO LIFT BLOCKADE ON GOVERNMENT-HELD PORTS, AIRPORTS (NOV 14/ARAB)  ARAB NEWS -- The Saudi-led coalition fighting in the Yemeni civil war says it will soon open its blockade of ports and airports that was imposed last week, reports Arab News.   Speaking on Monday in New York, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the U.N. Abdallah al-Mouallimi said ports and airports held by the internationally recognized government of Abed Rabbu Mansour Hadi would be opened within 24 hours.   The blockade was imposed after an attack on Nov. 5 on the Saudi capital of Riyadh by a missile believed to have originate in Yemen.   The areas covered by the change include ports in Aden, Mukala and Al-Mokha, as well as airports in Aden, Seiyun and the island of Socotra. It would not include the Houthi-controlled port of Hodeidah, a transit point for some 80 percent of Yemen's food supplies.   Al-Mouallimi also requested a U.N. delegation visit Riyadh to review the Saudi-led coalition's inspection measures and to discuss ways to make sure weapons are not smuggled in, reported the Daily Mail (U.K.).   Saudi Arabia leads a coalition supporting Hadi against Shi'ite Houthi rebels from the Yemen's north
Item Number:20 Date: 11/14/2017 ZIMBABWE - MILITARY CHIEF WARNS AGAINST PARTY PURGES, THREATENS TO INTERVENE (NOV 14/PREM)  PREMIUM TIMES -- Zimbabwe's army chief has warned President Robert Mugabe to end the purge in the ruling party, threatening that the military could step in, reports Premium Times (Nigeria).   On Monday, Gen. Constantino Chiwenga demanded an end to a growing string of firings in the party. The Zanu-PF (Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front) has ruled the country since independence.   The general made his comments at the army's headquarters in Harare, saying the "current purging" is "clearly targeting members of the party with a liberation background," as quoted by AFP.   Chiwenga did not mention any leaders by name, noted the BBC. The speech comes one week after Mugabe sacked his deputy, Emmerson Mnangagwa, widely seen as a potential successor. Mugabe's wife, Grace, now appears poised to succeed the President.   Chiwnega's speech was aggressively blocked on state and social media, reports the Zimbabwe Mail.  

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