Wednesday, October 4, 2017

TheList 4559

The List 4559


To All
I hope your week has started well.
Regards,
Skip
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This Day in Naval History - October 3
1921 - USS Olympia sails for France to bring home the Unknown Soldier from World War I
1944 - USS Shelton (DE 407) is sunk by Japanese submarine off Morotai Island, Indonesia. During anti-submarine operations, USS Richard M. Rowell (DE 403) accidentally sinks USS Seawolf (SS 197), which is transporting U.S. Army personnel to the east coast of Samar. There are no survivors among the more than 100 crew and passengers.
1955 - USS Saipan (CVL-48) begins disaster relief at Tampico, Mexico rescuing people and delivering supplies. Operations ends 10 October.
1962 - Launch of Sigma 7 (Mercury 8) piloted by CDR Walter M. Schirra, Jr., USN. In a mission lasting 9 hours and 13 minutes, he made 6 orbits at an altitude up to 175.8 statute miles at 17,558 mph. Recovery by USS Kearsarge (CVS-33).
 
With our thanks to THE Bear at http://www.rollingthunderremembered.com/
 
Misty Vietnam Fast FACs – Unofficial History
October 3, 2017   Mighty Thunder 
Misty Vietnam – Unofficial History
Historians have a hard time defining the exact dates of the war in Vietnam. When the Vietnamese defeated the French at the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, Americans began to fill the western power vacuum in an effort to keep Southeast Asia from falling to the Communists. When President Kennedy was elected, he sent advisors; then, sent more advisors, and the U.S. became officially "involved". 1964 saw the infamous Gulf of Tonkin incident, when, according to President Lyndon Johnson, North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked an American ship. Congress passed the "Gulf of Tonkin Resolution," and the President committed U.S. troops.
"Misty" was the radio callsign used by the F-100F Fast Forward Air Controllers (Fast FACs) during the Vietnam War. There were 157 pilots officially assigned to fly missions over North Vietnam from 15 June 1967 – 19 May 1970. 21 other attached pilots flew occasional missions. There were also Intelligence Officers, Flight Surgeons, and Maintenance Officers assigned. It was a small, tight-knit group of special people given a difficult task in a terrible war. Of the 157 Mistys, 34 were shot down (22%). Eight others were shot down when not flying with Misty (total 28%). Two Mistys were shot down twice. There were seven KIA, four POWs, and [as of Jan '10] 42 are now deceased. There was also one Medal of Honor winner, two Air Force Chiefs of Staff, six general officers, a winner of the Collier Trophy, the Louis Bleriot Medal, the Presidential Citizen's Medal of Honor, and the first man to fly non-stop, un-refueled around the world. By any measure this was an unusual group of men
Mighty Thunder is proud to provide RTR readers with the link below for the full story on the Misty Fast Forward Air Controllers and their dangerous mission in North Vietnam, 1967 to 1970.
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2016 Today in History
October 3
1739
Russia signs a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
1776
Congress borrows five million dollars to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money in the colonies.
1862
At the Battle of Corinth, in Mississippi, a Union army defeats the Confederates.
1873
Captain Jack and three other Modoc Indians are hanged in Oregon for the murder of General Edward Canby.
1876
John L. Routt, the Colorado Territory governor, is elected the first state governor of Colorado in the Centennial year of the U.S.
1906
The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopts SOS as warning signal.
1929
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes officially changes its name to Yugoslavia.
1931
The comic strip Dick Tracy first appears in the New York News.
1940
U.S. Army adopts airborne, or parachute, soldiers. Airborne troops were later used in World War II for landing troops in combat and infiltrating agents into enemy territory.
1941
The Maltese Falson, starring Humphrey Bogart as detective Sam Spade, opens.
1942
Germany conducts the first successful test flight of a V-2 missile, which flies perfectly over a 118-mile course.
1944
German troops evacuate Athens, Greece.
1951
A "shot is heard around the world" when New York Giants outfielder Bobby Thomson hits a home run in the bottom of the ninth inning, beating the Brooklyn Dodgers to win the National League pennant.
1952
The UK successfully conducts a nuclear weapon, becoming the world's third nuclear power
1955
Two children's television programs and a family sitcom all destined to become classics debut: Captain Kangaroo, Mickey Mouse Club, and The Dick Van Dyke Show.
1963
A violent coup in Honduras ends a period of political reform and ushers in two decades of military rule.
1985
The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight.
1989
Art Shell becomes the first African American to coach a professional football team, the Los Angeles Raiders.
1990
After 40 years of division, East and West Germany are reunited as one nation.
1993
Battle of Mogadishu, in which 18 US soldiers and some 1,000 Somalis are killed during an attempt to capture officials of the warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid's organization.
1995
Former pro football star and actor O.J. Simpson is acquitted of the murders of his wife Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, ending what many called "the Trial of the Century.".
2008
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to purchase distressed assets of financial corporations and supply cash directly to banks to keep them afloat.
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The next part of the History provided by Adm. Cox that was provided in List 4558
H010.2
The Battle of the Eastern Solomons – 23-25 Aug 42
S.J. Cox
27 Sep 17
    The Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, immediately grasped the strategic significance of the American landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi on 7 Aug 42.  Despite his staggering losses at the Battle of Midway on 4 Jun 42, Yamamoto quickly set in motion a major operation to counter the U.S. landings.  While RADM Mikawa dealt a devastating blow to Allied naval forces off Guadalcanal at the Battle of Savo Island in the pre-dawn hours of 9 Aug, using cruiser forces at hand, major elements of the Japanese Navy began assembling at the major base at Truk, several hundred miles north of Guadalcanal, with the intent to rapidly eject the U.S. from Guadalcanal. This force would consist of two fleet aircraft carriers, two medium carriers, one light carrier, four battleships, 16 cruisers, and 30 destroyers, outnumbering U.S. naval forces in the Solomons area in every category except fleet carriers (two Japanese to three U.S. fleet carriers.)  Unfortunately for the Japanese Navy, the Japanese Army did not share Yamamoto's sense of urgency, remaining supremely overconfident in their ability to kick the Americans off the island whenever they got around to it.  Challenges in getting the Japanese Army to commit forces to the battle on Guadalcanal delayed the fleet's action until late August.
   The Japanese made numerous organizational, tactical and operational security changes following their defeat at the Battle of Midway.  However, the unexpected rapidity of U.S. offensive action in the Solomon Islands caught the Japanese by surprise, and many of the changes had not been fully implemented, nor in many cases had the Japanese been able to conduct sufficient training in new tactics and procedures.  The two remaining Japanese fleet carriers, Shokaku and Zuikaku, were reorganized into Carrier Division 1 (since Akagi and Kaga had been sunk at Midway.)  The light carrier Ryujo was also added to CARDIV 1, with a heavy complement of 24 Zero fighters and nine Kate torpedo-bombers with the intent that Ryujo would supply the fighters for fleet defense (and torpedo-bombers for a last-ditch reserve strike) while the fleet carriers focused exclusively on engaging and defeating U.S. carriers.  In this way, the Japanese hoped to avoid the conflicting mission requirements that led them to disaster at Midway.  Another major change in tactics was that the Japanese now intended to hold all their torpedo-bombers in reserve, and wait for the dive-bombers to soften up the targets before committing the more vulnerable torpedo-bombers (losses among those torpedo bombers that actually reached the U.S. carrier Yorktown (CV-5) at Midway were almost as devastating as those suffered by the American torpedo-bombers.)  The Japanese still adhered to their doctrinal approach to conduct strikes with combined carrier air groups (i.e., aircraft integrated from two carriers into a single strike package) which allowed for more rapid launch, assembly, and push to target than the American approach of independent strike packages by different carriers, that might (or might not) be loosely coordinated.  Another revised tactic was for Japanese battleships and cruisers to operate a considerable distance ahead of the carriers, to provide early warning, diversion, and increased possibility of closing for surface action with U.S. forces; the downside was that these forward forces were therefore more vulnerable to air attack.  However, the Japanese reasoned that any bomb that hit a battleship or cruiser was a bomb that didn't hit an aircraft carrier, and the battleships and cruisers could absorb the damage much better than a carrier, and, the Japanese were basically right.  Also, in a first for the Japanese, the Shokaku carried a radar, which at one point in the battle detected U.S. aircraft at 97 nm, the best performance by any radar on either side.
    The major changes in organization, changes to the JN-25 code, call-sign changes, better communications security and other measures adversely affected the ability CDR Rochefort's code-breakers and communications traffic analysts, and Admiral Nimitz' intelligence officer CDR Eddie Layton, to accurately predict Japanese actions and timing.  It was apparent that the Japanese were forming up a very large force for operations in the vicinity of Guadalcanal, but delays on the Japanese side adversely affected intelligence predictions of the timing.  Naval Intelligence also had a very difficult time locating the Shokaku and Zuikaku, holding them still in home waters even after they had departed for Truk, and only concluding they had arrived at Truk the day before the battle (when they had already left Truk and were en route what would be the battle area northeast of Guadalcanal.)  The commander of the U.S. carrier task force (TF 61), RADM Frank Jack Fletcher, knew from intelligence that a major Japanese push was coming around 23-25 August, but had no firm estimate on the presence of Japanese carriers until the eve of battle, and only after he had released the carrier USS Wasp (CV-7) to go south to refuel, taking a third of Fletcher's strike capability with her.  Many historians (in addition to CNO King at the time) have uncharitably commented that Fletcher never passed up an opportunity to refuel, whether needed or not.  However, in this case Fletcher was directed to do so by the South Pacific Area commander, VADM Ghormley, who was making decisions based on the same ambiguous intelligence as Fletcher.  The Japanese also had great difficulty trying to locate the U.S. carriers; usually their best indication was when a reconnaissance aircraft ceased reporting, which meant it had probably been shot down.  Bad weather also played havoc with both sides during the course of the battle, several times preventing Japanese land-based aircraft from the northern Solomons from flying missions to Guadalcanal in support of the Japanese carrier operations.
Actions on 23 Aug 42.
   At 0950 a U.S. Navy Catalina flying boat spotted a Japanese convoy north of Guadalcanal heading toward Guadalcanal.  This convoy was under the command of RADM Raizo Tanaka (whose name would become indelibly associated with the "Tokyo Express") and consisted of his flagship, the light cruiser Jintsu, eight destroyers, and three troop transports carrying 1500 troops of Col Ichiki's Second Echelon (Col Ichiki himself and his first echelon had already been virtually annihilated at the Battle of Tenaru River on Guadalcanal on 21 Aug) and the 5th Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force.  Upon being sighted, Tanaka reversed course.  Search planes from USS Enterprise (CV-6) sighted three Japanese submarines during the day, indicative of a screen ahead of a Japanese force movement.
   Fletcher held back, awaiting reports from any scout planes on the presence of Japanese carriers, but none were located. Finally Fletcher directed a strike on Tanaka's convoy, and at 1510, the carrier USS Saratoga launched a 37-plane strike (31 SBD Dauntless dive-bombers and six of the new TBF Avenger torpedo-bombers (of the reconstituted Torpedo Squadron 8; these were aircraft that had arrived at Pearl Harbor but had not made it to the USS Hornet (CV-8) or Midway Island before the Battle of Midway commenced.)) The strike, led by Saratoga Air Group commander, Commander Harry D. Felt, encountered very bad weather, but pressed on despite severe buffeting and extensive periods of near-zero visibility.  Commander Felt later expressed extreme satisfaction with the flying discipline of his aircrews when they emerged through the weather in good order formation.  However, by this time, Tanaka was nowhere to be found.  After a fruitless search, with light waning, and the prospect of having to fly back through the weather to the Saratoga, Felt opted to recover on Henderson Field, where Navy pilots got to enjoy a mostly sleepless night, including being fired upon by the Japanese destroyer Kagero.  Marine aircraft from Henderson field had also unsuccessfully attempted to locate Tanaka's convoy. Too late in the day, U.S. search planes located elements of VADM Kondo's advance force of battleships and cruisers, operating ahead of VADM Nagumo's as yet undetected carrier force.
The Carrier Battle – 24 Aug 42
   Before dawn on 24 Aug, VADM Nagumo detached the light carrier Ryujo from the main carrier force to provide air cover for Tanaka's convoy.  At 0946, a PBY sighted the Ryujo.  Having sent a large strike force on a wild-goose chase the day before, which was still in the air returning to the Saratoga from their night ashore on Guadalcanal, Fletcher held back, awaiting sighting reports on Japanese fleet carriers.  Fletcher did not want a repeat of the Battle of Coral Sea when he learned the location of the same Shokaku and Zuikaku only after he had already committed the entire air groups of both his carriers against the light carrier Shoho.  Commander Felt's strike group began recovering on Saratoga at 1105.  At 1128, Fletcher received a second location report on the Ryujo.  Fletcher ordered more search aircraft aloft, but still held back from committing a strike on Ryujo.  At 1213, Saratoga Wildcats shot down a Japanese land-based Emily four-engine reconnaissance seaplane, while at 1228, Enterprise Wildcats destroyed a land-based twin-engine Betty bomber.  U.S. radio intelligence reported that neither aircraft had gotten off a contact report, but Fletcher made the assumption they had.
   With no sighting reports of U.S. carriers, Nagumo was in even more of the dark than Fletcher.  So at 1230, Ryujo commenced her secondary mission, launching 15 Zero fighters and six Kates (armed as horizontal bombers) to attack Guadalcanal in what was supposed to be a coordinated strike with Japanese land-based bombers (which had turned back due to bad weather.)  Saratoga's radar detected Ryujo's strike as it headed in-bound toward Guadalcanal.  Three of Ryujo's Zeros and four Kates were lost on the ineffective bombing mission to Guadalcanal, which had been disrupted by Marine fighters at a cost of three Wildcats.
    At 1345, Saratoga launched 30 SBD dive-bombers and eight TBF-torpedo bombers (with no fighter escort), again under the command of CDR Felt, to attack the Ryujo.  At 1410, two Enterprise TBF torpedo-bombers on a search mission located and reported the Ryujo, but interference between fighter-direction and search frequencies prevented Enterprise from receiving the message; the two TBF's then conducted an unsuccessful air attack on Ryujo.  Two more Enterprise TBF's found the Ryujo shortly after, and one was shot down by Ryujo fighters.  Two more Enterprise SBD's located the Japanese Advance Force and conducted an unsuccessful attack on the Japanese heavy cruiser Maya.
    Meanwhile, a bit after 1400, a float-plane from the Japanese heavy cruiser Chikuma sighted the U.S. carriers.  Again U.S. fighters shot the plane down before it could issue a contact report, but this time the Japanese immediately figured out that the loss of contact was a strong indication of the presence of U.S. carrier aircraft (and carriers,) and in short order additional scout aircraft were enroute the last known location of the downed plane.  Unlike at Midway, this time Nagumo did not hesitate.  At 1455, while Saratoga's air group was headed toward the light carrier Ryujo, 27 Val dive bombers and 10 fighter escorts in an integrated strike from Shokaku and Zuikaku were launching to strike the U.S. carriers, while a second similar-sized strike package was being spotted on deck and armed to launch another strike an hour later.  The Japanese battleships in the Advance Force, Hiei and Kirishima increased speed to close on the American position.  As the two strike groups were attacking or heading toward the U.S. carriers, nine B-17's bombed the Japanese carriers from high altitude around 1800, but as at Midway hit nothing, but did shoot down a Zero.
   Despite his best efforts, this time Fletcher was in an even worse situation than at Coral Sea. At Coral Sea, the Japanese main carrier force did not know where the U.S. carriers where when almost the entire U.S. strike capability was committed against a less important target (the Shoho.)  This time, the Japanese main carrier force had a good idea where the U.S. carriers were, whereas U.S. scouts had yet to locate the main Japanese carrier force or even spot any carrier aircraft (except those from Ryujo, which like the Shoho was a much less important target than the Shokaku and Zuikaku.) 
    Shortly before 1500, two Enterprise SBD Dauntless Dive Bombers on a scouting mission sighted the Shokaku and Zuikaku, issued a contact report that failed to get through to the Enterprise, and immediately attacked the Japanese carriers.  Flown by LT Ray Davis and Ensign R.C. Shaw, the two SBD's were detected by Shokaku's radar, but in coordination problems of their own, the Japanese radar report failed to get to the bridge.  But, Shokaku's lookouts spotted the two dive-bombers just in time for Shokaku to take evasive action causing both bombs to barely miss, which nevertheless killed six Shokaku crewmen.  A post-strike report also failed to reach the Enterprise, but was intercepted by Saratoga, which was the first word Fletcher had that Japanese carriers were nearby.  Once again, the U.S. strike was committed to a lesser target, but this time Japanese strikes were inbound.
    After initially seeing nothing but empty ocean, the Saratoga strike group finally found the Ryujo and her escorts at 1536.  CDR Felt divided his formation.  At 1550, 18 SBD dive-bombers and five TBF torpedo-bombers went after Ryujo, while seven SBD's and two TBF's went after the heavy cruiser Tone.  Captain Tadao Kato proved to be extremely competent at evasive maneuvers, causing the first 10 dive bombers to miss.  Felt then directed that all aircraft go after the Ryujo and dove on Ryujo himself, leading the way by personally planting a bomb on Ryujo (although CAPT Kato later claimed that none of the U.S. dive bombers scored a direct hit, although near misses were numerous and damaging.)  The seven SBD's that had been initially directed to attack Tone pulled up in mid-dive and then attacked Ryujo, claiming several hits.  The two TBF's didn't get the word and conducted an unsuccessful torpedo attack on Tone.  The other five TBF's of Torpedo Eight kept trying to set up an attack on the Ryujo, but spray from the near-misses kept obscuring the target.  After several attempts, the TBF's executed a near text-book "anvil" attack, with three attacking from the starboard bow and two from the port bow, so that no matter which way Ryujo turned she could not evade the torpedoes.  (Although the new TBF Avengers were greatly superior to the TBD Devastators that had been slaughtered at Midway, they still carried the unreliable Mk-13 torpedo.)  Of three torpedoes that possibly hit the Ryujo, one actually exploded, and the damage would ultimately prove fatal.  Of the three Torpedo 8 aircraft that could have launched the lethal torpedo, one was piloted by Bert Earnest, who had been awarded two Navy Crosses at Midway as the only one of six Midway-deployed Torpedo Eight Detachment TBF's to have survived (barely) the first attack on the Japanese carriers the morning of 4 Jun 42.  Ryujo eventually succumbed to progressive flooding from the torpedo hit, but her loss could not be confirmed by naval intelligence until early 1943.
    At 1602, Enterprise radar momentarily detected the first inbound Japanese strike at 88 miles. Both carriers began launching additional fighters until by 1630 53 Wildcats were in the air (all fighters had been held back for fleet defense.)  All 53 were on the same fighter direction frequency.  Another radar hit occurred at 1619 at 44nm, and Wildcats sighted the Japanese strike at 1629, which split into two groups.  Radar at the time could only determine distance, not altitude.  The Japanese came in at 16,000 ft.  The Wildcats were all too low.  Radio discipline immediately broke down along with any hope of coherent radar fighter direction.  Only about 10 Wildcats reached the Val dive bombers before they commenced their dives; a few more Wildcats followed the Vals down.  The escorting Zeros were very effective at protecting the Vals. 
    Machinist Donald E. Runyon (an enlisted pilot in Fighter Squadron 6, on Enterprise) knocked down three Vals and a Zero, the high tally of the battle by any U.S. pilot.  Machinist D.C. Barnes (also of VF-6) led a division of four Wildcats in a dive with the Val dive-bombers, and ENS R.A.M Dibb downed two, while one of the Wildcats was badly shot up by a good Val rear-gunner.  A number of other Vals were claimed shot down by other fighters, however the combined claims of planes downed by fighters and shipboard anti-aircraft gunners significantly exceeded the number of Japanese planes involved.
    Although radar had provided early warning, cloud formations obscured the Japanese approach and the air battle raging above.  The first shipboard anti-aircraft gunners saw the Japanese was at 1642 when they were directly overhead commencing their dives.  The Japanese plan was to attack Enterprise with 18 Vals and Saratoga with 9 Vals.  It is not known with certainty how many Vals made it through the U.S. fighters, but most of them did, inflated claims notwithstanding.  The Vals that intended to go for Saratoga were badly mauled, and in the end all the surviving Val dive-bombers attacked the Enterprise.  Enterprise anti-aircraft fire was now enhanced with significant numbers new 20mm Oerlikon canons, and as Japanese bombs fell, pieces and parts of the planes that dropped them fell too.  The 20mm couldn't knock down planes before they released their weapons, but they took a devastating toll of those that did.  Several bombs (and their disintegrating planes) were near misses, but the Japanese pilots were determined.  The first bomb hit Enterprise at 1644 on the corner of the number three (aft) elevator, penetrated several decks into a petty officer's mess, killing 35 men.  The second bomb hit the aft starboard 5-inch gun gallery, taking out the guns and killing almost all their crews; another 35 men were killed.  At 1646 a third bomb hit just aft of the island, with a low-order detonation that resulted in one of the most famous photographs of the war which caught the bomb at the instant of detonation, but which did not kill the photographer (or anyone else) as reported in many accounts.  (A Navy photographer was killed, but by the second bomb in the gun gallery.)
    About five Vals peeled off and attacked the new battleship North Carolina, a big mistake.  With 20 5-inch/38cal dual purpose guns, numerous quad 1.1-inch machine guns (still jam-prone,) and dozens of new 20mm guns, the North Carolina put up such an intense volume of fire that observers were convinced she was on fire, but she suffered only superficial damage from a near miss.
   The first attack cost the Japanese 18 dive bombers (of 27) and six Zeros (including several planes that went down on the way back to their carriers) to obtain thee hits, at a cost of eight defending Wildcats.  Enterprise's damage control was superb.  Despite the high casualties, the holes in the flight deck were quickly patched and one hour after the attack, Enterprise began recovering aircraft.  Then Enterprise lost her steering, with her rudder jammed over to starboard.  One of her two electric rudder motors shorted out when water poured in when ventilation trunk was mistakenly opened remotely.  The seven men in the compartment were overcome before they could switch to the alternate motor.  As the second Japanese strike proceeded inbound, Enterprise was trapped steaming in a circle, unable to take any evasive action.  Chief Machinist William A. Smith donned a self-contained breathing apparatus (which had been modified by another Chief for extended endurance) and entered the compartment.  Smith was twice overcome and had to be pulled out by other Sailors using a safety line.  On his third attempt, at 1858, Smith succeeded in starting the alternate motor and Enterprise regained steering control.  While Enterprise was circling and the second Japanese strike was 10 minutes out, in probably the luckiest break of the battle for the U.S., the radio operator in the Japanese strike leader's plane miscopied a position report on the U.S. carriers and the strike changed course.  The second Japanese strike never did find the U.S. carriers. 
     When the first Japanese strike was inbound and the fighters had been launched, the two U.S. carriers launched everything that could fly just to get them off the deck, which included some aircraft that were armed and ready for a follow-on strike, and others that weren't.  On Saratoga, pilots were in planes to move them around the deck when they were ordered to immediately launch, a number without their flight gear, and others without charts of any kind.  The result of this was a number of uncoordinated groups of aircraft groping in increasing darkness trying to find any kind of Japanese targets.  One group of Enterprise torpedo bombers commenced an attack only to discover the target was a reef.  At 1735 a group of five Saratoga Torpedo 8 TBF Avengers (of which only squadron commander LT Harold H. "Swede" Larsen had his flight gear) which had joined up with two SBD dive-bombers, located elements of the Japanese Advance Force battleships and cruisers.  As at Midway, Torpedo 8 unhesitatingly pressed home their attack.  Unlike Midway, none were shot down, although two damaged aircraft had to ditch; their crews were eventually recovered. But like Midway, none of VT-8's torpedoes hit, or if they did, they didn't work.  The two dive-bombers attacked what they reported as the Japanese battleship Mutsu.  The target was actually the seaplane carrier Chitose.  Neither bomb was a direct hit, but several seaplanes caught fire and the Chitose sprung some severe leaks and developed a dangerous list, but made it back to Truk.  As darkness fell, some U.S. aircraft recovered on Guadalcanal, and some succeeded in making night landings on the carriers.  Japanese battleships attempted to close on the U.S. position to conduct a night attack on any damaged U.S. ships (and typically, Japanese aviators had claimed a number).  Three Japanese destroyers did bombard Guadalcanal during the night (and several Marine aircraft attacked them at night, unsuccessfully.)  However, by midnight, both Nagumo and Fletcher decided they had had enough and by daybreak the two carrier forces were far apart steaming in opposite directions.  Their respective caution would anger both Yamamoto and King; Nagumo would be given yet another chance; Fletcher would not.
Actions on 25 Aug.
    As a result of confused Japanese command and control, RADM Tanaka was still trying to get his convoy to Guadalcanal while the Japanese carriers, with his air cover (after Ryujo had sunk,) were steaming in the opposite direction.  After three days of successfully outwitting all attempts to attack him, Tanaka was dogged through the night by a radar-equipped PBY, and his luck ran out just after 0800 25 Aug, when five Marine and three Navy SBD dive-bombers from Guadalcanal commenced an attack.  Tanaka's flagship, the light cruiser Jintsu, was seriously damaged and Tanaka was initially knocked unconscious. The troop transport Kinryu Maru was hit and set on fire.  One Marine pilot discovered that his bomb had not released andehe turned back and conducted a solo attack on the Japanese force, with a near miss on another transport.  The destroyer Mutsuki went alongside the stricken Kinryu Maru.  Three US Army Air Force B-17 bombers arrived overhead at 1027.  Given the B-17's long track record of not hitting anything, Mutsuki's skipper contemptuously refused to break away and maneuver.  Although a skilled warship skipper could avoid bombs dropped by horizontal bombers, the ship had to actively avoid the bombs.  As a result, Mutsuki took a direct hit and sank at 1140, taking 40 crewmen with her.  Another Japanese destroyer sank the Kinryu Maru with a torpedo, and the rest of the convoy beat a hasty retreat, thus ending the battle.
    The U.S. had achieved the strategic intent of stopping a Japanese reinforcement of Guadalcanal, although the 1500 troops on the transports, by themselves , would not have made much difference, being greatly outnumbered by the Marines already on Guadalcanal.  The Japanese also found alternate means to get troops ashore, with night-time runs aboard Japanese destroyers.  The damaged Enterprise required repairs in Pearl Harbor, leaving only three operational U.S. carriers in the Pacific, which would quickly be whittled to one by Japanese submarines.  U.S. shipboard anti-aircraft fire was greatly improved over the first battles of the war, but the U.S. was still struggling with how to make best use of radar in providing for fleet air defense.
 
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Thanks to Carl
Did the Oakland Raiders Throw a Game? – LewRockwell
 
By Alex Thomas  
September 30, 2017
Did Raiders Throw NFL Game Over Anthem? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=i6KzzCCBPYE
 
 
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Thanks to Roger and Mike
Fun facts about the hypocrites over at the NFL. 
"" Here are some fun facts about the hypocrites over at the NFL. In 2012 the NFL had an issue with Tim Tebow kneeling for each game to pray, they also had an issue with Tebow wearing John 3:16 as part of his blackout to avoid glare and made him take it off. In 2013 the NFL fined Brandon Marshall for wearing green cleats to raise awareness for people with mental health disorders. In 2014 Robert Griffin III (RG3) entered a post-game press conference wearing a shirt that said "Know Jesus Know Peace" but was forced to turn it inside out by an NFL uniform inspector before speaking at the podium. In 2015 DeAngelo Williams was fined for wearing "Find the Cure" eye black for breast cancer awareness. In 2015 William Gay was fined for wearing purple cleats to raise awareness for domestic violence. (not that the NFL has a domestic violence problem...) In 2016 the NFL prevented the Dallas Cowboys from wearing a decal on their helmet in honor of 5 Dallas Police officers killed in the line of duty. In 2016 the NFL threatened to fine players who wanted to wear cleats to commemorate the 15th anniversary of 9/11. So tell me again how the NFL supports free speech and expression?""
 
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Item Number:1 Date: 10/03/2017 AFGHANISTAN - AMID STRAINED TIES, PRESIDENT DISCUSSES REGIONAL SECURITY WITH PAKISTAN'S ARMY CHIEF (OCT 03/TN)  TOLONEWS -- Afghan President Ashraf Ghani recently hosted Pakistani army chief Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa for talks on regional security and bilateral relations, reports Tolo News (Afghanistan).   Sunday's talks in Kabul marked a "new season" of relationships between the neighbors, said a release from the president's office.   The agenda included regional security, bilateral relations, peace and stability, counterterrorism, business and transit relationships and prospects for cooperation over the medium and long term, the statement said.   Islamabad is prepared to work with Afghanistan on counterterrorism, said Bajwa. He also noted his government's support for the Afghan-owned and Afghan-led peace process.   Relations between the neighbors have been strained recently, noted the Dawn (Pakistan). Both countries accuse the other of harboring terrorists.   On Sept. 20, new Pakistan Prime Minister Shaid Khaqan Abbasi told the U.N. General Assembly that Taliban "safe havens" were not in Pakistan, "but in large tracts of territory controlled by the Taliban in Afghanistan," as quoted by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.  
  Item Number:2 Date: 10/03/2017 AUSTRALIA - NEW WARSHIPS TO BE EQUIPPED WITH AEGIS MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS, SAYS PRIME MINISTER (OCT 03/AUSBC)  AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION -- Australia's future high-tech warships will be equipped with long-range anti-missile defense systems, says Prime Minister Malcom Turnbull, as reported by the Australian Broadcasting Corp.   The Australian navy has plans for nine frigates, with construction set to begin in 2020. BAE Systems, Navantia and Fincantieri are competing for the AUS$35 billion (US$27.39 billion) contract. A winner is expected in early 2018.   The frigates will be armed with Aegis missile defense systems, produced by Lockheed Martin, in conjunction with Saab Australia technology, said Turnbull on Tuesday, as cited by Reuters. He made his remarks Tuesday in a speech in Sydney.   "Recent events in our region have proven that Australia's future frigates must be equipped to defend Australia from the threat of medium- and long-range missile attacks," said Turnbull, in a reference to North Korea's missile and nuclear programs.   The decision will allow international cooperation with U.S., Japanese and Korean vessels, said Vice Adm. Tim Barrett, Australia's naval chief.  
Item Number:3 Date: 10/03/2017 BAHRAIN - 'TERRORIST EXPLOSION' INJURES 5 POLICE NEAR CAPITAL (OCT 03/AL ARABIYA)  AL ARABIYA -- The Bahraini government says a bombing outside Manama has wounded five policemen, reports the Interior Ministry, as reported by Al Arabiya (Dubai).   The explosion took place Monday night as police officers secured an area near the village of Daih, said the Interior Ministry.   The officers were guarding a procession of Shi'ite Muslims marking the annual Ashura festival, reported the state news agency.   The ministry said it was taking the "necessary steps" in response to the "terrorist explosion."  
 Item Number:4 Date: 10/03/2017 CHINA - BEIJING HAS 8,000 TROOPS EARMARKED FOR U.N. PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS, SAYS DEFENSE MINISTRY (OCT 03/SCMP)  SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST -- The Chinese military has completed setting up an 8,000-strong standby peacekeeping force for U.N. missions, reports the South China Morning Post.   The standby force would "conduct task-specific and adaptive training in accordance with the U.N. training standards," a Chinese Defense Ministry spokesman said on Sept. 28.   The force consists of personnel drawn from six infantry battalions, two multi-purpose helicopter platoons and two transport companies. For the first time, an unmanned aerial vehicle unit will be attached, the spokesman said.   In September 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged before the General Assembly to make 8,000 peacekeepers available to the U.N. He also promised to help train 2,000 peacekeepers from other countries, provide US$100 million in aid to the African Union and deploy more engineering, transport and medical personnel.   He also promised a US$1 billion donation to the U.N. for a "peace and development fund," the New York Times reported at the time.   China is stepping up its peacekeeping role to demonstrate that it is a "responsible great power," while protecting its interests, said one analyst.   Peacekeeping is also seen as a way to expose Chinese military personnel to combat.  
  Item Number:5 Date: 10/03/2017 FINLAND - NEW RESEARCH CENTER INTO HYBRID THREATS SEEN STRENGTHENING COOPERATION BETWEEN E.U., NATO (OCT 03/NATO)  NATO PRESS RELEASE -- NATO and E.U. officials have inaugurated a new research center in Finland aimed at countering hybrid threats.   NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg and Federica Mogherini, the high representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and vice president of the European Commission, opened the center on Monday in Helsinki, noted a NATO statement.   The Center of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats is a Finnish initiative backed by 11 other nations, as well as NATO and the E.U.   The goal of the initiative is to help nations and international organizations better understand modern, complex threats, said Stoltenberg.   The center has a budget of 1.5 million euros (US$1.7 million), with half of that being covered by Finland.   Finland is a member of the E.U. and an active partner with NATO.  
  Item Number:6 Date: 10/03/2017 FRANCE - EXPLOSIVES FOUND IN CHIC PARIS AREA; 5 IN CUSTODY (OCT 03/AFP)  AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE -- The prosecutor in Paris has opened an anti-terrorist investigation, say sources cited by AFP.   The action followed the weekend discovery of a homemade bomb in a neighborhood of the French capital.   Five people were said to be in custody, according to several wire-service accounts.   On Saturday, police found two gas cylinders in a building in the affluent Porte d'Auteuil neighborhood. Another two were outside, said officials.   A mobile phone attached to the cylinders could have been a detonator, one security source said on Monday.   One of those arrested had been on a police terror watch list, said Interior Minister Gerard Collomb on public radio station France Inter.  
  Item Number:7 Date: 10/03/2017 INDIA - JEM MILITANTS ATTACK SECURITY CAMP NEAR SRINAGAR (OCT 03/IBT)  INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES -- Terrorists have attacked a paramilitary camp in Indian-administered Kashmir, reports the International Business Times.   Tuesday's pre-dawn attack was directed at a Border Security Force (BSF) camp near Srinagar International Airport, said police. Srinagar is Kashmir's summer capital.   A local police official said the militants cut a fence to get into the camp, reported Reuters.   One security personnel was killed and three others injured. Three attackers were killed, according to authorities in Kashmir.   Flights were briefly suspended. Roads leading to the airport were also reopened, reported the BBC.   Jaish-e-Mohammad claimed responsibility for the attack
Item Number:8 Date: 10/03/2017 IRAN - AFGHAN CHILDREN BEING RECRUITED BY TEHRAN TO FIGHT IN SYRIA, SAYS RIGHTS GROUP (OCT 03/VOA)  VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS -- Human Rights Watch, an international group based in New York, has published a detailed report accusing Iran of committing war crimes by recruiting Afghan immigrant children and sending them to fight in Syria, reports the Voice of America News.   Researchers reviewed photographs of tombstones in Iranian cemeteries and identified eight Afghan children who apparently were killed fighting for the Assad regime in Syria, says the report, which was released on Sunday.   The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) has been recruiting and providing military training to primarily Shi'ite Hzara Afghans, who have settled in Iran, the report says.   "Afghan children as young as 14 have fought in the Fatemiyoun Division, an exclusively Afghan armed group supported by Iran that fights alongside government forces in the Syrian conflict," says the Human Rights Watch report. "Under international law, recruiting children under the age of 15 to participate actively in hostilities is a war crime."   Rights groups have previously documented cases of Hazaras in Iran who "volunteered" to fight in Syria in the hopes of obtaining legal status and a monthly income.   The report calls on the U.N. to investigate the child recruitment in Iran.  
 Item Number:9 Date: 10/03/2017 IRAQ - AL-RASHAD REGION NEAR HAWIJA NOW BACK IN GOVERNMENT HANDS (OCT 03/IQN)  IRAQI NEWS -- Commanders from Iraqi's paramilitaries say their forces have retaken a strategic area as part of ongoing operations to liberate Hawija in the northern part of the country, reports Iraqi News.   The Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), an umbrella group consisting of primarily Shi'ite militias, seized the Al-Rashad region southeast of Hawija, a high-profile paramilitary commander said on Monday.   The PMF is supporting the Iraqi army's Counterterrorism Service in the efforts to defeat the Islamic State in the area.   Government security forces have advanced towards Al-Rashad as part of the second phase of operations to drive ISIS from Hawija. Those operations began on Sept. 29.   The first phase, which began on Sept. 24, captured eastern Shirqat, an ISIS stronghold in neighboring Salahuddin province.   Iraqi military media on Sunday said that joint forces had recaptured 28 villages around Hawija. Hundreds of militants have been killed since the operation was launched
  Item Number:10 Date: 10/03/2017 IRAQ - AS GOVERNMENT FORCES ADVANCE, ISIS COUNTERS BY TORCHING OIL WELLS (OCT 03/FN)  FOX NEWS -- Iraqi official says Islamic State has torched three oil wells west of Kirkuk, in one of the areas still held by the terror group, reports Fox News.   Government forces began an operation on Sept. 21 to oust ISIS from the area.   Early Saturday, the militants set the wells ablaze at the Allas oilfield to slow the advance of government forces and allied Shi'ite militia groups. The oilfield, 20 miles south of Hawija, had been one of the main sources of revenue for ISIS, noted Reuters.   "Terrorists are trying to use the rising smoke to avert air strikes while retreating from the area toward Hawija," said an army commander on Monday.   Government security forces have been using bulldozers to control the fires. One was under control as of Monday, while two others were still burning. It may take three days to put out the fires, said military officials.   Officials from the state-run North Oil Company said it was too risky to send crews in to assess damage because of bombs and land mines left by the terrorists
  Item Number:11 Date: 10/03/2017 IRAQ - IED KILLS U.S. SOLDIER IN NINAWA PROVINCE (OCT 03/WP)  WASHINGTON POST -- A U.S. servicemember taking part in the coalition effort in the Islamic State has been killed, reports the Washington Post.   On Sunday, an improvised explosive device targeted a vehicle in Iraq, said the U.S.-led coalition on Monday. Another American servicemember was injured, said the Pentagon.   On Monday, the DoD identified the soldier who died of his injuries in Ninawa province as a specialist from Tyler, Texas.   Since January, at least five U.S. troops have been killed in action while taking part in the operation to oust ISIS. Another 25 have been wounded.  
  Item Number:12 Date: 10/03/2017 LIBYA - EUROPEAN MISSION PAINTS BLEAK PICTURE OF LIBYA'S SITUATION (OCT 03/EUO)  EU OBSERVER -- The European Union mission to Libya, EUBAM Libya, has outlined its challenges in working with internationally recognized authorities there in an internal study, reports the E.U. Observer.   The paper by the European Union Integrated Border Management Assistance in Libya -- which dates to mid-September and has been seen by the E.U. Observer -- describes the ministries and coordination among the Libyan authorities in Tripoli as chaotic.   "Sustainable progress may remain limited in the absence of a political solution, an end to the military conflict and a return to stability," the report says.   The E.U. has been working with the internationally recognized government to reduce the number of migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean to Italy.   EUBAM Libya has also been working with the Libyan Interior Ministry, helping it to connect with Interpol's global police communications system.   Interpol may deliver facial identification systems to Libya to bolster its counterterrorism efforts, says the study.   An expert from the E.U. police agency, Europol, has also been sent to assist Libyan police against human-trafficking, says the document.   Security concerns, however, are keeping the E.U. mission in Tunisia, with its personnel traveling to Tripoli about twice a week.   The mission has 18 international staff with three local staff in Libya assisting with coordination and translation.   The mission may need more security support, says the report, noting an incident in July, where some of its personnel got caught up in fighting at Tripoli's international airport.  
  Item Number:13 Date: 10/03/2017 LIBYA - PROSECUTOR WARNS OF ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC STATE'S 'DESERT ARMY' (OCT 03/VOA)  VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS -- The Islamic State terrorist group is attempting to rebuild in the interior of Libya, say officials, as reported by the Voice of America News.   ISIS militants are primarily operating through a unit set up in the desert after being ejected from their stronghold in Sirte on the Mediterranean coast, Siddiq al-Soor, the head of the public prosecutor's office in Tripoli, told reporters last week.   These terrorists are led by an Iraqi national named Abdul Qader al-Najdi, aka Abu Moaz Al Tikriti, with support from other ISIS leaders, such as Mahmoud Al Bur'si and Hashim Abu Sid, said the prosecutor.   "Most of those leaders were members of Al-Qaida and traveled to Syria and Iraq to join the fight before returning to Libya," said al-Soor.   The prosecutors said they received information about the desert army from an ISIS militant who was wounded and captured after recent U.S. airstrikes in the Wadi Skir region.   ISIS sees the region southeast of Sirte as an important area for operations because it is home to several major oilfields.  
  Item Number:14 Date: 10/03/2017 RUSSIA - WITH NEW AIRCRAFT IN THE WINGS, AIR FORCE STEPS UP PILOT TRAINING (OCT 03/INT-AVN)  INTERFAX-MILITARY NEWS AGENCY -- The Russian air force is expanding its pilot training as the service prepares to form additional units and field new aircraft, reports Interfax-AVN.   "Hundreds of pilots will graduate annually from military schools within the next five years," the Izvestia newspaper reported on Monday, citing the aerospace forces command.   The military has also pledged to increase the intensity of pilot training by 150 percent.   The service anticipates receiving around 400 new aircraft annually from 2018 to 2025, said the newspaper.   The number of pilots completing training could reach 1,000 annually within five years, according to the command.   The service needs 1,300 pilots, Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu told the Parliament earlier this year. That shortage is expected to be filled as soon as 2018.  
  Item Number:15 Date: 10/03/2017 SYRIA - 2 DAYS OF AIRSTRIKES IN EASTERN SYRIA KILL MORE THAN 300 ISIS FIGHTERS, SAYS KREMLIN (OCT 03/TASS)  TASS -- The Russian military says its airstrikes have recently killed more than 300 Islamic State terrorists in Syria, reports Tass.   Over the past two days, the Russian air force killed 304 terrorists, including seven field commanders, and wounded 170, said a Defense Ministry spokesman on Tuesday. The airstrikes were made on the eastern bank of the Euphrates River, he said.   The airstrikes also destroyed a training center for foreign ISIS mercenaries, including 40 militants from Russia's North Caucasus region, he said.   The Kremlin's statement said that other targets hit included three command posts, nine strongholds, eight tanks, three artillery systems, 17 off-road vehicles with mounted large-caliber weapons and four ammunition depots.   The Russian air operations have allowed Syrian government forces to regain control of territory along the Euphrates River, said the Kremlin spokesman.  
  Item Number:16 Date: 10/03/2017 SYRIA - MULTIPLE DEATHS AS SUICIDE BOMBERS HIT DAMASCUS POLICE STATION (OCT 03/CBS)  CBS NEWS -- The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for a double suicide bomb attack on Monday on a police station in Syria's capital, reports CBS News.   Two terrorists attacked the station in the al-Midan neighborhood of Damascus, said Lt. Gen. Mohammad al-Shaar, the nation's interior minister.   One blew himself up. Police killed the other attacker after getting inside, causing his bomb to explode, said the minister. There were also conflicting reports of a car bomb outside the station, reported the Voice of America News.   A pro-regime television station cited by Reuters said four armed men assaulted the station.   At least 17 people were killed, including 13 police officers, according to the U.K.-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Casualty reports differed.   This was the first such attack in Damascus since July, noted the BBC
Item Number:17 Date: 10/03/2017 SYRIA - UNIDENTIFIED AIRSTRIKE KILLS HEZBOLLAH FIGHTER IN HOMS PROVINCE (OCT 03/TRTW)  TRT WORLD -- At least eight Hezbollah militiamen have been killed in an airstrike in central Syria, says a monitoring group cited by TRT World (Turkey).   The Lebanon-based Hezbollah group is an ally of the Syrian government.   On Monday, an unidentified unmanned aircraft hit Hezbollah positions in the eastern countryside of Homs province, near the town of Sukhna, said the U.K.-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.   Questioned, the U.S.-led coalition said that location was outside its area of operations.   Several sources cited by Reuters did not rule out the possibility of Russian friendly fire being the cause. The sources put the number killed at 10
Item Number:18 Date: 10/03/2017 UNITED KINGDOM - CONCEPT UAV FROM BAE SYSTEMS BLENDS FIXED-WING, ROTARY FLIGHT (OCT 03/BAE)  BAE SYSTEMS -- Engineers from BAE Systems and students from Cranfield University in the U.K. have produced a new technology concept for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) capable of both rotary-wing and forward flight during a single mission, reports BAE Systems.   Dubbed Adaptable UAVs, these aircraft are hybrids between fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. They would use adaptive flight control and advanced navigation and guidance software, said the company in a release last week.   The air vehicle would benefit from the higher speeds and range of fixed-wing aircraft, while using the rotary-wing mode for vertical takeoffs and landings.   This technology would allow UAVs to better adapt to future battlefields and work together in a swarm, defeat advanced air defense and operate successfully in complex and cluttered urban environments, said BAE Systems.   The futuristic aircraft would launch from a pole that could be fitted to a wide range of vehicles. The pole constrains the sideways movement of the UAV during launch and recovery to prevent them from being dislodged by high winds, said the release.   The pole is gyro-stabilized to ensure it remains upright independently of the host vehicle's orientation. This would be particularly important on naval vessels, said BAE Systems.  
  Item Number:19 Date: 10/03/2017 USA - LOCKHEED WINS $419 MILLION CONTRACT FOR ADDITIONAL TRIDENT II D5 ICBMS (OCT 03/DOD)  DEPT. OF DEFENSE -- Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Sunnyvale, Calif., has been awarded a contract modification for the Trident II D5 intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) program, reports the Dept. of Defense.   The $418.7 million deal covers new procurement of Trident II D5 missile production; life-extension production; and deployed systems support.   The missiles are deployed on Ohio-class submarines.   The contract has a potential maximum value of $1.1 billion, if all options are exercised.   Work is scheduled to be completed by Sept. 30, 2022, including work under contract options
Item Number:20 Date: 10/03/2017 USA - SEEKING TO FORESTALL CRISIS, DOD LOOKS FOR WEAKNESSES IN INDUSTRIAL BASE (OCT 03/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- The Defense Dept. says it is conducting a review and wargaming effort to uncover possible weak points in the U.S. industrial base, reports Defense News.   In late September, John McGinn, acting deputy assistant secretary of defense for defense manufacturing and industrial base policy, outlined how his team hopes to prepare the DoD for a possible industrial base crisis during a conflict. He made his comments during an event hosted by the Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C.   "We're looking for industrial base risks, and those risks include foreign dependency, sole source, single source, fragile suppliers, suppliers that may not be looking to stay in the market," McGinn said. He pointed out that there are specific concerns about mining companies, which are vital to maintaining a technological edge.   The goal is to obtain new information for the Pentagon on how the industrial base might be stressed under certain operations, he said. The findings will be classified, although a non-classified summary may be made available.   As part of the effort, the Pentagon will soon release a questionnaire to industry to try and gather information on potential weak points.

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