Sunday, March 18, 2018

March 18th...This Day in History (Wells Fargo + others)

Wells and Fargo start shipping and banking company 1852

 Related image

On this day in 1852, in New York City, Henry Wells and William G. Fargo join with several other investors to launch their namesake business.
The discovery of gold in California in 1849 prompted a huge spike in the demand for cross-country shipping. Wells and Fargo decided to take advantage of these great opportunities. In July 1852, their company shipped its first loads of freight from the East Coast to mining camps scattered around northern California. The company contracted with independent stagecoach companies to provide the fastest possible transportation and delivery of gold dust, important documents and other valuable freight. It also served as a bank–buying gold dust, selling paper bank drafts and providing loans to help fuel California’s growing economy.
In 1857, Wells, Fargo and Co. formed the Overland Mail Company, known as the “Butterfield Line,” which provided regular mail and passenger service along an ever-growing number of routes. In the boom-and-bust economy of the 1850s, the company earned a reputation as a trustworthy and reliable business, and its logo–the classic stagecoach–became famous. For a premium price, Wells, Fargo and Co. would send an employee on horseback to deliver or pick up a message or package.
Wells, Fargo and Co. merged with several other “Pony Express” and stagecoach lines in 1866 to become the unrivaled leader in transportation in the West. When the transcontinental railroad was completed three years later, the company began using railroad to transport its freight. By 1910, its shipping network connected 6,000 locations, from the urban centers of the East and the farming towns of the Midwest to the ranching and mining centers of Texas and California and the lumber mills of the Pacific Northwest.
After splitting from the freight business in 1905, the banking branch of the company merged with the Nevada National Bank and established new headquarters in San Francisco. During World War I, the U.S. government nationalized the company’s shipping routes and combined them with the railroads into the American Railway Express, effectively putting an end to Wells, Fargo and Co. as a transportation and delivery business. The following April, the banking headquarters was destroyed in a major earthquake, but the vaults remained intact and the bank’s business continued to grow. After two later mergers, the Wells Fargo Bank American Trust Company–shortened to the Wells Fargo Bank in 1962–became, and has remained, one of the biggest banking institutions in the United States.

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Saturday, March 17, 2018

March 17th...This Day in History (St. Patrick + others)

Saint Patrick dies 461 A.D.


On this day in 461 A.D., Saint Patrick, Christian missionary, bishop and apostle of Ireland, dies at Saul, Downpatrick, Ireland.
Much of what is known about Patrick’s legendary life comes from the Confessio, a book he wrote during his last years. Born in Great Britain, probably in Scotland, to a well-to-do Christian family of Roman citizenship, Patrick was captured and enslaved at age 16 by Irish marauders. For the next six years, he worked as a herder in Ireland, turning to a deepening religious faith for comfort. Following the counsel of a voice he heard in a dream one night, he escaped and found passage on a ship to Britain, where he was eventually reunited with his family.
According to the Confessio, in Britain Patrick had another dream, in which an individual named Victoricus gave him a letter, entitled “The Voice of the Irish.” As he read it, Patrick seemed to hear the voices of Irishmen pleading him to return to their country and walk among them once more. After studying for the priesthood, Patrick was ordained a bishop. He arrived in Ireland in 433 and began preaching the Gospel, converting many thousands of Irish and building churches around the country. After 40 years of living in poverty, teaching, traveling and working tirelessly, Patrick died on March 17, 461 in Saul, where he had built his first church.
Since that time, countless legends have grown up around Patrick. Made the patron saint of Ireland, he is said to have baptized hundreds of people on a single day, and to have used a three-leaf clover–the famous shamrock–to describe the Holy Trinity. In art, he is often portrayed trampling on snakes, in accordance with the belief that he drove those reptiles out of Ireland. For thousands of years, the Irish have observed the day of Saint Patrick’s death as a religious holiday, attending church in the morning and celebrating with food and drink in the afternoon. The first St. Patrick’s Day parade, though, took place not in Ireland, but the United States, when Irish soldiers serving in the English military marched through New York City in 1762. As the years went on, the parades became a show of unity and strength for persecuted Irish-American immigrants, and then a popular celebration of Irish-American heritage. The party went global in 1995, when the Irish government began a large-scale campaign to market St. Patrick’s Day as a way of driving tourism and showcasing Ireland’s many charms to the rest of the world. Today, March 17 is a day of international celebration, as millions of people around the globe put on their best green clothing to drink beer, watch parades and toast the luck of the Irish.

 (More Events on This Day in History)

Happy St. Patrick's Day! - But Realy, What is it? What's its History - How is it Celbrated Around the World

Saint Patrick's Day

Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (c. AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.

Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early 17th century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion (especially the Church of Ireland),[4] the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Lutheran Church. The day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland,[3] and celebrates the heritage and culture of the Irish in general.[5] Celebrations generally involve public parades and festivals, cèilidhs, and the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.[6] Christians who belong to liturgical denominations also attend church services[5][7] and historically the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol were lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption.[5][6][8][9]

Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland,[10] Northern Ireland,[11] the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (for provincial government employees), and the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat. It is also widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora around the world, especially in the United Kingdom, Canada, United States, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated in more countries than any other national festival.[12] Modern celebrations have been greatly influenced by those of the Irish diaspora, particularly those that developed in North America. In recent years, there has been criticism of Saint Patrick's Day celebrations for having become too commercialised and for fostering negative stereotypes of the Irish people.
Saint Patrick
Main article: Saint Patrick

Patrick was a 5th-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Much of what is known about Saint Patrick comes from the Declaration, which was allegedly written by Patrick himself. It is believed that he was born in Roman Britain in the fourth century, into a wealthy Romano-British family. His father was a deacon and his grandfather was a priest in the Christian church. According to the Declaration, at the age of sixteen, he was kidnapped by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Gaelic Ireland.[13] It says that he spent six years there working as a shepherd and that during this time he "found God". The Declaration says that God told Patrick to flee to the coast, where a ship would be waiting to take him home. After making his way home, Patrick went on to become a priest.

According to tradition, Patrick returned to Ireland to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity. The Declaration says that he spent many years evangelising in the northern half of Ireland and converted "thousands". Patrick's efforts against the druids were eventually turned into an allegory in which he drove "snakes" out of Ireland (Ireland never had any snakes).

Tradition holds that he died on 17 March and was buried at Downpatrick. Over the following centuries, many legends grew up around Patrick and he became Ireland's foremost saint.

    Celebration and traditions

    According to legend, Saint Patrick used the three-leaved shamrock to explain the Holy Trinity to Irish pagans.
Today's St Patrick's Day celebrations have been greatly influenced by those that developed among the Irish diaspora, especially in North America. Until the late 20th century, St Patrick's Day was often a bigger celebration among the diaspora than it was in Ireland.

Celebrations generally involve public parades and festivals, Irish traditional music sessions (céilithe), and the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.[6] There are also formal gatherings such as banquets and dances, although these were more common in the past. St Patrick's Day parades began in North America in the 18th century but did not spread to Ireland until the 20th century.[14] The participants generally include marching bands, the military, fire brigades, cultural organisations, charitable organisations, voluntary associations, youth groups, fraternities, and so on. However, over time, many of the parades have become more akin to a carnival. More effort is made to use the Irish language, especially in Ireland, where the week of St Patrick's Day is "Irish language week". Recently, famous landmarks have been lit up in green on St Patrick's Day.

Christians may also attend church services,[5][7] and the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol are lifted for the day. Perhaps because of this, drinking alcohol – particularly Irish whiskey, beer, or cider – has become an integral part of the celebrations.[5][6][8][9] The St Patrick's Day custom of "drowning the shamrock" or "wetting the shamrock" was historically popular, especially in Ireland. At the end of the celebrations, a shamrock is put into the bottom of a cup, which is then filled with whiskey, beer, or cider. It is then drunk as a toast to St Patrick, Ireland, or those present. The shamrock would either be swallowed with the drink or taken out and tossed over the shoulder for good luck.
Wearing green
On St Patrick's Day, it is customary to wear shamrocks, green clothing or green accessories (the "wearing of the green"), the colour associated with Catholics in Ireland (orange is the colour associated with Protestant Christians). St Patrick is said to have used the shamrock, a three-leaved plant, to explain the Holy Trinity to the pagan Irish.[18][19] This story first appears in writing in 1726, though it may be older. In pagan Ireland, three was a significant number and the Irish had many triple deities, a fact that may have aided St Patrick in his evangelisation efforts.[20][21] Patricia Monaghan says there is no evidence that the shamrock was sacred to the pagan Irish.[20] However, Jack Santino speculates that it may have represented the regenerative powers of nature, and was recast in a Christian context‍—‌icons of St Patrick often depict the saint "with a cross in one hand and a sprig of shamrocks in the other".[22] Roger Homan writes, "We can perhaps see St Patrick drawing upon the visual concept of the triskele when he uses the shamrock to explain the Trinity".

The colour green has been associated with Ireland since at least the 1640s, when the green harp flag was used by the Irish Catholic Confederation. Green ribbons and shamrocks have been worn on St Patrick's Day since at least the 1680s.[24] The Friendly Brothers of St Patrick, an Irish fraternity founded in about 1750,[25] adopted green as its colour.[26] However, when the Order of St. Patrick—an Anglo-Irish chivalric order—was founded in 1783 it adopted blue as its colour, which led to blue being associated with St Patrick. During the 1790s, green would become associated with Irish nationalism, due to its use by the United Irishmen. This was a republican organisation—led mostly by Protestants but with many Catholic members—who launched a rebellion in 1798 against British rule. The phrase "wearing of the green" comes from a song of the same name, which laments United Irishmen supporters being persecuted for wearing green. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the colour green and its association with St Patrick's Day grew.

The wearing of the 'St Patrick's Day Cross' was also a popular custom in Ireland until the early 20th century. These were a Celtic Christian cross made of paper that was "covered with silk or ribbon of different colours, and a bunch or rosette of green silk in the centre".
Celebrations by region
Saint Patrick's feast day, as a kind of national day, was already being celebrated by the Irish in Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries. In later times, he became more and more widely seen as the patron of Ireland.[29] Saint Patrick's feast day was finally placed on the universal liturgical calendar in the Catholic Church due to the influence of Waterford-born Franciscan scholar Luke Wadding[30] in the early 1600s. Saint Patrick's Day thus became a holy day of obligation for Roman Catholics in Ireland. It is also a feast day in the Church of Ireland, which is part of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church calendar avoids the observance of saints' feasts during certain solemnities, moving the saint's day to a time outside those periods. St Patrick's Day is occasionally affected by this requirement, when 17 March falls during Holy Week. This happened in 1940, when Saint Patrick's Day was observed on 3 April to avoid it coinciding with Palm Sunday, and again in 2008, where it was officially observed on 15 March.[31] St Patrick's Day will not fall within Holy Week again until 2160.[32][33] However, the popular festivities may still be held on 17 March or on a weekend near to the feast day.

In 1903, St Patrick's Day became an official public holiday in Ireland. This was thanks to the Bank Holiday (Ireland) Act 1903, an act of the United Kingdom Parliament introduced by Irish Member of Parliament James O'Mara.[35] O'Mara later introduced the law which required that public houses be shut on 17 March after drinking got out of hand, a provision that was repealed in the 1970s.

The first St Patrick's Day parade in Ireland was held in Waterford in 1903. The week of St Patrick's Day 1903 had been declared Irish Language Week by the Gaelic League and in Waterford they opted to have a procession on Sunday 15 March. The procession comprised the Mayor and members of Waterford Corporation, the Trades Hall, the various trade unions and bands who included the 'Barrack St Band' and the 'Thomas Francis Meagher Band'.[36] The parade began at the premises of the Gaelic League in George's St and finished in the Peoples Park, where the public were addressed by the Mayor and other dignitaries.[37][38] On Tuesday 17 March, most Waterford businesses—including public houses—were closed and marching bands paraded like they had two days previously.[39] The Waterford Trades Hall had been emphatic that the National Holiday be observed.

On St Patrick's Day 1916, the Irish Volunteers – an Irish nationalist paramilitary organisation – held parades throughout Ireland. The authorities recorded 38 St Patrick's Day parades, involving 6,000 marchers, almost half of whom were said to be armed.[40] The following month, the Irish Volunteers launched the Easter Rising against British rule. This marked the beginning of the Irish revolutionary period and led to the Irish War of Independence and Civil War. During this time, St Patrick's Day celebrations in Ireland were muted, although the day was sometimes chosen to hold large political rallies.[41] The celebrations remained low-key after the creation of the Irish Free State; the only state-organized observance was a military procession and trooping of the colours, and an Irish-language mass attended by government ministers.[42] In 1927, the Irish Free State government banned the selling of alcohol on St Patrick's Day, although it remained legal in Northern Ireland. The ban was not repealed until 1961.[43]

The first official, state-sponsored St Patrick's Day parade in Dublin took place in
In Northern Ireland, the celebration of St Patrick's Day was affected by sectarian divisions.[45] A majority of the population were Protestant Ulster unionists who saw themselves as British, while a substantial minority were Catholic Irish nationalists who saw themselves as Irish. Although it was a public holiday, Northern Ireland's unionist government did not officially observe St Patrick's Day.[45] During the conflict known as the Troubles (late 1960s–late 1990s), public St Patrick's Day celebrations were rare and tended to be associated with the Catholic community.[45] In 1976, loyalists detonated a car bomb outside a pub crowded with Catholics celebrating St Patrick's Day in Dungannon; four civilians were killed and many injured. However, some Protestant unionists attempted to 're-claim' the festival, and in 1985 the Orange Order held its own St Patrick's Day parade.[45] Since the end of the conflict in 1998 there have been cross-community St Patrick's Day parades in towns throughout Northern Ireland, which have attracted thousands of spectators.[45]

In the mid-1990s the government of the Republic of Ireland began a campaign to use St Patrick's Day to showcase Ireland and its culture.[46] The government set up a group called St Patrick's Festival, with the aims:
To offer a national festival that ranks amongst all of the greatest celebration in the world
To create energy and excitement throughout Ireland via innovation, creativity, grassroots involvement, and marketing activity
To provide the opportunity and motivation for people of Irish descent (and those who sometimes wish they were Irish) to attend and join in the imaginative and expressive celebrations
To project, internationally, an accurate image of Ireland as a creative, professional and sophisticated country with wide appeal.[47]

The first St Patrick's Festival was held on 17 March 1996. In 1997, it became a three-day event, and by 2000 it was a four-day event. By 2006, the festival was five days long; more than 675,000 people attended the 2009 parade. Overall 2009's five-day festival saw almost 1 million visitors, who took part in festivities that included concerts, outdoor theatre performances, and fireworks.[48] Skyfest forms the centrepiece of the festival.

The topic of the 2004 St Patrick's Symposium was "Talking Irish", during which the nature of Irish identity, economic success, and the future were discussed. Since 1996, there has been a greater emphasis on celebrating and projecting a fluid and inclusive notion of "Irishness" rather than an identity based around traditional religious or ethnic allegiance. The week around St Patrick's Day usually involves Irish language speakers using more Irish during Seachtain na Gaeilge ("Irish Language Week").[citation needed]

Christian leaders in Ireland have expressed concern about the secularisation of St Patrick's Day. In The Word magazine's March 2007 issue, Fr Vincent Twomey wrote, "It is time to reclaim St Patrick's Day as a church festival". He questioned the need for "mindless alcohol-fuelled revelry" and concluded that "it is time to bring the piety and the fun together".

As well as Dublin, many other cities, towns, and villages in Ireland hold their own parades and festivals, including Cork, Belfast, Derry, Galway, Kilkenny, Limerick, and Waterford.

The biggest celebrations outside the cities are in Downpatrick, County Down, where Saint Patrick is said to be buried. The shortest St. Patrick's Day parade in the world formerly took place in Dripsey, County Cork. The parade lasted just 23.4 metres and traveled between the village's two pubs. The annual event began in 1999, but ceased after five years when one of the two pubs closed.
Elsewhere in Europe
Great Britain
In Great Britain, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother used to present bowls of shamrock flown over from Ireland to members of the Irish Guards, a regiment in the British Army. The Irish Guards still wear shamrock on this day, flown in from Ireland.

Christian denominations in Great Britain observing his feast day include The Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.

Horse racing at the Cheltenham Festival attracts large numbers of Irish people, both residents of Britain and many who travel from Ireland, and usually coincides with St Patrick's Day.

Birmingham holds the largest St Patrick's Day parade in Britain with a city centre parade[54] over a two-mile (3 km) route through the city centre. The organisers describe it as the third biggest parade in the world after Dublin and New York.
London, since 2002, has had an annual St Patrick's Day parade which takes place on weekends around the 17th, usually in Trafalgar Square. In 2008 the water in the Trafalgar Square fountains was dyed green.

Liverpool has the highest proportion of residents with Irish ancestry of any English city.[56] This has led to a long-standing celebration on St Patrick's Day in terms of music, cultural events and the parade.

Manchester hosts a two-week Irish festival in the weeks prior to St Patrick's Day. The festival includes an Irish Market based at the city's town hall which flies the Irish tricolour opposite the Union Flag, a large parade as well as a large number of cultural and learning events throughout the two-week period.
The first St Patrick's Day parade took place in Russia in 1992.[58] Since 1999, there has been a yearly "Saint Patrick's Day" festival in Moscow and other Russian cities.[59] The official part of the Moscow parade is a military-style parade and is held in collaboration with the Moscow government and the Irish embassy in Moscow. The unofficial parade is held by volunteers and resembles a carnival. In 2014, Moscow Irish Week was celebrated from 12 to 23 March, which includes St Patrick's Day on 17 March. Over 70 events celebrating Irish culture in Moscow, St Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Voronezh, and Volgograd were sponsored by the Irish Embassy, the Moscow City Government, and other organisations.[60]

In 2017, the Russian Orthodox Church added the feast day of Saint Patrick to its liturgical calendar, to be celebrated on 30 March [O.S. 17 March].
The Scottish town of Coatbridge, where the majority of the town's population are of Irish descent,[62][63] also has a Saint Patrick's Day Festival which includes celebrations and parades in the town centre.
Glasgow has a considerably large Irish population; due, for the most part, to the Irish immigration during the 19th century. This immigration was the main cause in raising the population of Glasgow by over 100,000 people.[65] Due to this large Irish population, there are many Irish-themed pubs and Irish interest groups who hold yearly celebrations on St Patrick's day in Glasgow. Glasgow has held a yearly St Patrick's Day parade and festival since 2007.
While Saint Patrick's Day in Switzerland is commonly celebrated on 17 March with festivities similar to those in neighbouring central European countries, it is not unusual for Swiss students to organise celebrations in their own living spaces on St Patrick's Eve. Most popular are usually those in Zurich's Kreis 4. Traditionally, guests also contribute with beverages and dress in green.
St Patrick's Parades are now held in many locations across Japan.[68] The first parade, in Tokyo, was organised by The Irish Network Japan (INJ) in 1992.
The Irish Association of Korea has celebrated Saint Patrick's Day since 1976 in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. The place of the parade and festival has been moved from Itaewon and Daehangno to Cheonggyecheon.
In Malaysia, the St Patrick's Society of Selangor, founded in 1925, organises a yearly St Patrick's Ball, described as the biggest St Patrick's Day celebration in Asia. Guinness Anchor Berhad also organises 36 parties across the country in places like the Klang Valley, Penang, Johor Bahru, Malacca, Ipoh, Kuantan, Kota Kinabalu, Miri and Kuching.
The tiny island of Montserrat is known as the "Emerald Island of the Caribbean" because of its founding by Irish refugees from Saint Kitts and Nevis. Montserrat is one of three places where St Patrick's Day is a public holiday, along with Ireland and the Canadian province of Newfoundland & Labrador. The holiday in Montserrat also commemorates a failed slave uprising that occurred on 17 March 1768.
International Space Station
Astronauts on board the International Space Station have celebrated the festival in different ways. Irish-American Catherine Coleman played a hundred-year-old flute belonging to Matt Molloy and a tin whistle belonging to Paddy Moloney, both members of the Irish music group The Chieftains, while floating weightless in the space station on Saint Patrick's Day in 2011.[71][72][73] Her performance was later included in a track called "The Chieftains in Orbit" on the group's album, Voice of Ages.[74]

Chris Hadfield took photographs of Ireland from earth orbit, and a picture of himself wearing green clothing in the space station, and posted them online on Saint Patrick's Day in 2013. He also posted online a recording of himself singing "Danny Boy" in space.
North America
One of the longest-running and largest St Patrick's Day parades in North America occurs each year in Montreal,[77] whose city flag includes a shamrock in its lower-right quadrant. The yearly celebration has been organised by the United Irish Societies of Montreal since 1929. The parade has been held yearly without interruption since 1824. St Patrick's Day itself, however, has been celebrated in Montreal since as far back as 1759 by Irish soldiers in the Montreal Garrison following the British conquest of New France.

In Manitoba, the Irish Association of Manitoba runs a yearly three-day festival of music and culture based around St Patrick's Day.[78]

In 2004, the CelticFest Vancouver Society organised its first yearly festival in downtown Vancouver to celebrate the Celtic Nations and their cultures. This event, which includes a parade, occurs each year during the weekend nearest St Patrick's Day.[79]

In Quebec City, there was a parade from 1837 to 1926. The Quebec City St-Patrick Parade returned in 2010 after more than 84 years. For the occasion, a portion of the New York Police Department Pipes and Drums were present as special guests.

There has been a parade held in Toronto since at least 1863.[80] The Toronto Maple Leafs hockey team was known as the Toronto St. Patricks from 1919 to 1927, and wore green jerseys. In 1999, when the Maple Leafs played on St Patrick's Day, they wore green St Patrick's retro uniforms. There is a large parade in the city's downtown on the Sunday before 17 March which attracts over 100,000 spectators.[citation needed]

Some groups, notably Guinness, have lobbied to make Saint Patrick's Day a national holiday.[81]

In March 2009, the Calgary Tower changed its top exterior lights to new green CFL bulbs just in time for St Patrick's Day. Part of an environmental non-profit organisation's campaign (Project Porchlight), the green represented environmental concerns. Approximately 210 lights were changed in time for Saint Patrick's Day, and resembled a Leprechaun's hat. After a week, white CFLs took their place. The change was estimated to save the Calgary Tower some $12,000 and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 104 tonnes.
United States
St Patrick's Day, while not a legal holiday in the United States, is nonetheless widely recognised and observed throughout the country as a celebration of Irish and Irish-American culture. Celebrations include prominent displays of the colour green, religious observances, numerous parades, and copious consumption of alcohol.[83] The holiday has been celebrated in North America since the late 18th century.
South America
In Buenos Aires, a party is held in the downtown street of Reconquista, where there are several Irish pubs;[84][85] in 2006, there were 50,000 people in this street and the pubs nearby.[86] Neither the Catholic Church nor the Irish community, the fifth largest in the world outside Ireland,[87] take part in the organisation of the parties.
In recent decades, St Patrick's Day celebrations have been criticised, particularly for their association with public drunkenness and disorderly conduct. Some argue that the festivities have become too commercialised and tacky,[88][89] and have strayed from their original purpose of honouring St Patrick and Irish heritage.[88][90][91] Journalist Niall O'Dowd has criticised recent attempts to recast St Patrick's Day as a celebration of multiculturalism rather than a celebration of Irishness.[92]

St Patrick's Day celebrations have also been criticised for fostering demeaning stereotypes of Ireland and Irish people.[88] An example is the wearing of 'leprechaun outfits',[93] which are based on derogatory 19th century caricatures of the Irish.[94] In the run up to St Patrick's Day 2014, the Ancient Order of Hibernians successfully campaigned to stop major American retailers from selling novelty merchandise that promoted negative Irish stereotypes.[95]

Some have described St Patrick's Day celebrations outside Ireland as displays of "Plastic Paddyness"; where foreigners appropriate and misrepresent Irish culture, claim Irish identity, and enact Irish stereotypes.[96]

LGBT groups in the US were banned from marching in St. Patrick's Day parades in New York City and Boston, resulting in the landmark Supreme Court decision of Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual Group of Boston. In New York City, the ban was lifted in 2014,[97] but LGBT groups still find that barriers to participation exist.[98] In Boston, the ban on LGBT group participation was lifted in 2015.
Sports events
Traditionally the All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship are held on Saint Patrick's Day in Croke Park, Dublin. The Interprovincial Championship was previously held on 17 March but this was switched to games being played in Autumn.
The Leinster Schools Rugby Senior Cup, Munster Schools Rugby Senior Cup and Ulster Schools Senior Cup are held on Saint Patrick's Day. The Connacht Schools Rugby Senior Cup is held on the weekend before Saint Patrick's Day.
The Saint Patrick's Day Test is an international rugby league tournament that is played between the US and Ireland. The competition was first started in 1995 with Ireland winning the first two tests with the US winning the last 4 in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2004. The game is usually held on or around 17 March to coincide with Saint Patrick's Day.[100]
The major professional sports leagues of the United States and Canada that play during March often wear special third jerseys to acknowledge the holiday. Examples include the Buffalo Sabres (who have worn special Irish-themed practice jerseys), Toronto Maple Leafs (who wear Toronto St. Patricks throwbacks), New York Knicks, Toronto Raptors, and most Major League Baseball teams. The New Jersey Devils have worn their green-and-red throwback jerseys on or around Saint Patrick's Day in recent years.

Friday, March 16, 2018

March 16th...This Day in History (West Point Military Academy + others)

U.S. Military Academy established 1802


The United States Military Academy–the first military school in the United States–is founded by Congress for the purpose of educating and training young men in the theory and practice of military science. Located at West Point, New York, the U.S. Military Academy is often simply known as West Point.
Located on the high west bank of New York’s Hudson River, West Point was the site of a Revolutionary-era fort built to protect the Hudson River Valley from British attack. In 1780, Patriot General Benedict Arnold, the commander of the fort, agreed to surrender West Point to the British in exchange for 6,000 pounds. However, the plot was uncovered before it fell into British hands, and Arnold fled to the British for protection.
Ten years after the establishment of the U.S. Military Academy in 1802, the growing threat of another war with Great Britain resulted in congressional action to expand the academy’s facilities and increase the West Point corps. Beginning in 1817, the U.S. Military Academy was reorganized by superintendent Sylvanus Thayer–later known as the “father of West Point”–and the school became one of the nation’s finest sources of civil engineers. During the Mexican-American War, West Point graduates filled the leading ranks of the victorious U.S. forces, and with the outbreak of the Civil War former West Point classmates regretfully lined up against one another in the defense of their native states.
In 1870, the first African-American cadet was admitted into the U.S. Military Academy, and in 1976, the first female cadets. The academy is now under the general direction and supervision of the department of the U.S. Army and has an enrollment of more than 4,000 students.

(More Events on This Day in History)

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Fw: TheList 4678

The List 4678

To All,
I hope that your week has been going well. Beware the Ides of March.
This Day In Naval History – March 15, 2018
March 15
1889A typhoon strikes Apia, Samoa, where American, German and British ships are protecting their national interests. The typhoon drives USS Trenton, USS Vandalia, and USS Nipsic ashore, killing 51 crew members, and sinks all three German ships with the loss of 150 crew.
1943U.S. 7th Fleet is established in Brisbane, Australia during WWII, under the command of Adm. Arthur S. "Chips" Carpender.
1943 - Numbered fleet system established
1944USS Shamrock Bay (CVE 84) is commissioned. During World War II, she serves in the Atlantic and is sent to the Pacific due the loss of escort carriers and participates in the Okinawa Campaign.
1947Ensign John W. Lee, Jr., becomes the first African-American with a commission in the regular Navy and serves aboard USS Kearsarge (CV 33).
1953Marine pilots of VMA 312 destroy eight rail cars, two possible radar towers, a power transformer and numerous other assorted targets in Korea before returning to USS Bataan (CVL 29).
1957A ZPG-2 airship driven by Cmdr. Jack R. Hunt lands at Naval Air Station Key West, FL, after a flight that began Mar. 4 at South Weymouth, MA, then circled over the Atlantic Ocean toward Portugal, the African coast and back for a new world record in distance and endurance, covering 9,448 statute miles and remaining airborne 264 hours 12 minutes without refueling.
1966 - Establishment of River Squadron Five in Vietnam
Thanks to CHINFO
Executive Summary:
In national news, headlines are dominated with reports that High school students across the nation walked out to protest gun violence Wednesday, more coverage of Stormy Daniels and her alleged affair with President Trump, and reports that Conor Lamb, a Democrat and former Marine, won a special House election in Southwestern Pennsylvania. ABC News reports that two Navy aviators were killed when their F/A-18F Super hornet crashed off the coast of Key West during a routine training flight. CNN states that the ICEX submarine drills give the U.S. Navy a chance to prepare in a harsh environment where Russia is a significant challenge. "We are well aware that we are in a great power competition environment and the Arctic is one piece of that," said Navy Rear Adm. James Pitts, commander of the Undersea Warfighting Development Center. "All the more reason why we the Navy are practicing up here and doing exercises to make sure that we can operate effectively." Additionally, Prime Minister Theresa May has expelled 23 Russian diplomats from the United Kingdom in response to the poisoning of a former Russian spy with a Soviet-era nerve agent, according to the Wall Street Journal. The expulsion is the biggest since 1985, when the U.K. expelled 25 Soviet citizens accused of spying.
This day in History
44 BC
Julius Caesar is assassinated by high-ranking Roman Senators.
Henry the Fowler routs the raiding Magyars at Merseburg, Germany.
Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first voyage to the New World.
In command of two frigates, the Frenchman la Perouse sails east from Botany Bay for the last lap of his voyage around the world.
Maine is admitted as the 23rd state.
General John Hunt Morgan begins four days of raids near the city of Gallatin, Tenn.
The Red River Campaign begins as the Union forces reach Alexandria, La.
New York State unveils the new automatic ballot voting machine.
Bone Mizell, the famed cowboy of Florida, appears before a judge for altering cattle brands.
The British complete the conquest of Nigeria.
Three hundred Russians are killed as the Japanese shell Port Arthur in Korea.
Italy proposes a European conference on the Balkans.
General John Pershing and his 15,000 troops chase Pancho Villa into Mexico.
Henry Ford restores the $5-a-day wage.
Joseph Goebbels, German Minister of Propaganda bans four Berlin newspapers.
Germany occupies Bohemia and Moravia, Czechoslovakia.
Cassino, Italy is destroyed by Allied bombing.
Almost four years after the end of World War II, clothes rationing in Great Britain ends.
French General de Lattre demands that Paris send him more troops for the fight in Indochina.
The U.S. Air Force unveils the first self-guided missile.
The first performance of My Fair Lady, starring Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison, takes place on Broadway.
Ten nations meet in Geneva to discuss disarmament.
Gamal Abdel Nasser is re-elected Egyptian President.
President Lyndon Johnson names Ellsworth Bunker as the new ambassador to Saigon. Bunker replaces Lodge.
The U.S. mint halts the practice of buying and selling gold.
Four Los Angeles police are charged in the beating of Rodney King.
With our thanks to THE Bear at
March 15, 2018   Bear Taylor  
RIPPLE SALVO… #740… ON 31 MARCH 1968 PRESIDENT JOHNSON GAVE A SPEECH FROM THE OVAL OFFICE OF ENORMOUS HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE. The Speech was a turning point in the conduct of ROLLING THUNDER. Ripple Salvo will tap several sources for the events that led up to the landmark and unexpected 41-minute speech the President dropped on the world on Sunday, 31 March 1968… A few paragraphs from Wayne Thompson's "To Hanoi and Back"... and a Homework Assignment for one of your breaks from "March Madness" and starting over on your "brackets."… but first…
Good Morning… Day SEVEN HUNDRED FORTY of a remembrance of a period of history a lot of folks would like to forget… especially those who chose not to participate and ducked and dodged their obligation to serve…
HEAD LINES from The New York Times on Friday, 15 March 1968…
GROUND WAR & KHESANH: Page 1: "CASUALTIES OF US IN VIETNAM TOP KOREAN WAR'S–TOTAL REFLECTS FEWER KILLED IN ACTION AND MORE WOUNDED"… "American casualties in the Vietnamese war have exceeded those in the Korean conflict, according to a report today by the United States command. THE REPORT SAID THAT 509 AMERICAN SERVICEMEN WERE KILLED IN ACTION AND 2,766 WOUNDED LAST WEEK pushing the casualty total since January 1, 1961, to139,801, of whom 19,670 were killed in action and 120,131 wounded. American casualties in three years of fighting in Korea were 136,914–33,061 dead and 103,853 wounded. Thus the Vietnam war has become the fourth bloodiest in United States history, exceeded only by World War I with 321,000 casualties, the Civil War with 798,000, and World War II with 1,678,000. The number of Americans killed in action in Vietnam, however, was 13,391 fewer than in Korea, with a corresponding increase in the wounded in Vietnam. Nearly half the wounded in Vietnam do not require hospitalization and are quickly returned to duty. The Vietnam casualty figures rose sharply on the week of January 30 when the enemy launched a Lunar New Year's offensive. Until then, the United States had never lost more than 337 men killed in a week of fighting. Every week since then, however, it has lost more than 400 every week. Last week's toll of 509 was the third highest of the war and the third time in four weeks that deaths had exceeded 500. Enemy deaths during the week were put at 4,335 by the Command…. A command spokesman explained the casualties: 'I can only say that 33 enemy rocket and mortar attacks on military installations over the three day period last week contributed to the total casualty figure.'… The spokesman said that the enemy pounded the Marine encampment at Khesanh with 200 artillery, rocket and mortar rounds but damage was 'light.'…In other action, enemy soldiers attacked a convoy with light weapons along South Vietnam's superhighway nine miles north of Saigon and killed one American soldier and wounded three incurring light damage to vehicles in the convoy."…
Thanks to Marathon

Assembling the Mighty Eighth
I came across this in an old list and thought it would be interesting to send it again
All – a great lessons learned, WWII flying story on a part of the mission that I often wondered about, but had never read anything about,
Subject: FW: GREAT READ....impressive to say the least
It's also hard to believe that a heavy bomber pilot only had to fly 30 missions to return home. 74% didn't make it! They have less total flying hours after 30 missions that we had in pilot training. Absolutely amazing.
From Chuck Boedeker:
I've been asked to offer a tribute to Col. Les Lennox, but when I read of his accomplishments, I struggle to find the words which will reflect accurately the service, sacrifice and lifeblood that he and thousands of other veterans selflessly gave to our country. So, I thought I'd let Col. Lennox speak for himself.
Here is the first of two memoirs from the pen of Leslie A. Lennox - Lt./Col USAF (ret). The second will follow in another note.
Leslie A. Lennox
Lt./Col. USAF(ret)
Of all the stories that have been written, and movies that have been shown, about the 8th Air Force, very little attention has been given to what was involved in assembling 1200 B-17's and B-24's each day, to get them in formation to carry out a strike against Germany. Certainly showing bombers under attack by fighters, or encountering heavy flak, was a reality, and are interesting to watch. Also, stories about some of the rougher missions make interesting reading. But what was going on over England, each morning, could get just as scary to the crews as the time spent over some of the targets. The planning, and coordination, that had to be accomplished during the night, by the operations planners of each Group, so that the crews could be briefed, was unbelievable. If the planners had failed to do their jobs properly, there would have been a free for all among Bomb Groups, in the skies over England. The rendezvous points, altitude, and times had to be precise, and known by all of the crews, before the Eighth Air Force could get in formation. The success of the planners, in accomplishing their mission, enabled the Eighth Air Force to become the most powerful air armada ever assembled. In my view, how this was accomplished is one of the major untold stories of the war.
I was a pilot in the 95th Bomb Group, in late 1944 and early 1945, and what follows is a typical mission, as I remember it, from a crew member's perspective.
Early in the evening, our Squadron Operations would post the names of the crews that were scheduled to fly the following day. There were two ways we could be notified if the Group had been alerted to fly. One was by means of lights on the front of the orderly room, and the other with raising of colored flags. If a green light was on, the Group was alerted, if a red light was on we would fly, and if a white light was on, the Group would stand down. The light was monitored frequently throughout the evening to learn our status and, normally, we would know before going to bed if we would be flying the next day.
On the morning of a mission, the CQ (charge of quarters) would awaken the crews about four or five o'clock, depending on takeoff time. The questions we always asked were, "What is the fuel load?" and, "What is the bomb load?" If his answer was," full Tokyo tanks," we knew we would be going deep into Germany. Shortly after being awakened, "6-by" trucks would start shuttling us to the mess hall. We always had all the fresh eggs we could eat, when flying a mission. After breakfast, the trucks carried us to the briefing room. All of the crew members attended the main briefing, and then the Navigators, Bombardiers and Radio operators went to a specialized briefing. At the main briefing, in addition to the target information--anti-aircraft guns, fighter escort and route in--we received a sheet showing our location in the formation, the call signs for the day and all the information we would need to assemble our Group and get into the bomber stream.
After briefing, we got into our flight gear, drew our parachutes and loaded onto the trucks for a ride to our plane. We were now guided by the time on our daily briefing sheet. We started engines at a given time and watched for the airplane we would be flying in formation with to taxi past, then we would taxi behind him. We were following strict radio silence.
We were now parked, nose to tail around the perimeter, on both sides of the active runway, and extremely vulnerable to a fighter strafing attack. At the designated takeoff time, a green flare would be fired and takeoff would begin. Every thirty seconds an airplane started takeoff roll. We were lined up on the perimeter so that the 12 airplanes of the high squadron would take off first, followed by the lead and then the low squadron.
Each Group had a pattern for the airplanes to fly during climb to assembly altitude. Some would fly a triangle, some a rectangle and our Group flew a circle, using a "Buncher" (a low frequency radio station) which was located on our station. The patterns for each Group fit together like a jig saw puzzle. Unfortunately, strong winds aloft would destroy the integrity of the patterns, and there would be considerable over running of each other's patterns.
Many of our takeoffs were made before daylight, during the winter of '44 and '45, when I was there, so it was not uncommon to climb through several thousand feet of cloud overcast. Also it was not uncommon to experience one or two near misses while climbing through the clouds, although you would never see the other airplane. You knew you had just had a near miss, when suddenly the airplane would shake violently as it hit the prop wash of another plane. It was a wonderful feeling to break out on top, so you could watch for other planes, to keep from running into each other. To add to the congestion we were creating, the Royal Air Force Lancasters, Halifaxes, and Wimpys would be returning from their night missions, and flying through our formations. Needless to say, pilots had to keep their heads on a swivel and their eyes out of the cockpit.
After take off, the squadron lead would fire a flare every 30 seconds, so that we could keep him located and enable us to get into formation quicker. The color of our Group flare was red-green. The first thing you would see, when breaking out of the clouds, was a sky filled with pyrotechnics, so you had to search the sky for the Group flare, which would identify the lead airplane of your Squadron. Once you had it located, you could adjust your pattern to climb more quickly into formation with him. As each airplane pulled into formation, they would also fire a flare, with the lead plane, making it much easier for the following aircraft to keep him in sight. I think most crew members would probably agree that the pyrotechnic show, in the skies over England, in the morning when the Eighth was assembling, was a rare sight to behold.
The order of progression for assembling the Eighth Air Force was to first assemble the Flight elements, the Squadrons, the Groups, the Combat wings, the Divisions and, finally, the Air Force.
As soon as the four Squadron elements were formed, the high, low and second elements would take up their positions on the lead element, to form a Squadron. When the three Squadrons had completed assembly, it was necessary to get into Group formation. This was accomplished by having the three Squadrons arrive over a pre-selected fix at a precise time and heading. The high and low Squadrons were separated from the lead Squadron by 1000 feet and, after getting into Group formation, they would maintain their positions by following the lead Squadron.
Then it was necessary to get into the Combat Wing formation. We were in the 13th Combat Wing, which consisted of three Bomb Groups: the 95th, the 100th and the 390th. Whichever Group was leading the Wing that day, would arrive over a pre-selected point, at a precise time and heading. Thirty seconds later, the second Group would pass that fix, followed by the third Group, thirty seconds later. We were then in Combat Wing formation. The navigators in the lead airplanes had a tremendous responsibility, to ensure that the rendezvous times were strictly adhered to.
There were three Divisions in the Eighth, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd. The 1st and 3rd Divisions consisted of B-17s only, and the 2nd Division was B-24s. The B-24s were faster than the B-17s, but the B-17s could fly higher, therefore, the two were not compatible in formation. As a result the 1st and 3rd Divisions would fly together and the 2nd Division would fly separately.
Now that the Groups were flying in Combat Wing formation, it was necessary to assemble the Divisions. This was usually accomplished at the "coast out"--a city on the coast, selected as the departure point "fix." The Group leader in each Combat Wing knew his assigned position in the Division, and the precise time that he should arrive at the coast out departure point, to assume that position in the Division formation. The lead Group in the Division, which had been selected to lead the Eighth on the mission, would be first over the departure fix. Thirty seconds after the last Group in the first Wing passed that point, the second Wing would fall in trail, and so on, until all Combat Wings were flying in trail and the Division would be formed. One minute later, the lead Group in the other Division would fly over that point, and the Combat Wings in that Division would follow the same procedure to get into formation. When all of its Combat Wings were in trail, the Eighth Air Force B-17 strike force was formed and on its way to the target. At the same time the 2nd Division B-24s were assembling in a similar manner and also departing to their target.
Meanwhile, as the bombers were assembling for their mission, pilots from the Fighter Groups were being briefed on their day's mission. Normally, 600 to 800 P-38's, P-47's, and P-51's would accompany the bombers to provide protection against enemy fighter attacks. Fighter cover was not needed by the bombers until they were penetrating enemy territory, therefore to help conserve fuel. fighter takeoffs were planned to give them enough time to quickly assemble after takeoff, and climb on course up the bomber stream to the groups they would be covering. The combined strength of the fighters and bombers brought the total number of aircraft participating in a mission to approximately two thousand.
A major problem that presented itself, on each mission, was that the bomber stream was getting too stretched out. It was not uncommon for the headlines in stateside newspapers--in trying to show the strength of our Air Force--to state that the first Group of bombers was bombing Berlin, while the last Group was still over the English Channel. It made great headlines but was a very undesirable situation. It meant that the Groups were out of position, and not keeping the proper separation. Furthermore, it was almost impossible for them to catch up and get back into the desired formation. This made the entire bomber stream more vulnerable to fighter attacks.
Finally, our planners figured out what we were doing wrong. When the first Group departed the coast out fix, it started its climb to what would be the bombing altitude. Then, as each succeeding Group departed that fix, it, too, would start climbing. The problem with this procedure was that, as soon as the first Group started its climb, its true airspeed would start to increase, and it would encounter different wind velocities. Now it would start to pull away from the Group in back of it, and the "stretchout" of the bomber stream would begin. By the time the last Group had reached the coast out, to start its climb, the first Group would be leveled off, with a true airspeed approaching 250 miles per hour, and the bomber stream would be really stretching out.
The solution to this problem that had been frustrating the Bomber crews for so long was pretty simple. We would no longer start climbing at the coast out, but instead, at a designated time, all Groups would start climbing, irrespective of position. This meant that we all would have similar true airspeeds and would be influenced by the same winds aloft. That took care of the problem. It was still possible for a Group to be out of position, because of poor timing, but the entire bomber stream wouldn't get all stretched out.
When you consider the way our Air Traffic Control system operates today, and all the facilities at their disposal to guide each individual airplane through the sky to ensure its safety, it's almost unbelievable that we were able to do what we did. To think of launching hundreds of airplanes, in a small airspace, many times in total darkness, loaded with bombs, with complete radio silence, and no control from the ground, and do it successfully day after day, with young air crews, with minimum experience, is absolutely mind boggling.
The accomplishments of the Eighth Air Force have been and will be reviewed by historians from World War II on. There never will be another air armada to compare to it. I feel confident that they will never cease to be amazed by our ability to assemble hundreds of heavy Bombers, under the conditions we were confronting, into the devastating strike force we now fondly refer to as, "The Mighty Eighth."
  Item Number:4 Date: 03/15/2018 MALI - CLASHES BETWEEN ETHNIC GROUPS KILL 25 (MAR 15/AFP)  AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE -- At least 25 people have died in ethnic clashes in central Mali over the past week, reports Agence France-Presse.   The killings are part of escalating cycle of tit-for-tat killings between then pastoral Fulani people and the agrarian Dogon, said community leaders.   The Dogon accuse the Fulani of cooperating with Amadou Koufa, a Fulani leader who merged his Macina Liberation Army with other Al Qaida affiliates in March 2017 to form the Group to Support Islam and Muslims (JNIM).   JNIM has also participated in some of the killings, fighting alongside the Fulani against the Dogon.   Fulani leaders have accused the Dogon of receiving weaponry from the army.   The government could not provide an official death toll from the violence in the area, where the central government has little presence.   The government has denied providing arms to any parties in the conflict
  Item Number:6 Date: 03/15/2018 NIGER - U.S.-NIGERIEN FORCES KILLED 11 ISIS FIGHTERS IN DECEMBER FIREFIGHT, SAYS PENTAGON (MAR 15/NYT)  NEW YORK TIMES -- U.S. Green Berets and Nigerien forces killed 11 Islamic State (ISIS) militants in December 2017, reports the New York Times.   On Wednesday, the U.S. military confirmed the deadly firefight, which occurred on Dec. 6, 2017.   A combined force of Nigerien and American troops "came under fire from a formation of violent extremists," said an African Command spokeswoman. No troops were injured in the battle.   Two of the 11 ISIS fighters killed were wearing suicide vests when they were killed, she said.   The Dec. 6 firefight occurred after a deadly October ambush in the town of Tongo Tongo, in which four Green Berets and five Nigeriens were killed.   Senior commanders imposed stricter limits on military missions after the Tongo Tongo ambush. But recent accounts suggest that U.S. engagement in the country did not end
  Item Number:7 Date: 03/15/2018 PAKISTAN - TTP ATTACK ON POLICE CHECKPOINT KILLS 9 IN LAHORE (MAR 15/DAWN)  DAWN -- Nine people have been killed and 20 injured in a suicide attack on a police checkpoint in Lahore, eastern Pakistan, reports Dawn (Pakistan).   Five police officers were among those killed in the attack on Wednesday.   The teenage suicide bomber targeted police who were providing security to a religious gathering in the city's Raiwand district.   The attack occurred not far from the home of former prime minister Nawaz Sharif, said emergency response officials.   The Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) claimed responsibility for the attack, reported the Express Tribune (Pakistan).   This was the first explosion in Lahore, a provincial capital, in 2018, noted the Press Trust of India.  
  Item Number:11 Date: 03/15/2018 SYRIA - ASSAD REGIME HAS WON CIVIL WAR, SAYS VOTEL (MAR 15/MIL)  MILITARY.COM -- The head of the U.S. Central Command has told lawmakers that the Syrian regime, with assistance from Iran and Russia, has emerged victorious from its seven-year civil war, reports   U.S. policy has been that Assad must step down or be thrown out, but it appears now that "the regime is ascendant" Army Gen. Joseph Votel told the Senate Armed Services Committee on Tuesday.   Russia and Iran have provided key capabilities that have allowed government forces to defeat a range of rebel groups, he said.   Assad's victory will in the long run present greater threats to Israel and Jordan from Iran's support for Hezbollah in Lebanon, he said.   Votel also told lawmakers that the U.S. is trying to improve the ability of Syrian rebels to detain a growing number of foreign fighters, according to wire service accounts.   U.S.-backed Syrian Democratic Forces are currently detaining more than 400 foreign fighters. The U.S. has made efforts to provide appropriate food, water, and shelter, but the SDF lacks the capacity to handle greater amounts of detainees, Votel said.   Defense Secretary James Mattis has been pushing U.S. allies to take custody of their citizens who are captured on the battlefield
Item Number:13 Date: 03/15/2018 USA - 2 KILLED AFTER NAVY JET CRASHES DURING TRAINING (MAR 15/WKTR)  CBS 3 (WKTR) -- A Navy fighter jet has crashed during a training flight off the coast of Key West, Florida, killing both crew members, reports WKTR (Norfolk).   The F/A-18F Super Hornet crashed on Wednesday, one mile from the runway on final approach to Boca Chica Field, Naval Air Station, Key West.   The crew members managed to eject from their jet but did not survive, reported NBC News.   The crewmembers were attached to Strike Fighter Squadron 213, also known as the Blacklions, at Naval Air Station Oceana in Virginia Beach, Virginia.   The cause of the crash is being investigated, said the Navy
Item Number:14 Date: 03/15/2018 USA - AVALANCHE INJURES 5 SOLDIERS DURING MOUNTAIN TRAINING (MAR 15/WCAX)  WCAX-TV -- Five Army soldiers were injured by an avalanche during a mountain training exercise in northern Vermont, reports WCAX (Burlington, Vt.).   Six soldiers fell about 300 meters down the side of the mountain on Wednesday, said an officer with the Vermont National Guard.   The soldiers were located within about 10 minutes. After two hours, they were safely transported to an ambulance.   Five of the soldiers swept up in the avalanche were taken to a nearby hospital for non-life-threatening injuries.   The soldiers were training as part of the Army Mountain Warfare School at Camp Ethan Allen Training Center in Jericho, Vt., reported My Champlain Valley.   Proper training saved their lives, said the National Guard officer