Sunday, December 9, 2018

December 9th...This Day in History (U.S Marines storm Mogadishu, Somalia + others)

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U.S Marines storm Mogadishu, Somalia 1992

On this day in 1992, 1,800 United States Marines arrive in Mogadishu, Somalia, to spearhead a multinational force aimed at restoring order in the conflict-ridden country.

Following centuries of colonial rule by countries including Portugal, Britain and Italy, Mogadishu became the capital of an independent Somalia in 1960. Less than 10 years later, a military group led by Major General Muhammad Siad Barre seized power and declared Somalia a socialist state. A drought in the mid-1970s combined with an unsuccessful rebellion by ethnic Somalis in a neighboring province of Ethiopia to deprive many of food and shelter. By 1981, close to 2 million of the country’s inhabitants were homeless. Though a peace accord was signed with Ethiopia in 1988, fighting increased between rival clans within Somalia, and in January 1991 Barre was forced to flee the capital. Over the next 23 months, Somalia’s civil war killed some 50,000 people; another 300,000 died of starvation as United Nations peacekeeping forces struggled in vain to restore order and provide relief amid the chaos of war.

In early December 1992, outgoing U.S. President George H.W. Bush sent the contingent of Marines to Mogadishu as part of a mission dubbed Operation Restore Hope. Backed by the U.S. troops, international aid workers were soon able to restore food distribution and other humanitarian aid operations. Sporadic violence continued, including the murder of 24 U.N. soldiers from Pakistan in 1993. As a result, the U.N. authorized the arrest of General Mohammed Farah Aidid, leader of one of the rebel clans. On October 3, 1993, during an attempt to make the arrest, rebels shot down two of the U.S. Army’s Black Hawk helicopters and killed 18 American soldiers.

As horrified TV viewers watched images of the bloodshed—-including footage of Aidid’s supporters dragging the body of one dead soldier through the streets of Mogadishu, cheering—-President Bill Clinton immediately gave the order for all American soldiers to withdraw from Somalia by March 31, 1994. Other Western nations followed suit. When the last U.N. peacekeepers left in 1995, ending a mission that had cost more than $2 billion, Mogadishu still lacked a functioning government. A ceasefire accord signed in Kenya in 2002 failed to put a stop to the violence, and though a new parliament was convened in 2004, rival factions in various regions of Somalia continue to struggle for control of the troubled nation.

(More Events on This Day in History)

GENERAL INTEREST
1992
Separation of Charles and Diana announced
British Prime Minister John Major announces the formal separation of Charles, Prince of Wales and heir to the British throne, and his wife, Princess Diana. Major explained that the royal couple were separating “amicably.” The report came after several years of speculation by the ...

MUSIC
1972
“I Am Woman” by Helen Reddy tops the U.S. pop charts
Nothing in her professional credentials suggested the Australian pop singer Helen Reddy as a feminist icon prior to 1972. She’d made her way to the United States from her native Australia on her own to pursue stardom, and she’d paid her dues working on the periphery of the music ...

GENERAL INTEREST
1958
John Birch Society founded
In Indianapolis, retired Boston candy manufacturer Robert H.W. Welch, Jr., establishes the John Birch Society, a right-wing organization dedicated to fighting what it perceives to be the extensive infiltration of communism into American society. Welch named the society in honor ...

GENERAL INTEREST
1990
Walesa elected president of Poland
In Poland, Lech Walesa, founder of the Solidarity trade union, wins a landslide election victory, becoming the first directly elected Polish leader. Walesa, born in 1943, was an electrician at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk when he was fired for union agitation in 1976. When ...

GENERAL INTEREST
1987
Intifada begins on Gaza Strip
In the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip, the first riots of the Palestinian intifada, or “shaking off” in Arabic, begin one day after an Israeli truck crashed into a station wagon carrying Palestinian workers in the Jabalya refugee district of Gaza, killing four and wounding 10. Gaza ...

VIETNAM WAR
1971
Paris peace talks break down
For the first time since the Paris peace talks began in May 1968, both sides refuse to set another meeting date for continuation of the negotiations. The refusal to continue came during the 138th session of the peace talks. U.S. delegate William Porter angered the communist ...

Saturday, December 8, 2018

[TheList] 4877

The List 4877

To All,

I hope that you all are having a great weekend. My computer got infected Friday and would not receive or send. Thanks to Geek Squad it is back as good as new. Catching up on a couple hundred email from my friends. Doing Christmas stuff like all of us. 16 full days until Christmas. 3 weekends for the procrastinators.

Regards

skip

This day in Naval History

Dec. 7

§  1796—In his eighth annual message to Congress, President George Washington urges Congress to increase naval strength.

§  1941—In one of the defining moments in U.S. history, the Japanese attack the U.S. Pacific Fleet and nearby military airfields and installations at Pearl Harbor, HI, and remove the U.S. Navy’s battleship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire’s southward expansion. The U.S. is brought into the World War II as a full combatant.

§  1941—During the attack on Pearl Harbor, Capt. Mervyn Sharp Bennion, commanding officer of USS West Virginia (BB 48), with concern only in fighting and saving his ship, strongly protests against being carried from the bridge. For devotion to duty and courage during the attack, Bennion is awarded the Medal of Honor.

§  1941—Chief Aviation Ordnanceman John William Finn mans a .50-caliber machine gun mounted on an instruction stand in an exposed section of the parking ramp, while under heavy enemy machine-gun strafing fire. While painfully wounded, he continued to man the gun and return the enemy’s fire throughout the enemy strafing and bombing attacks. He was at last persuaded to leave his post to seek medical attention after being specifically ordered to do so. After receiving first-aid, the chief returned to the squadron area and actively supervised the rearming of returning planes. Chief (later Lieutenant) Finn earned the Medal of Honor that day for his extraordinary heroism, distinguished service, and devotion above and beyond the call of duty during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor.

§  1941—Ensign Francis C. Flaherty remains in his turret, holding a flashlight so the remainder of the turret crew could see the escape, thereby sacrificing his own life. For devotion to duty and courage during the Pearl Harbor attack, Flaherty is awarded the Medal of Honor.

§  1941—Lt. Cmdr. Samuel Glenn Fuqua rushes to the quarterdeck of USS Arizona, where a large bomb hits and penetrates several decks, and the explosion starts a severe fire and also stuns and knocks him down. Upon coming to, he begins to direct the firefighting and rescue efforts. A tremendous explosion forward appears to make the ship rise out of the water, shudder and settle down by the bow. Flames envelope the forward part of the ship and spread, as wounded men pour out of the ship to the quarterdeck. Despite the mayhem, Fuqua keeps calm under pressure and continues to direct the firefighting efforts so that the wounded could be taken from the ship, and in so doing inspires everyone who sees him. Realizing that the ship cannot be saved and that he was the senior surviving officer aboard, he orders the crew to abandon ship. Fuqua remains on the quarterdeck until satisfied that all personnel that could be had been saved, after which he leaves the ship with the last boatload.

§  1941—Chief Boatswain Edwin Joseph Hill leads his men of the line-handling details of USS Nevada to the quays, casts off the lines and swims back to this ship. Later, while on the forecastle attempting to let go the anchors, he is blown overboard and killed by the explosion of several bombs. Chief Hill earned the Medal of Honor that day for his distinguished conduct in the line of his profession, extraordinary courage, and disregard of his own safety during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor.

§  1941—Ensign Herbert C. Jones organizes and leads a party in supplying ammunition to the antiaircraft battery of the USS California after the mechanical hoists were put out of action. Jones is then fatally wounded by a nearby bomb explosion and when two men attempt to take him from the area which was on fire, he refuses to let them, saying, in words to the effect, “Leave me alone! I am done for. Get out of here before the magazines go off.”

§  1941—Rear Adm. Isaac C. Kidd immediately goes to the bridge and as the commander of battleship division one, he courageously performs his duties as Senior Officer Present Afloat until his flagship, USS Arizona, blows up from magazine explosions and he is killed by a direct bomb hit on the bridge.

§  1941—As the mechanized ammunition hoists are put of action in USS California, Chief Radioman Thomas James Reeves, on his own initiative, in a burning passageway, assists in the maintenance of an ammunition supply by hand to the antiaircraft guns until he is overcome by smoke and fire, resulting in his death.

§  1941—As his station in the forward dynamo room aboard the USS Nevada becomes almost untenable due to smoke, steam, and heat, Lt. Cmdr. Donald Kirby Ross forces his men to leave the station and performs all the duties himself until blinded and unconscious. Upon being rescued and resuscitated, he returns and secures the forward dynamo room and proceeds to the aft dynamo room where he is again rendered unconscious by exhaustion. Again recovering consciousness, he returns to his station where he remained until directed to abandon it.

§  1941—As the compartment in which the air compressor is located aboard USS California begins to flood, as a result of torpedo hit, the crew decides to evacuate the compartment, but Machinist’s Mate 1st Class Robert R. Scott refuses to leave, saying words to the effect, “This is my station and I will stay and give them air as long as the guns are going.”

§  1941—USS Utah begins to capsize as a result of enemy bombing and torpedoing. Chief Watertender Peter Tomich remains at his post in the engineering plant until he sees that all boilers are secured and all of the crew in the fire room have left their stations, and by so doing loses his life.

§  1941—Captain Franklin Van Valkenburgh, commanding officer of USS Arizona, gallantly fights his ship until his death, when a direct bomb hits on the bridge and the ship blows up from magazine explosions.

§  1941—Seaman 1st Class James Richard Ward remains in his turret, holding a flashlight so the remainder of the turret crew could see the escape, thereby sacrificing his own life. For devotion to duty and courage during the Pearl Harbor attack, Ward is awarded the Medal of Honor.

§  1941—Aboard USS Vestal, moored to USS Arizona, Commander Cassin Young proceeds to the bridge and takes personal command of the 3-inch antiaircraft gun. The forward magazine of Arizona explodes and the blast blows Cmdr. Young overboard. He swims back to his ship, which is afire in several places, settling, and taking on a list. Despite severe enemy bombing and strafing at the time, and having been blown overboard, he calmly moves the ship to an anchorage distant from Arizona, which is a blazing inferno with oil afire on the water between the two ships. Young subsequently beaches Vestal upon determining that such action was required to save his ship.

§  1941—While at the side of his Captain on the bridge, Cook 3rd Class Dorris Miller, despite enemy strafing and bombing and in the face of a serious fire, assists in moving his Captain, who had been mortally wounded, to a place of greater safety, and later mans and operates a machine gun directed at enemy Japanese attacking aircraft until ordered to leave the bridge. For distinguished devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and disregard for his own personal safety during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Miller is awarded the Navy Cross.

§  1944—The 7th Fleet forces land the 77th Army Infantry Division on the shore of Ormoc Bay. Kamikazes attack the Task Force, damaging several U.S. Navy ships. USS Ward (APD 16) is scuttled after being hit by a kamikaze. 

§  2017—Rear Adm. Matthew J. Carter, deputy commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, presented the Bronze Star Medal with V device for valor to Joe Ann Taylor, the daughter of Chief Boatswain's Mate Joseph L. George. Secretary of the Navy Richard V. Spencer had previously authorized the award for George’s heroic achievement while serving aboard the repair ship USS Vestal (AR 4) Dec. 7, 1941 at Pearl Harbor.

Dec. 8

§  1846—While commanded by Lt. Raphael Semmes, the brig Somers is chasing a blockade runner off Vera Cruz when it is caught in a sudden storm. Capsized by the heavy winds, it quickly sinks with the loss of more than 30 of her crew. In recent years, her wreck has been discovered and explored by divers.

§  1941—After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States declares war on Japan.

§  1941—USS Wake (PR 3), a river gunboat moored at Shanghai, surrenders to the Japanese. During WWII, Wake is the only U.S. Navy vessel to be captured by the enemy intact.

§  1942—Eight PT boats (PT 36, PT 37, PT 40, PT 43, PT 44, PT 48, PT 59, and PT 109) turn back eight Japanese destroyers attempting to reinforce Japanese forces on Guadalcanal.

§  1943—USS Sawfish (SS 276) sinks Japanese transport Sansei Maru southeast of Chi Jima. Also on this date, TBFs sinks Rabaul-bound fishing boats No. 3 Yusho Maru, No.7 Fukuri Maru, No.2 Takatori Maru, and No.1 Hoko Maru. 

§  1967—President Lyndon B. Johnson signed legislation to create the Judge Advocate General's (JAG) Corps of the Department of the Navy. The law established active-duty attorneys as a distinct professional group, and it ushered in a new era of legal administration within the Navy.

Dec. 9

§  1864—While operating on the Roanoke River at Rainbow Bluff, NC, the side-wheel gunboat Otsego strikes two Confederate mines. The steam tugboat Bazely rushes to help Otsego, but it also hits a mine. Both vessels eventually sink. During this operation, the side-wheel gunboat Wyalusing provides fire cover while boats dragged for mines.

§  1938—A prototype shipboard radar, XAF, designed and built by the Naval Research Laboratory, is installed on USS New York (BB 34). Installation on U.S. Navy vessels begins in 1940 and proves fruitful in detecting the enemy in World War II.

§  1941—USS Swordfish (SS 193) makes initial U.S. submarine attack on Japanese ship, torpedoing a ship 150 miles west of Manila. Her claim of sinking, though, is not confirmed in enemy records.

§  1944—USS Charles F. Hughes (DD 428) and USS Madison (DD 425) bombard German coast artillery positions and troop concentrations along the Franco-Italian border. 

§  2017—The Navy launches its latest branding campaign aimed at attracting a new generation of recruits during live national coverage of the Army-Navy football game. The launch also marks the debut of the Navy's new tagline, “Forged by the Sea.”

 

Thanks to CHINFO

Executive Summary:
Top national news headlines include President Trump's intention to nominate Heather Nauert, spokeswoman for the U.S. State Department, as ambassador to the U.N., continued global market fluctuations following the arrest of Chinese company Huawei's CFO in Canada, and growing calls of alleged election fraud in a U.S. Representative race in North Carolina. Speaking to a symposium presented by the U.S. Naval Institute and the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Navy Secretary Richard V. Spencer told an audience that the Navy needs increased visibility in the Arctic reports Seapower Magazine. "The Arctic is an area we must focus on," Spencer said. "We need to have a strategic Arctic port up in Alaska. We need to be doing FONOPS [Freedom of Navigation operations] in the Northern Passage. We need to be monitoring it." Secretary Spencer expressed concern over the possibility of a tightening budget in FY 2020 reports USNI News. Additionally, Stars and Stripes reports that VCNO Adm. Bill Moran visited Bahrain to console sailors and reassure allies following the death of Vice Adm. Scott Stearney.

 

·         Today in History
December 8

1660

 

The first Shakespearian actress to appear on an English stage (she is believed to be a Ms. Norris) makes her debut as Desdemona.

1861

 

CSS Sumter captures the whaler Eben Dodge in the Atlantic. The American Civil War is now affecting the Northern whaling industry.

1863

 

Union General William Averell's cavalry destroys railroads in the southwestern part of West Virginia.

1914

 

The German cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Nurnberg, and Liepzig are sunk by a British force in the Battle of the Falkland Islands.

1920

 

President Woodrow Wilson declines to send a representative to the League of Nations in Geneva.

1932

 

Japan tells the League of Nations that it has no control over her designs in China.

1941

 

Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita begins his attack against the British army at Singapore.

1943

 

U.S. carrier-based planes sink two cruisers and down 72 planes in the Marshall Islands.

1944

 

The United States conducts the longest, most effective air raid on the Pacific island of Iwo Jima.

1948

 

The United Nations approves the recognition of South Korea.

1967

 

In the biggest battle yet in the Mekong Delta, 365 Viet Cong are killed.

1968

 

South Vietnam's Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky arrives in Paris for peace talks.

1980

 

John Lennon is shot to death outside his Manhattan apartment building.

1982

 

The Washington, D.C., police shoot and kill a man threatening to blow up the Washington Monument.

1987

 

The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty signed.

1987

 

An Israeli army tank transporter kills 4 Palestinian refugees and injures 7 others during a traffic accident at the Erez Crossing on the border between Israel and the Gaza Strip, leading to the First Intifada.

1991

 

The leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine sign an agreement that dissolves the Soviet Union and establishes the Commonwealth of Independent States.

2004

 

The Cuzco Declaration signed in Cuzco, Peru, establishing the South American Community of Nations.

2010

 

SpaceX becomes the first privately held company to successfully launch, orbit and recover a spacecraft.

2010

 

The Japanese solar-sail spacecraft IKAROS passes the planet Venus.

 

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Thanks to Dr. Rich….This is much better than what the news did.

This is the best video of the 21 F/A-18 Missing Man formation I have seen thus far…

A fitting end to the celebration of Bush's life.

 

The TV networks didn’t capture the missing man flyover very well, but a man (WaltWW) did a nice job photographing it from the Texas A&M cemetery: 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GT88tYXln4I 

The first single aircraft leading the way is from the aircraft carrier George H.W. Bush. 



The aircraft are a combination of US Navy F/A-18 Hornets and Super Hornets. 


Watch carefully as the missing man’s aircraft leaves the formation and climbs away vertically, you can see the initial puff of white smoke as the afterburners light off. They flew quite a bit lower than normal because of the low cloud deck. 

 

A really nice final tribute to George H.W. Bush.

 

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Thanks to Carl

"Meet Achmed the Dead Terrorist" |  JEFF DUNHAM - YouTube

Funny!!

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBvfiCdk-jc

 

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The Truth about Pearl Harbor

 

Captain Harold K. Strunk, U.S. Navy, Retired

 

 

To understand the ‘why’ of Pearl Harbor, we need to revisit what was going on in Europe in the days leading up to the attack.  World War One ended with victors, but no winners.  Germany had failed in their quest to expand their borders and the British and the Germans lost an entire generation of young men. In the first day of the Battle of the Somme, Britain lost 21,000 men killed. Not wounded, Killed.  We entered the war four years after it began and the Brits called us “Johnny Come Latelys”.  Yet we lost 117,000 young men who are buried all over Western Europe.

 

At war’s end, the Treaty of Versailles was so punitive to the Germans that it sowed the seeds for the rise of Adolph Hitler and World War Two.  For years the Germans were preparing to take over all of Western Europe, building a war machine to carry out a Blitzkrieg.  In 1938, Germany invaded the Sudetenland and in 1938 annexed Austria. One year later he added Czechoslavakia. Then in September of 1939 Hitler invaded Poland which forced France and Britain to enter the war. Nine months later the German Army drove the British and the French armies into the sea at Dunkirk.  Prime Minister Churchill called for everyone who could sail a boat across the English Channel to go and rescue our soldiers.  Thousands responded.  Personally I believe Hitler let them escape hoping that Great Britain would remain neutral.  It seemed that all Hitler wanted was Continental Europe. With all of Western Europe under German occupation, in June of 1941, Hitler turned East and broke the Non-aggression Pact he had signed with Josef Stalin and invaded the Soviet Union.

 

Hitler kept the pressure on the British with his wolf pack of submarines sinking almost every supply ship that tried to reach England.  They were clearly in trouble.  With that, Churchill needed to get the United States into the war in Europe to come, once more, to Britain’s rescue.  His pressure on President Roosevelt never let up.

 

 

 

                                                      -2-

 

However, the mood in America was not what you might imagine.  Adolph Hitler was Time Magazine’s Man of the Year in 1938.  Hitler awarded his highest civilian honor, The Order of the Golden Eagle, to Henry Ford who had built a factory for him. Our Ambassador to England, Joe Kennedy, was openly praising Hitler. So was Charles Lindberg.  And the Duke and Dutchess of Windsor were such an embarrassment to Prime Minister Winston Churchill that he had them banished to Bermuda.  Standard Oil of New Jersey was fueling German U-boats and tankers at Tenerife in the Canary Islands and Rockefeller’s Chase Bank was one of Hitler’s banks.

 

In the ‘thirties I lived in a section of New York City that was entirely German.  American Germans filled Madison Square Garden in a rally supporting Hitler.  And needless to say, they were rooting for Max Schmeling when he fought Joe Louis at the Garden.

 

Roosevelt’s problem was that he had promised while campaigning in August, 1941, that no American boys would be sent again to fight in European wars.  Europe was always at war.  And Roosevelt knew that Germany was not going to attack us.  They wanted us to be neutral.  After all, Hitler had seen the Americans in combat before.  He had been a corporal in World War I and had been awarded Germany’s highest medal, the Iron Cross for heroism.

 

However, President Roosevelt knew of a way.  Germany had signed a pact with Italy and Japan.  War with one was war with all.  So the plan evolved to force Japan to attack us.  The American public was very isolationist in those days, so it would have to be something that would enrage us and take us into war.

 

Roosevelt came into possession of an eight point memorandum written on 7 October 1940 by Navy LCDR Arthur McCollum to the Office of Naval Intelligence.  Implementation of these eight points would provoke Japan to attack us. It was economic strangulation.

 

 

                                              -3-

 

McCollum had grown up in Japan and spoke Japanese fluently. He knew the Japanese people well.

 

So President Roosevelt then set our course in history.  There are those that still say that we never broke the Japanese codes. Listen closely to this…fact is, the Japanese diplomatic and naval codes were being broken years before Pearl Harbor.  All Tokyo diplomatic messages intended for Japanese missions in America passed through the RCA radio communications systems.  Voice telephone service to and from Japan went through American Telephone and Telegraph offices near Market Street in San Francisco.  Radio messages for Japanese merchant marine vessels originated in San Francisco at Globe Wireless.

 

On New Year’s Day, January 1, 1941 Navy Chief Radioman O.C. Coonce at Station CAST, Corregidor, intercepted the Japanese Navy’s

5-Number code detailing the move of Japanese naval forces into French Indo China.  On April 22nd, Radioman Leroy Lankford intercepted messages indicating the formation of a new fleet placing all ten of

 

Japan’s aircraft carriers under the command of MI KI 99, his code name, aboard the Carrier Akagi.  With radio direction finders they located the carrier and reported its location to Washington.  Further they determined that MI KI 99 is VADM Chuichi Nagumo.

 

On May 1st the Japanese Navy changed its code to Yobidashi Fugo HYOO 8.  It changed every radio address in the Japanese Navy.  They felt this would protect the security of their warships and senior officers.

Ten days later, Station CAST identified the new call sign of the Akagi as

HA MI 9. Using radio direction finders they located Akagi at the Sasebo Naval Base on Kyushu.

 

On June 20th, VADM Nagumo was detected in radio communications with the flagship of Japan’s submarine force, Katori.

 

By August, 1941 six Navy Radio Stations were intercepting Japanese messages usually operating on 6775 kilocycles.  They are Station CAST on Corregidor, Station VICTOR in American Samoa, Station KING in

 

                                            -4-

 

Dutch Harbor, Alaska, Station TARE at Point St. George, California,        Station HYPO on Hawaii, and Station X which is still classified to this

day but believed to be the British-owned Makay Radio and Telegraph station at Half Moon Bay, California.

 

On average, the Navy was intercepting four or more messages a day.

Then on November 25th, ADM Isoroku Yamamoto ordered the Carrier Task Force to open hostilities with the United States Fleet in Hawaii.

 

On  November 26th, 1941, Japan’s First Air Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo departed Hitokappu Bay with orders to attack Pearl Harbor on 8 December 1941 (Tokyo time). 

 

On December 1st, Elliot Okins, the watch supervisor at Station HYPO in Hawaii intercepted a message to Commander in Chief, Combined Fleet and Commander in Chief, China Fleet and from Chief, Navy General Staff. That was top Admiral Osami Nagano. When decoded it read:

 

1.     It has been decided to enter into a state of war between the Imperial Government on one side, and the United States, Great Britain and the Netherlands during the first part of December.

2.     The C in C Combined Fleet will destroy the enemy forces and air strength in the eastern seas at the same time will meet any attack by the enemy fleet and destroy it.

3.     The C in C Combined Fleet will, in cooperation with the Commander of the Southern Army, speedily capture and hold important American and British bases in Eastern Asia and then Dutch bases.

4.     C in C Combined Fleet will in case of necessity cooperate with the operations of China Area Fleet.

5.     The time for activating the movements of forces in accordance with preceding articles will be given at a later order.

6.     Execution of details will be as directed by Chief of the Naval General Staff.

 

Admiral Nagano’s orders were followed immediately.  Admiral Yamamoto transmitted, “Climb Mount Niitaka”, the Start- the- War message in Japan’s Naval Code.

 

 

                                            -5-

 

By 4 December Station CAST on Corregidor had identified and located by radio direction finders the carriers Akagi, Zuikaku, and Hiryu. 

                                             

The fleet was also heard and being tracked by stations in Dutch Harbor, Seattle, Samoa and San Diego. 

 

Even the steamship SS Lurline heard them as she steamed between San Francisco and Hawaii.  They were also picking up messages between Nagumo and Admiral Yamamoto.  Feeling that their codes were secure, they were careless.  There were 31 ships within the fleet and they were often heard as they steamed across the deserted Northern Pacific Ocean toward Hawaii. 

 

All coded radio intercepts were copied and were routed to Station US in Washington, DC to be decrypted.  Only they could decode the intercepted number and letter groups.

 

When these messages were decoded, there were only thirty-six individuals cleared to read them. Among them was the President, Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Secretary of War Henry Stimson, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox, Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Harold R. Stark, Director of Naval Intelligence Captain William S. Anderson, Commander US Army Forces Philippines General Douglas MacArthur, Lt Commander Joseph J. Rochefort Commander US Navy Radio Station HYPO at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, Lieutenant John Lietwiler commander US Navy Radio Station CAST Corregidor, Captain William A. Heard, Far Eastern Division, Office of Naval Intelligence, Washington, DC, Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner, Navy War Plans Officer, Washington, DC, Commander Arthur McCollum, head of Far East Section, Office of Naval Intelligence, Washington, DC, Lt Commander Edwin Layton, Pacific Fleet Intelligence Officer at Pearl Harbor, Agnes Meyer Driscoll, Chief Civilian Cryptanalyst for the US Navy, Washington, DC, and Colonel William Friedman, US Army Cryptanalyst, Washington, DC. 

 

 

                                                  -6-

 

These were the only people who received the decoded messages that the Japanese Fleet was on its way to attack Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

 

The commanders on Hawaii, Admiral Kimmel and General Short were NOT on that list. Let me repeat that.  The two commanders who most needed the information were kept in the dark. 

 

The message that would tell them to expect an attack was sent Routine Priority, not Flash, and arrived after the attack. 

 

Many, including LCDR Rochefort and LCDR Layton reported to Admiral Kimmel., yet they stood by, lips sealed, and watched as their commanders took all the blame. Franklin Delano Roosevelt needed a surprise attack to get us into the war, and with this, he got it.

 

So, yes, Roosevelt knew, as did many other high-ranking officers and officials. What was needed was a surprise attack to enrage the American people.  The attack on Pearl Harbor did just that.  Within days, the German Parliament declared war on the United States.  We were now free to go to Britain and Europe’s aid.

 

Contributing to the success of the Japanese attack was something going on within the Navy as well as the Army Air Corps.  There were the Battleship Admirals and there were the Station Keepers.  When the warlords came into port, they expected the base to be ready for them.  Then there was this Army aviator, BGEN Billy Mitchell, who in 1925 had demonstrated that an airplane could sink a battleship.  The navy didn’t think much of it, but the Japanese did.

 

Mitchell’s insubordination brought a Court Martial and he was reduced in rank to a Colonel and retired. To the day he died he told all that would listen that the future was in airplanes and aircraft carriers.  It is pleasing to note that four months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, it was the sixteen B-25 bombers named after Billy Mitchell that launched from the USS Hornet that bombed mainland Japan.

 

 

                                                 -7-

 

There are many who believe that the sailors were asleep that Sunday, December 7th. After all, there had been a Big Band competition all week at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel and US Navy Band Number 22 of the USS Arizona was a leading contender. But on that morning, all the bandsmen were dressed in their whites and on the fantail ready to play                                             

the Star Spangled Banner at 8 AM.  Then at 7:55 the attack began and boatswains mates yelled down the hatches, “Battle stations, this is no drill.”                                                

                                                

The twenty-one bandsmen’s battle station was below decks in the magazine.  They would pass up the gunpowder bags to the big guns above.  My friend Molly Kent’s brother Clyde was one of them.  When the Arizona was hit the powder magazine exploded and nothing was left of them.  Twenty-four hundred sailors, marines and soldiers died that morning.

                                               

Blame was quickly assigned to Admiral Husband Kimmel and General Walter Short.  They were Discharged for Dereliction of Duty, reduced in rank, and discharged in disgrace from the service they loved so well.

 

They demanded a Court Martial to clear their names.  But a Military Court Martial would bring out the facts, so it was not to be.

                                                   

Years ago our Congress voted to exonerate Admiral Kimmel and General Short and restore them to their four-star rank, but no president has signed the order, even though the truth is clear.

 

So, still in the minds of many, the myth of a surprise attack lives on.

 

                                                ----

 

 

The White House, a Week in , REAL NEWS PRESIDENT TRUMP DOESN'T WANT YOU TO MISS

  
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hBZfyYxde3I/XAw3LegC5nI/AAAAAAAAAT4/nKZtIS1wjn0fCWTT4wrq_wbVf85rOwaTgCLcBGAs/s1600/mail.png \
‘A Great and Noble Man’: Bush Honored One Last Time in Washington
-The Washington Times
“A military band played ‘Hail to the Chief,’ cannons sang out a 21-gun salute and the presidential jet took to the sky, lifting former President George H.W. Bush away from Washington one last time,” Stephen Dinan writes. “The capital gave a solemn but fervent farewell Wednesday to the 41st president, whose death [last] Friday at 94 launched a week of commemorations.”


In photos: America’s solemn farewell to its 41st President
Trump Declares Day of Mourning for Bush
-The Wall Street Journal
“President Trump declared Wednesday a national day of mourning for former President George Herbert Walker Bush,” Courtney McBride and Michael Wright report. “Along with his full life of service to country, we will remember President Bush for his devotion to family—especially the love of his life, Barbara,” President Trump said in a statement with First Lady Melania Trump
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Watch: President Trump and the First Lady pay their respects
Trumps Meet Privately with George W., Laura Bush to Offer Condolences
-The Hill
“President Trump and first lady Melania Trump met privately Tuesday evening with former President George W. Bush and former first lady Laura Bush on the eve of funeral services for former President George H.W. Bush,” Brett Samuels reports. Thousands of Americans visited the U.S. Capitol this week to pay their respects.
Vice President Pence: George H.W. Bush ‘Never Failed to Answer the Call to Serve His Country’
-The Washington Free Beacon
As former President Bush lay in state at the U.S. Capitol Monday night, Vice President Mike Pence honored the 41st President’s extraordinary life. “While he was known as the ‘quiet man,’ it was not for lack of nerve or daring,” the Vice President said as President George W. Bush and other family members looked on
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Trump Celebrates Hanukkah at the White House
-CBS News
President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump hosted two Hanukkah receptions in the White House East Room on Thursday, celebrating the fifth night of the Festival of Lights. In his remarks, the President condemned anti-Semitism and reflected on the horrific shooting at the Tree of Life synagogue this year. Thursday’s receptions came exactly one year after President Trump announced that the U.S. Embassy in Israel would be moved to Jerusalem.
Laura Bush Thanks Melania Trump for a ‘Sweet Visit’ to the White House
-The Hill
Emily Birnbaum reports that First Lady Melania Trump hosted members of the Bush family, including former First Lady Laura Bush, for a special tour of the White House Christmas decorations this week. “A sweet visit during this somber week," the former First Lady wrote on Instagram. “Thanks to Mrs. Trump for inviting our family.”
Liz Peek: Trump Scores Big Wins at the G-20
-Fox News
“President Trump scored major successes at the G-20 summit that concluded over the weekend in Argentina. Specifically, the community of nations agreed in their official communique to ‘necessary reform’ of the World Trade Organization, a top White House priority,” financial expert Liz Peek writes. “The Chinese promised to up their purchases of U.S.-made goods and to discuss other demands in exchange for postponing an expected hike in tariffs.”